14,406 research outputs found

    Systematic Distortion in Cosmic Microwave Background Maps

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    To minimize instrumentally induced systematic errors, cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy experiments measure temperature differences across the sky using paires of horn antennas, temperature map is recovered from temperature differences obtained in sky survey through a map-making procedure. To inspect and calibrate residual systematic errors in recovered temperature maps is important as most previous studies of cosmology are based on these maps. By analyzing pixel-ring couping and latitude dependence of CMB temperatures, we find notable systematic deviation from CMB Gaussianity in released Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) maps. The detected deviation is hard to explain by any process in the early universe and can not be ignored for a precision cosmology study.Comment: accepted for publication in Sci China G-Phy Mech Astro

    Mott insulating phases and quantum phase transitions of interacting spin-3/2 fermionic cold atoms in optical lattices at half filling

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    We study various Mott insulating phases of interacting spin-3/2 fermionic ultracold atoms in two-dimensional square optical lattices at half filling. Using a generalized one-band Hubbard model with hidden SO(5) symmetry, we identify two distinct symmetry breaking phases: the degenerate antiferromagnetic spin-dipole/spin-octupole ordering and spin-quadrupole ordering, depending on the sign of the spin-dependent interaction. These two competing orders exhibit very different symmetry properties, low energy excitations and topological characterizations. Near the SU(4) symmetric point, a quantum critical state with a π\pi -flux phase may emerge due to strong quantum fluctuations, leading to spin algebraic correlations and gapless excitations.Comment: 11 pages, 4 figure

    Partial discharge analysis of defective three-phase cable

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    Power distribution cable networks represent a dynamic and complex challenge with regard to the issues of maintenance and providing a reliable, high quality supply of electrical power. Utilities historically used regular off-line testing to investigate the health of their assets. This method of testing is reasonably effective for this purpose but does have certain drawbacks associated with it; customer supply can be interrupted during the testing process and the cables are generally not tested under normal operating conditions. Meaning that the test data is not representative of the Partial discharge (PD) activity that is apparent under on-line conditions and the testing activity itself could trigger previously dormant PD sources. The modern approach for understanding the health of medium voltage (MV) cable distribution networks is to continuously monitor the assets whilst on-line. Analysis if the field data is then used to inform decisions regarding asset replacement and maintenance strategies. PD activity is widely recognised as a symptom linked to the degradation of the dielectric properties of high voltage plant. UK Power Networks sponsored research is being undertaken to investigate the evolution of PD activity within three-phase paper insulated lead covered (PILC) cables containing introduced defects. An experiment has been designed to stress cable lengths in a manner that is representative of the conditions met by on-line circuits [1]. A cable section containing a defect that is known to lead to the premature failure of in-service cables has been PD tested over a range of operating temperatures. The experiment utilizes three-phase energization at rated voltage as well as thermal cycling of the cable to replicate the daily load pattern experienced by circuits in the field. The extension to this work involves PD testing cable samples containing a range of defects to produce a data set consisting of PD pulses produced by varied sources. Analysis of this data should lead to a better understanding of the signals produced by the premature ageing of these types of cable

    Photometric properties and luminosity function of nearby massive early-type galaxies

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    We perform photometric analyses for a bright early-type galaxy (ETG) sample with 2949 galaxies (Mr<22.5M_{\rm r}<-22.5 mag) in the redshift range of 0.05 to 0.15, drawn from the SDSS DR7 with morphological classification from Galaxy Zoo 1. We measure the Petrosian and isophotal magnitudes, as well as the corresponding half-light radius for each galaxy. We find that for brightest galaxies (Mr<23M_{\rm r}<-23 mag), our Petrosian magnitudes, and isophotal magnitudes to 25 mag/arcsec2{\rm mag/arcsec^2} and 1\% of the sky brightness are on average 0.16 mag, 0.20 mag, and 0.26 mag brighter than the SDSS Petrosian values, respectively. In the first case the underestimations are caused by overestimations in the sky background by the SDSS PHOTO algorithm, while the latter two are also due to deeper photometry. Similarly, the typical half-light radii (r50r_{50}) measured by the SDSS algorithm are smaller than our measurements. As a result, the bright-end of the rr-band luminosity function is found to decline more slowly than previous works. Our measured luminosity densities at the bright end are more than one order of magnitude higher than those of Blanton et al. (2003), and the stellar mass densities at M5×1011MM_{\ast}\sim 5\times10^{11} M_{\odot} and M1012MM_{\ast}\sim 10^{12} M_{\odot} are a few tenths and a factor of few higher than those of Bernardi et al. (2010). These results may significantly alleviate the tension in the assembly of massive galaxies between observations and predictions of the hierarchical structure formation model.Comment: 43 pages, 14 figures, version accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journa

    PPAK Wide-field Integral Field Spectroscopy of NGC 628: I. The largest spectroscopic mosaic on a single galaxy

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    We present a wide-field IFS survey on the nearby face-on Sbc galaxy NGC 628, comprising 11094 individual spectra, covering a nearly circular field-of-view of ~6 arcmin in diameter, with a sampling of ~2.7 arcsec per spectrum in the optical wavelength range (3700--7000 AA). This galaxy is part of the PPAK IFS Nearby Galaxies Survey, (PINGS, Rosales-Ortega et al. 2009). To our knowledge, this is the widest spectroscopic survey ever made in a single nearby galaxy. A detailed flux calibration was applied, granting a spectrophotometric accuracy of \sim\,0.2 mag. The age of the stellar populations shows a negative gradient from the inner (older) to the outer (younger) regions. We found an inversion of this gradient in the central ~1 kpc region, where a somewhat younger stellar population is present within a ring at this radius. This structure is associated with a circumnuclear star-forming region at ~ 500 pc, also found in similar spiral galaxies. From the study of the integrated and spatially resolved ionized gas we found a moderate SFR of ~ 2.4 Msun yr1^{-1}. The oxygen abundance shows a a clear gradient of higher metallicity values from the inner part to the outer part of the galaxy, with a mean value of 12~+~log(O/H) ~ 8.7. At some specific regions of the galaxy, the spatially resolved distribution of the physical properties show some level of structure, suggesting real point-to-point variations within an individual \hh region. Our results are consistent with an inside-out growth scheme, with stronger star formation at the outer regions, and with evolved stellar populations in the inner ones.Comment: 31 pages, 22 Figuras, Accepted for Publishing in MNRAS (corrected PDF

    White Lines and 3d-Occupancy for the 3d Transition-Metal Oxides

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    Electron energy-loss spectrometry was employed to measure the white lines at the L23 absorption edges of the 3d transition-metal oxides and lithium transition-metal oxides. The white-line ratio (L3/L2) was found to increase between d^0 and d^5 and decrease between d^5 and d^10, consistent with previous results for the transition metals and their oxides. The intensities of the white lines, normalized to the post-edge background, are linear for the 3d transition-metal oxides and lithium transition-metal oxides. An empirical correlation between normalized white-line intensity and 3d occupancy is established. It provides a method for measuring changes in the 3d-state occupancy. As an example, this empirical relationship is used to measure changes in the transition-metal valences of Li_{1-x}Ni_{0.8}Co_{0.2}O_2 in the range of 0 < x < 0.64. In these experiments the 3d occupancy of the nickel ion decreased upon lithium deintercalation, while the cobalt valence remained constant.Comment: 6 pages, 7 figure

    The electrorheology of suspensions consisting of Na-Fluorohectorite synthetic clay particles in silicon oil

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    Under application of an electric field greater than a triggering electric field Ec0.4E_c \sim 0.4 kV/mm, suspensions obtained by dispersing particles of the synthetic clay fluoro-hectorite in a silicon oil, aggregate into chain- and/or column-like structures parallel to the applied electric field. This micro-structuring results in a transition in the suspensions' rheological behavior, from a Newtonian-like behavior to a shear-thinning rheology with a significant yield stress. This behavior is studied as a function of particle volume fraction and strength of the applied electric field, EE. The steady shear flow curves are observed to scale onto a master curve with respect to EE, in a manner similar to what was recently found for suspensions of laponite clay [42]. In the case of Na-fluorohectorite, the corresponding dynamic yield stress is demonstrated to scale with respect to EE as a power law with an exponent α1.93\alpha \sim 1.93, while the static yield stress inferred from constant shear stress tests exhibits a similar behavior with α1.58\alpha \sim 1.58. The suspensions are also studied in the framework of thixotropic fluids: the bifurcation in the rheology behavior when letting the system flow and evolve under a constant applied shear stress is characterized, and a bifurcation yield stress, estimated as the applied shear stress at which viscosity bifurcation occurs, is measured to scale as EαE^\alpha with α0.5\alpha \sim 0.5 to 0.6. All measured yield stresses increase with the particle fraction Φ\Phi of the suspension. For the static yield stress, a scaling law Φβ\Phi^\beta, with β=0.54\beta = 0.54, is found. The results are found to be reasonably consistent with each other. Their similarities with-, and discrepancies to- results obtained on laponite-oil suspensions are discussed

    Determination of the electronic structure of bilayer graphene from infrared spectroscopy results

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    We present an experimental study of the infrared conductivity, transmission, and reflection of a gated bilayer graphene and their theoretical analysis within the Slonczewski-Weiss-McClure (SWMc) model. The infrared response is shown to be governed by the interplay of the interband and the intraband transitions among the four bands of the bilayer. The position of the main conductivity peak at the charge neutrality point is determined by the interlayer tunneling frequency. The shift of this peak as a function of the gate voltage gives information about less known parameters of the SWMc model, in particular, those responsible for the electron-hole and sublattice asymmetries. These parameter values are shown to be consistent with recent electronic structure calculations for the bilayer graphene and the SWMc parameters commonly used for the bulk graphite.Comment: (v2) 11 pages, 7 figures; Important typo fixes and bibliography addition