9,640 research outputs found

    BFFT quantization with nonlinear constraints

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    We consider the method due to Batalin, Fradkin, Fradkina, and Tyutin (BFFT) that makes the conversion of second-class constraints into first-class ones for the case of nonlinear theories. We first present a general analysis of an attempt to simplify the method, showing the conditions that must be fulfilled in order to have first-class constraints for nonlinear theories but that are linear in the auxiliary variables. There are cases where this simplification cannot be done and the full BFFT method has to be used. However, in the way the method is formulated, we show with details that it is not practicable to be done. Finally, we speculate on a solution for these problems.Comment: 19 pages, Late

    Hamiltonian formulation of nonAbelian noncommutative gauge theories

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    We implement the Hamiltonian treatment of a nonAbelian noncommutative gauge theory, considering with some detail the algebraic structure of the noncommutative symmetry group. The first class constraints and Hamiltonian are obtained and their algebra derived, as well as the form of the gauge invariance they impose on the first order action.Comment: enlarged version, 7 pages, RevTe

    Relativistic deuteron structure function at large Q^2

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    The deuteron deep inelastic unpolarized structure function F_2^D is calculated using the Wilson operator product expansion method. The long distance behaviour, related to the deuteron bound state properties, is evaluated using the Bethe-Salpeter equation with one particle on mass shell. The calculation of the ratio F_2^D/F_2^N is compared with other convolution models showing important deviations in the region of large x. The implications in the evaluation of the neutron structure function from combined data on deuterons and protons are discussed.Comment: 7 pages, 1 ps figure, RevTeX source, 1 tar.gz file. Submited to Physical Letter

    Noncommutative Particles in Curved Spaces

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    We present a formulation in a curved background of noncommutative mechanics, where the object of noncommutativity θμν\theta^{\mu\nu} is considered as an independent quantity having a canonical conjugate momentum. We introduced a noncommutative first-order action in D=10 curved spacetime and the covariant equations of motions were computed. This model, invariant under diffeomorphism, generalizes recent relativistic results.Comment: 1+15 pages. Latex. New comments and results adde

    Immigration and early life stages recruitment of the European flounder (Platichthys flesus) to an estuarine nursery: the influence of environmental factors

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    Connectivity between coastal spawning grounds and estuarine nurseries is a critical step in the life cycle of many fish species. Larval immigration and transport-associated physical–biological processes are determinants of recruitment success to nursery areas. The recruitment of the European flounder, Platichthys flesus, to estuarine nurseries located at the southern edge of the species distribution range, has been usually investigated during its juvenile stages, while estuarine recruitment during the earlier planktonic life stage remains largely unstudied. The present study investigated the patterns of flounder larval recruitment and the influence of environmental factors on the immigration of the early life stages to the Lima estuary (NW Portugal), integrating data on fish larvae and post-settlement individuals (< 50 mm length), collected over 7 years. Late-stage larvae arrived at the estuary between February and July and peak abundances were observed in April. Post-settlement individuals (< 50 mm) occurred later between April and October, whereas newly-settled ones (< 20 mm) were found only in May and June. Variables associated with the spawning, survival and growth of larvae in the ocean (sea surface temperature, chlorophyll a and inland hydrological variables) were the major drivers of flounder occurrence in the estuarine nursery. Although the adjacent coastal area is characterized by a current system with strong seasonality and mesoscale variability, we did not identify any influence of variables related with physical processes (currents and upwelling) on the occurrence of early life stages in the estuary. A wider knowledge on the influence of the coastal circulation variability and its associated effects upon ocean-estuarine connectivity is required to improve our understanding of the population dynamics of marine spawning fish that use estuarine nurseries

    Hamiltonian embedding of the massive noncommutative U(1) theory

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    We show that the massive noncommutative U(1) can be embedded in a gauge theory by using the BFFT Hamiltonian formalism. By virtue of the peculiar non-Abelian algebraic structure of the noncommutative massive U(1) theory, several specific identities involving Moyal commutators had to be used in order to make the embedding possible. This leads to an infinite number of steps in the iterative process of obtaining first-class constraints. We also shown that the involutive Hamiltonian can be constructed.Comment: 8 pages, Revtex (multicol
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