4,212 research outputs found

    \u3cem\u3eCommonwealth v. Matos\u3c/em\u3e: A Decision without Direction

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    Improving interval estimation of binomial proportions

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    In this paper, we propose one new confidence interval for the binomial proportion; our interval is based on the Edgeworth expansion of a logit transformation of the sample proportion. We provide theoretical justification for the proposed interval and also compare the finite-sample performance of the proposed interval with the three best existing intervals—the Wilson interval, the Agresti–Coull interval and the Jeffreys interval—in terms of their coverage probabilities and expected lengths. We illustrate the proposed method in two real clinical studies

    The dependence of test-mass thermal noises on beam shape in gravitational-wave interferometers

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    In second-generation, ground-based interferometric gravitational-wave detectors such as Advanced LIGO, the dominant noise at frequencies f40f \sim 40 Hz to 200\sim 200 Hz is expected to be due to thermal fluctuations in the mirrors' substrates and coatings which induce random fluctuations in the shape of the mirror face. The laser-light beam averages over these fluctuations; the larger the beam and the flatter its light-power distribution, the better the averaging and the lower the resulting thermal noise. In semi-infinite mirrors, scaling laws for the influence of beam shape on the four dominant types of thermal noise (coating Brownian, coating thermoelastic, substrate Brownian, and substrate thermoelastic) have been suggested by various researchers and derived with varying degrees of rigour. Because these scaling laws are important tools for current research on optimizing the beam shape, it is important to firm up our understanding of them. This paper (1) gives a summary of the prior work and of gaps in the prior analyses, (2) gives a unified and rigorous derivation of all four scaling laws, and (3) explores, relying on work by J. Agresti, deviations from the scaling laws due to finite mirror size.Comment: 25 pages, 10 figures, submitted to Class. Quantum Gra

    High reflectivity grating waveguide coatings for 1064nm

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    We propose thin single-layer grating waveguide structures to be used as high-reflectivity, but low thermal noise, alternative to conventional coatings for gravitational wave detector test mass mirrors. Grating waveguide (GWG) coatings can show a reflectivity of up to 100% with an overall thickness of less than a wavelength. We theoretically investigate GWG coatings for 1064nm based on tantala (Ta2O5) on a Silica substrate focussing on broad spectral response and low thickness

    Two-dimensional materials in perovskite solar cells

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    Laser processing optimization for large-area perovskite solar modules

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    The industrial exploitation of perovskite solar cell technology is still hampered by the lack of repeatable and high-throughput fabrication processes for large-area modules. The joint efforts of the scientific community allowed to demonstrate high-performing small area solar cells; however, retaining such results over large area modules is not trivial. Indeed, the development of deposition methods over large substrates is required together with additional laser processes for the realization of the monolithically integrated cells and their interconnections. In this work, we develop an efficient perovskite solar module based on 2D material engineered structure by optimizing the laser ablation steps (namely P1, P2, P3) required for shaping the module layout in series connected sub-cells. We investigate the impact of the P2 and P3 laser processes, carried out by employing a UV pulsed laser (pulse width = 10 ns; lambda = 355 nm), over the final module performance. In particular, a P2 process for removing 2D material-based cell stack from interconnection area among adjacent cells is optimized. Moreover, the impact of the P3 process used to isolate adjacent sub-cells after gold realization over the module performance once laminated in panel configuration is elucidated. The developed fabrication process ensures high-performance repeatability over a large module number by demonstrating the use of laser processing in industrial production

    A multi-color fast-switching microfluidic droplet dye laser

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    We describe a multi-color microfluidic dye laser operating in whispering gallery mode based on a train of alternating droplets containing solutions of different dyes; this laser is capable of switching the wavelength of its emission between 580 nm and 680 nm at frequencies up to 3.6 kHz -— the fastest among all dye lasers reported; it has potential applications in on-chip spectroscopy and flow cytometry
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