29,425 research outputs found

    Curvature Inspired Cosmological Scenario

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    Using modified gravity with non-linear terms of curvature, R2R^2 and R(r+2)R^{(r +2)} (with rr being the positive real number and RR being the scalar curvature), cosmological scenario,beginning at the Planck scale, is obtained. Here, a unified picture of cosmology is obtained from f(R)f(R)- gravity. In this scenario, universe begins with power-law inflation, followed by deceleration and acceleration in the late universe as well as possible collapse of the universe in future. It is different from f(R)f(R)- dark energy models with non-linear curvature terms assumed as dark energy. Here, dark energy terms are induced by linear as well as non-linear terms of curvature in Friedmann equation being derived from modified gravity.It is also interesting to see that, in this model, dark radiation and dark matter terms emerge spontaneously from the gravitational sector. It is found that dark energy, obtained here, behaves as quintessence in the early universe and phantom in the late universe. Moreover, analogous to brane-tension in brane-gravity inspired Friedmann equation, a tension term λ\lambda arises here being called as cosmic tension. It is found that, in the late universe, Friedmann equation (obtained here) contains a term ρ2/2λ- \rho^2/2\lambda (ρ\rho being the phantom energy density) analogous to a similar term in Friedmann equation with loop quantum effects, if λ>0\lambda > 0 and brane-gravity correction when λ<0.\lambda < 0.Comment: 19 Pages. To appear in Int. J. Thro. Phy

    Obtaining the Spin of the Proton from the Spins of the Quarks

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    Employing the experimental electro-weak interactions between quarks and leptons, the spin of the proton may easily be understood in terms of the spins of the constituent quarks.Comment: 2 pages, Simple Te