10,505 research outputs found

    Solar Neutrino Oscillation Parameters after KamLAND

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    We explore the impact of the data from the KamLAND experiment in constraining neutrino mass and mixing angles involved in solar neutrino oscillations. In particular we discuss the precision with which we can determine the the mass squared difference Δmsolar2\Delta m^2_{solar} and the mixing angle θsolar\theta_{solar} from combined solar and KamLAND data. We show that the precision with which \Delta m^_{solar} can be determined improves drastically with the KamLAND data but the sensitivity of KamLAND to the mixing angle is not as good. We study the effect of enhanced statistics in KamLAND as well as reduced systematics in improving the precision. We also show the effect of the SNO salt data in improving the precision. Finally we discuss how a dedicated reactor experiment with a baseline of 70 km can improve the θsolar\theta_{solar} sensitivity by a large amount.Comment: Talk given at 4th International Conference on Nonaccelerator New Physics (NANP 03), Dubna, Russia, 23-28 Jun 200

    The dominant spin relaxation mechanism in compound organic semiconductors

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    Despite the recent interest in "organic spintronics", the dominant spin relaxation mechanism of electrons or holes in an organic compound semiconductor has not been conclusively identified. There have been sporadic suggestions that it might be hyperfine interaction caused by background nuclear spins, but no confirmatory evidence to support this has ever been presented. Here, we report the electric-field dependence of the spin diffusion length in an organic spin-valve structure consisting of an Alq3 spacer layer, and argue that this data, as well as available data on the temperature dependence of this length, contradict the notion that hyperfine interactions relax spin. Instead, they suggest that the Elliott-Yafet mechanism, arising from spin-orbit interaction, is more likely the dominant spin relaxing mechanism.Comment: Accepted for publication in Physical Review

    Displaced Higgs production in type III seesaw

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    We point out that the type III seesaw mechanism introducing fermion triplets predicts peculiar Higgs boson signatures of displaced vertices with two b jets and one or two charged particles which can be cleanly identified. In a supersymmetric theory, the scalar partner of the fermion triplet contains a neutral dark matter candidate which is almost degenerate with its charged components. A Higgs boson can be produced together with such a dark matter triplet in the cascade decay chain of a strongly produced squark or gluino. When the next lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP) is bino/wino-like, there appears a Higgs boson associated with two charged tracks of a charged lepton and a heavy charged scalar at a displacement larger than about 1 mm. The corresponding production cross-section is about 0.5 fb for the squark/gluino mass of 1 TeV. In the case of the stau NLSP, it decays mainly to a Higgs boson and a heavy charged scalar whose decay length is larger than 0.1 mm for the stau NLSP mixing with the left-handed stau smaller than 0.3. As this process can have a large cascade production 2\sim 2 pb for the squark/gluino mass 1\sim 1 TeV, one may be able to probe it at the early stage of the LHC experiment.Comment: 10 pages, 5 figure

    Entangling capacities of noisy two-qubit Hamiltonians

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    We show that intrinsic fluctuations in system control parameters impose limits on the ability of two-qubit (exchange) Hamiltonians to generate entanglement starting from mixed initial states. We find three classes for Gaussian and Laplacian fluctuations. For the Ising and XYZ models there are qualitatively distinct sharp entanglement-generation transitions, while the class of Heisenberg, XY, and XXZ Hamiltonians is capable of generating entanglement for any finite noise level. Our findings imply that exchange Hamiltonians are surprisingly robust in their ability to generate entanglement in the presence of noise, thus potentially reducing the need for quantum error correction.Comment: 5 pages, incl. 2 figures. replaced with published versio

    Effect of silica colloids on the rheology of viscoelastic gels formed by the surfactant cetyl trimethylammonium tosylate

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    The effects of the addition of sub-micrometer sized colloidal silica spheres on the linear and nonlinear rheology of semi-dilute solutions of a viscoelastic gel are studied. For a 1.4 wt.% solution of the surfactant CTAT, a peak in the zero shear rate viscosity η\eta_{\circ} is observed at approximately equal weight percents of silica and CTAT. This peak shifts to lower silica concentrations on increasing either the CTAT concentration or the surface charge on silica and disappears when the CTAT concentration is increased to 2.6wt%. The increases in η\eta_{\circ} and the high frequency plateau modulus G_{\circ} on the introduction of SiO2_{2} are explained by considering the increasingly entangled wormlike micelles that are formed due to the enhanced screening of the electrostatic interactions. The observed decrease in the values of G_{\circ} and η\eta_{\circ} at higher concentrations of silica particles is explained in terms of the formation of surfactant bilayers due to the adsorption of the positively charged cetyl trimethylammonium to the negatively charged silica.Comment: 28 pages, includes 8 eps and 2 png figures; accepted for publication in Jl. Colloid Interface Sc

    Dynamical Behaviour in the Nonlinear Rheology of Surfactant Solutions

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    Several surfactant molecules self-assemble in solution to form long, flexible wormlike micelles which get entangled with each other, leading to viscoelastic gel phases. We discuss our recent work on the rheology of such a gel formed in the dilute aqueous solutions of a surfactant CTAT. In the linear rheology regime, the storage modulus G(ω)G^{\prime}(\omega) and loss modulus G(ω)G^{\prime\prime}(\omega) have been measured over a wide frequency range. In the nonlinear regime, the shear stress σ\sigma shows a plateau as a function of the shear rate γ˙\dot\gamma above a certain cutoff shear rate γ˙c\dot\gamma_c. Under controlled shear rate conditions in the plateau regime, the shear stress and the first normal stress difference show oscillatory time-dependence. The analysis of the measured time series of shear stress and normal stress has been done using several methods incorporating state space reconstruction by embedding of time delay vectors.The analysis shows the existence of a finite correlation dimension and a positive Lyapunov exponent, unambiguously implying that the dynamics of the observed mechanical instability can be described by that of a dynamical system with a strange attractor of dimension varying from 2.4 to 2.9.Comment: 12 pages, includes 7 eps figure