38,015 research outputs found

    Magnetism in the Square Kilometre Array Era

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    The unprecedented sensitivity, angular resolution and broad bandwidth coverage of Square Kilometre Array (SKA) radio polarimetric observations will allow us to address many long-standing mysteries in cosmic magnetism science. I will highlight the unique capabilities of the SKA to map the warm hot intergalactic medium, reveal detailed 3-dimensional structures of magnetic fields in local galaxies and trace the redshift evolution of galactic magnetic fields.Comment: 4 pages, Invited paper, Proceedings of FM8 "New Insights in Extragalactic Magnetic Fields", XXXth General Assembly of the IAU, Vienna, August 20-31, 201

    Delay-dependent robust stability of stochastic delay systems with Markovian switching

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    In recent years, stability of hybrid stochastic delay systems, one of the important issues in the study of stochastic systems, has received considerable attention. However, the existing results do not deal with the structure of the diffusion but estimate its upper bound, which induces conservatism. This paper studies delay-dependent robust stability of hybrid stochastic delay systems. A delay-dependent criterion for robust exponential stability of hybrid stochastic delay systems is presented in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), which exploits the structure of the diffusion. Numerical examples are given to verify the effectiveness and less conservativeness of the proposed method

    Microlensing of Sub-parsec Massive Binary Black Holes in Lensed QSOs: Light Curves and Size-Wavelength Relation

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    Sub-parsec binary massive black holes (BBHs) are long anticipated to exist in many QSOs but remain observationally elusive. In this paper, we propose a novel method to probe sub-parsec BBHs through microlensing of lensed QSOs. If a QSO hosts a sub-parsec BBH in its center, it is expected that the BBH is surrounded by a circum-binary disk, each component of the BBH is surrounded by a small accretion disk, and a gap is opened by the secondary component in between the circum-binary disk and the two small disks. Assuming such a BBH structure, we generate mock microlensing light curves for some QSO systems that host BBHs with typical physical parameters. We show that microlensing light curves of a BBH QSO system at the infrared-optical-UV bands can be significantly different from those of corresponding QSO system with a single massive black hole (MBH), mainly because of the existence of the gap and the rotation of the BBH (and its associated small disks) around the center of mass. We estimate the half-light radii of the emission region at different wavelengths from mock light curves and find that the obtained half-light radius vs. wavelength relations of BBH QSO systems can be much flatter than those of single MBH QSO systems at a wavelength range determined by the BBH parameters, such as the total mass, mass ratio, separation, accretion rates, etc. The difference is primarily due to the existence of the gap. Such unique features on the light curves and half-light radius-wavelength relations of BBH QSO systems can be used to select and probe sub-parsec BBHs in a large number of lensed QSOs to be discovered by current and future surveys, including the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS), the Large Synoptic Survey telescope (LSST) and Euclid.Comment: 18 pages, 17 figures, accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journa

    Gravitational lensing effects on sub-millimetre galaxy counts

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    We study the effects on the number counts of sub-millimetre galaxies due to gravitational lensing. We explore the effects on the magnification cross section due to halo density profiles, ellipticity and cosmological parameter (the power-spectrum normalisation σ8\sigma_8). We show that the ellipticity does not strongly affect the magnification cross section in gravitational lensing while the halo radial profiles do. Since the baryonic cooling effect is stronger in galaxies than clusters, galactic haloes are more concentrated. In light of this, a new scenario of two halo population model is explored where galaxies are modeled as a singular isothermal sphere profile and clusters as a Navarro, Frenk and White (NFW) profile. We find the transition mass between the two has modest effects on the lensing probability. The cosmological parameter σ8\sigma_8 alters the abundance of haloes and therefore affects our results. Compared with other methods, our model is simpler and more realistic. The conclusions of previous works is confirm that gravitational lensing is a natural explanation for the number count excess at the bright end.Comment: 10 pages, 10 figures, accepted by MNRA

    Fractal space frames and metamaterials for high mechanical efficiency

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    A solid slender beam of length LL, made from a material of Young's modulus YY and subject to a gentle compressive force FF, requires a volume of material proportional to L3f1/2L^{3}f^{1/2} [where fF/(YL2)1f\equiv F/(YL^{2})\ll 1] in order to be stable against Euler buckling. By constructing a hierarchical space frame, we are able to systematically change the scaling of required material with ff so that it is proportional to L3f(G+1)/(G+2)L^{3}f^{(G+1)/(G+2)}, through changing the number of hierarchical levels GG present in the structure. Based on simple choices for the geometry of the space frames, we provide expressions specifying in detail the optimal structures (in this class) for different values of the loading parameter ff. These structures may then be used to create effective materials which are elastically isotropic and have the combination of low density and high crush strength. Such a material could be used to make light-weight components of arbitrary shape.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figure

    Empirical Study of Simulated Two-planet Microlensing Event

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    We undertake the first study of two-planet microlensing models recovered from simulations of microlensing events generated by realistic multi-planet systems in which 292 planetary events including 16 two-planet events were detected from 6690 simulated light curves. We find that when two planets are recovered, their parameters are usually close to those of the two planets in the system most responsible for the perturbations. However, in one of the 16 examples, the apparent mass of both detected planets was more than doubled by the unmodeled influence of a third, massive planet. This fraction is larger than, but statistically consistent with, the roughly 1.5% rate of serious mass errors due to unmodeled planetary companions for the 274 cases from the same simulation in which a single planet is recovered. We conjecture that an analogous effect due to unmodeled stellar companions may occur more frequently. For seven out of 23 cases in which two planets in the system would have been detected separately, only one planet was recovered because the perturbations due to the two planets had similar forms. This is a small fraction (7/274) of all recovered single-planet models, but almost a third of all events that might plausibly have led to two-planet models. Still, in these cases, the recovered planet tends to have parameters similar to one of the two real planets most responsible for the anomaly.Comment: 21 pages, 9 figures, 2 tables; submitted to ApJ; for a short video introducing the key results, see https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qhK4a6sbfO

    Almost sure exponential stability of numerical solutions for stochastic delay differential equations

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    Using techniques based on the continuous and discrete semimartingale convergence theorems, this paper investigates if numerical methods may reproduce the almost sure exponential stability of the exact solutions to stochastic delay differential equations (SDDEs). The important feature of this technique is that it enables us to study the almost sure exponential stability of numerical solutions of SDDEs directly. This is significantly different from most traditional methods by which the almost sure exponential stability is derived from the moment stability by the Chebyshev inequality and the Borel–Cantelli lemma

    Object DUO 2: A New Binary Lens Candidate

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    We present the light curve of an unusual variable object, DUO 2, detected during the search for microlensing events by the DUO project. The star remained stable for more than 150 days before it brightened by more than two magnitudes in 6 days in the B and R bands. The light curves are achromatic during the variability. We consider possible explanations of the photometric behavior, with particular emphasis on the binary lens interpretation of the event. The masses of the lenses are quite small, with the companion possibly in the range of a brown dwarf or even a few times of Jupiter. We report evidence of blending of the source by a companion through the first detection of shift in the light centroid among all the microlensing experiments. This shift sets a lower limit of 0.30.3^{\prime\prime} on the separation between the stars. The best lens model obtained requires moderate blending, which was what motivated us to check the centroid shift that was subsequently found. The best lens model predicts a separation of 11^{\prime\prime} between the two blended stars. This prediction was recently tested using two CCD images taken under good seeing conditions. Both images show two components. Their separation and position angle are in good agreement with our model.Comment: uuencoded, compressed PostScript, 4 pages, 4 figures (in text). Accepted for publication in Astronomy and Astrophysics Letter

    A New Photometric Model of the Galactic Bar using Red Clump Giants

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    We present a study of the luminosity density distribution of the Galactic bar using number counts of red clump giants (RCGs) from the OGLE-III survey. The data were recently published by Nataf et al. (2013) for 9019 fields towards the bulge and have 2.94×1062.94\times 10^6 RC stars over a viewing area of 90.25deg290.25 \,\textrm{deg}^2. The data include the number counts, mean distance modulus (μ\mu), dispersion in μ\mu and full error matrix, from which we fit the data with several tri-axial parametric models. We use the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method to explore the parameter space and find that the best-fit model is the E3E_3 model, with the distance to the GC is 8.13 kpc, the ratio of semi-major and semi-minor bar axis scale lengths in the Galactic plane x0,y0x_{0},y_{0}, and vertical bar scale length z0z_0, is x0:y0:z01.00:0.43:0.40x_0:y_0:z_0 \approx 1.00:0.43:0.40 (close to being prolate). The scale length of the stellar density profile along the bar's major axis is \sim 0.67 kpc and has an angle of 29.429.4^\circ, slightly larger than the value obtained from a similar study based on OGLE-II data. The number of estimated RC stars within the field of view is 2.78×1062.78 \times 10^6, which is systematically lower than the observed value. We subtract the smooth parametric model from the observed counts and find that the residuals are consistent with the presence of an X-shaped structure in the Galactic centre, the excess to the estimated mass content is 5.8\sim 5.8%. We estimate the total mass of the bar is 1.8×1010M\sim 1.8 \times 10^{10} M_\odot. Our results can be used as a key ingredient to construct new density models of the Milky Way and will have implications on the predictions of the optical depth to gravitational microlensing and the patterns of hydrodynamical gas flow in the Milky Way.Comment: 15 pages, 6 figures, 4 tables. MNRAS accepte
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