32 research outputs found

    Nonparametric nonlinear model predictive control

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    Model Predictive Control (MPC) has recently found wide acceptance in industrial applications, but its potential has been much impeded by linear models due to the lack of a similarly accepted nonlinear modeling or databased technique. Aimed at solving this problem, the paper addresses three issues: (i) extending second-order Volterra nonlinear MPC (NMPC) to higher-order for improved prediction and control; (ii) formulating NMPC directly with plant data without needing for parametric modeling, which has hindered the progress of NMPC; and (iii) incorporating an error estimator directly in the formulation and hence eliminating the need for a nonlinear state observer. Following analysis of NMPC objectives and existing solutions, nonparametric NMPC is derived in discrete-time using multidimensional convolution between plant data and Volterra kernel measurements. This approach is validated against the benchmark van de Vusse nonlinear process control problem and is applied to an industrial polymerization process by using Volterra kernels of up to the third order. Results show that the nonparametric approach is very efficient and effective and considerably outperforms existing methods, while retaining the original data-based spirit and characteristics of linear MPC

    Catalytic conversion of methane at low temperatures: a critical review

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    The current study reviews the recent development in the direct conversion of methane into syngas, methanol, light olefins, and aromatic compounds. For syngas production, nickel-based catalysts are considered as a good choice. Methane conversion (84%) is achieved with nearly no coke formation when the 7% Ni-1%Au/Al2O3 catalyst is used in the steam reforming of methane (SRM), whereas for dry reforming of methane (DRM), a methane conversion of 17.9% and CO2 conversion of 23.1% are found for 10%Ni/ZrOxMnOx/SiO2 operated at 500oC. The progress of direct conversion of methane to methanol is also summarized with an insight into its selectivity and/or conversion, which shows that in liquid-phase heterogeneous systems, high selectivity (>80%) can be achieved at 50oC, but the conversion is low. The latest development of nonoxidative coupling of methane (NOCM) and oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) for the production of olefins is also reviewed. The Mn2O3–TiO2–Na2WO4/SiO2 catalyst is reported to show the high C2 yield (22%) and a high selectivity toward C2 (62%) during the OCM at 650oC. For NOCM, 98% selectivity of ethane can be achieved when a tantalum hydride catalyst supported on silica is used. In addition, the Mo-based catalysts are the most suitable for the preparation of aromatic compounds from methane

    Model-based control strategies for a chemical batch reactor with exothermic reactions

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    Batch reactor control provides a very challenging problem for the process control engineer. This is because a characteristic of its dynamic behavior shows a high nonlinearity. Since applicability of the batch reactor is quite limited to the effectiveness of an applied control strategy, the use of advanced control techniques is often beneficial. This work presents the implementation and comparison of two advanced nonlinear control strategies, model predictive control (MPC) and generic model control (GMC), for controlling the temperature of a batch reactor involving a complex exothermic reaction scheme. An extended Kalman filter is incorporated in both controllers as an on-line estimator. Simulation studies demonstrate that the performance of the MPC is slightly better than that of the GMC control in nominal case. For model mismatch cases, the MPC still gives better control performance than the GMC does in the presence of plan/model mismatch in reaction rate and heat transfer coefficient

    Cycle analysis of solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine hybrid systems integrated ethanol steam reformer: Energy management

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    A solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine (SOFC-GT) hybrid system that uses such liquid fuels as ethanol is attractive for distributed power generation for applications in remote rural areas or as an auxiliary power unit. The SOFC system includes units that require and generate heat; thus, its energy management is important to improve its efficiency. In this study, a SOFC-GT integrated system with the external steam reforming of ethanol to produce hydrogen for the SOFC is proposed. Two SOFC-GT hybrid systems using a high-temperature heat exchanger and cathode exhaust gas recirculation are considered under isothermal conditions. The effects of key operating parameters, such as pressure, fuel use and turbomachinery efficiency, on the SOFC-GT hybrid system performance are discussed. The simulation results indicate that recycling the cathode exhaust gas from the SOFC-GT system requires less fresh air from the compressor, to maintain the SOFC stack temperature, and the heat recovered from the SOFC system is sufficient to supply both the fuel processor and air pre-heater. In contrast, an external heat is needed for the SOFC-GT system coupled to a recuperative heat exchanger