9,357 research outputs found

    Foreground removal requirements for measuring large-scale CMB B-modes in light of BICEP2

    Full text link
    The most convincing confirmation that the B-mode polarization signal detected at degree scales by BICEP2 is due to the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) would be the measurement of its large-scale counterpart. We assess the requirements for diffuse component separation accuracy over large portions of the sky in order to measure the large-scale B-mode signal corresponding to a tensor to scalar ratio of r=0.1-0.2. We use the method proposed by Bonaldi & Ricciardi (2011) to forecast the performances of different simulated experiments taking into account noise and foreground removal issues. We do not consider instrumental systematics, and we implicitly assume that they are not the dominant source of error. If this is the case, the confirmation of an r=0.1-0.2 signal is achievable by Planck even for conservative assumptions regarding the accuracy of foreground cleaning. Our forecasts suggest that the combination of this experiment with BICEP2 will lead to an improvement of 25-45% in the constraint on r. A next-generation CMB polarization satellite, represented in this work by the COrE experiment, can reduce dramatically (by almost another order of magnitude) the uncertainty on r. In this case, however, the accuracy of foreground removal becomes critical to fully benefit from the increase in sensitivity.Comment: 8 pages, 3 figures, 1 table. Accepted by MNRA

    A stochastic model for the stepwise motion in actomyosin dynamics

    Full text link
    A jump-diffusion process is proposed to describe the displacements performed by single myosin heads along actin filaments during the rising phases. The process consists of the superposition of a Wiener and a jump process, with jumps originated by sequences of Poisson-distributed energy-supplying pulses. In a previous paper, the amplitude of the jumps was described by a mixture of two Gaussian distributions. To embody the effects of ATP hydrolysis, we now refine such a model by assuming that the jumps' amplitude is described by a mixture of three Gaussian distributions. This model has been inspired by the experimental data of T. Yanagida and his co-workers concerning observations at single molecule processes level.Comment: 9 pages, 4 figure

    A chemically driven fluctuating ratchet model for actomyosin interaction

    Full text link
    With reference to the experimental observations by T. Yanagida and his co-workers on actomyosin interaction, a Brownian motor of fluctuating ratchet kind is designed with the aim to describe the interaction between a Myosin II head and a neighboring actin filament. Our motor combines the dynamics of the myosin head with a chemical external system related to the ATP cycle, whose role is to provide the energy supply necessary to bias the motion. Analytical expressions for the duration of the ATP cycle, for the Gibbs free energy and for the net displacement of the myosin head are obtained. Finally, by exploiting a method due to Sekimoto (1997, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn., 66, 1234), a formula is worked out for the amount of energy consumed during the ATP cycle.Comment: 15 pages. 1 figur

    Forecast B-modes detection at large scales in presence of noise and foregrounds

    Full text link
    We investigate the detectability of the primordial CMB polarization B-mode power spectrum on large scales in the presence of instrumental noise and realistic foreground contamination. We have worked out a method to estimate the errors on component separation and to propagate them up to the power spectrum estimation. The performances of our method are illustrated by applying it to the instrumental specifications of the Planck satellite and to the proposed configuration for the next generation CMB polarization experiment COrE. We demonstrate that a proper component separation step is required in order achieve the detection of B-modes on large scales and that the final sensitivity to B-modes of a given experiment is determined by a delicate balance between noise level and residual foregrounds, which depend on the set of frequencies exploited in the CMB reconstruction, on the signal-to-noise of each frequency map, and on our ability to correctly model the spectral behavior of the foreground components. We have produced a flexible software tool that allows the comparison of performances on B-mode detection of different instrumental specifications (choice of frequencies, noise level at each frequency, etc.) as well as of different proposed approaches to component separation.Comment: 7 pages, 2 tables, 1 figure, accepted by MNRA

    Lyapunov functions for a non-linear model of the X-ray bursting of the microquasar GRS 1915+105

    Get PDF
    This paper introduces a biparametric family of Lyapunov functions for a non-linear mathematical model based on the FitzHugh-Nagumo equations able to reproduce some main features of the X-ray bursting behaviour exhibited by the microquasar GRS 1915+105. These functions are useful to investigate the properties of equilibrium points and allow us to demonstrate a theorem on the global stability. The transition between bursting and stable behaviour is also analyzed.Comment: Published on International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics, vol. 88, pp. 142-14

    Towards the Modeling of Neuronal Firing by Gaussian Processes

    Get PDF
    This paper focuses on the outline of some computational methods for the approximate solution of the integral equations for the neuronal firing probability density and an algorithm for the generation of sample-paths in order to construct histograms estimating the firing densities. Our results originate from the study of non-Markov stationary Gaussian neuronal models with the aim to determine the neuron's firing probability density function. A parallel algorithm has been implemented in order to simulate large numbers of sample paths of Gaussian processes characterized by damped oscillatory covariances in the presence of time dependent boundaries. The analysis based on the simulation procedure provides an alternative research tool when closed-form results or analytic evaluation of the neuronal firing densities are not available.Comment: 10 pages, 3 figures, to be published in Scientiae Mathematicae Japonica

    Biological aspects of mTOR in leukemia

    Get PDF
    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central processor of intra-and extracellular signals, regulating many fundamental cellular processes such as metabolism, growth, proliferation, and survival. Strong evidences have indicated that mTOR dysregulation is deeply implicated in leukemogenesis. This has led to growing interest in the development of modulators of its activity for leukemia treatment. This review intends to provide an outline of the principal biological and molecular functions of mTOR. We summarize the current understanding of how mTOR interacts with microRNAs, with components of cell metabolism, and with controllers of apoptotic machinery. Lastly, from a clinical/translational perspective, we recapitulate the therapeutic results in leukemia, obtained by using mTOR inhibitors as single agents and in combination with other compounds
    • …