96,116 research outputs found

    Ataxia in children: early recognition and clinical evaluation

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    Background: Ataxia is a sign of different disorders involving any level of the nervous system and consisting of impaired coordination of movement and balance. It is mainly caused by dysfunction of the complex circuitry connecting the basal ganglia, cerebellum and cerebral cortex. A careful history, physical examination and some characteristic maneuvers are useful for the diagnosis of ataxia. Some of the causes of ataxia point toward a benign course, but some cases of ataxia can be severe and particularly frightening. Methods: Here, we describe the primary clinical ways of detecting ataxia, a sign not easily recognizable in children. We also report on the main disorders that cause ataxia in children. Results: The causal events are distinguished and reported according to the course of the disorder: acute, intermittent, chronic-non-progressive and chronic-progressive. Conclusions: Molecular research in the field of ataxia in children is rapidly expanding; on the contrary no similar results have been attained in the field of the treatment since most of the congenital forms remain fully untreatable. Rapid recognition and clinical evaluation of ataxia in children remains of great relevance for therapeutic results and prognostic counseling

    NEUROLOGICAL DISORDER AMONG PREMUTATION CARRIERS OF FRAGILE X SYNDROME AT SEMIN, GUNUNG KIDUL REGENCY

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    Background: Neurological disorder among male premutation carriers of Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) frequently occurs. In other hand, lacking of information results misdiagnosis of this disorder. Therefore this study is addressed to provide the data about neurological involvement of late-adult premutation carriers of FXS. Objectives: This research is to know neurological involvement of late-adult premutation carriers of FXS. Subjects and Methods: This was a descriptive study following cytogenetic, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), and neurological examinations on premutation carriers of FXS. Cytogenetic and PCR results were secondary data from Central for biomedical research (CEBIOR) laboratory of Faculty of Medicine Diponegoro University during September 2009 – March 2010. Simple neurological examination techniques were done to observe neurological involment among male premutation carriers. Results: There were four males carrying premutation allele over the age of 50. Cytogenetic analysis revealed two subjects expressed fragile site. The other two subjects expressed no fragile site. PCR analysis revealed expanded allele from all subjects. Subject III.6 showed intention tremor and gait ataxia, which are two mayor clinical criterions of FXTAS. Subject III.8 showed gait ataxia which is a mayor criterion of FXTAS. Subject III.9 showed intention tremor and gait ataxia, which are two mayor criterions of FXTAS. And Subject III.10 showed gait ataxia which is a mayor criterion of FXTAS. Conclusion: Some cerebellar manifestations such as intention tremor, limb ataxia, gait ataxia, dysdiadochokinesia, and titubation have been identified in premutation carriers of FXS. Southern Blot is needed to reveal subjects’s molecular status more accurate. Simple techniques to observe mayor and minor clinical criteria in this study had been proved can be used in the future. Radiological imaging is needed to address major and minor radiological criteria of FXTAS is still needed as one of an objectives measurement. Keywords : Fragile X-associated Tremor Ataxia Syndrome, intention tremor, gait ataxia, cerebellar manifestation

    Optic Ataxia

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    Epigenetic-based treatment as a potential strategy to treat Friedreich’s ataxia

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    Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder. It is the most common inherited ataxia in Europe. The neurodegeneration is progressive and normally, within 15-20 years, the patient becomes wheel-chair bound, and ultimately, is totally incapacitated. Affected individuals normally succumb from heart complications. Frataxin (FXN) is a mitochondrial protein that is deficient in FRDA. The deficiency is caused by a mutation within the first intron of the FXN gene which codes for frataxin. Epigenetic mechanisms are responsible in FRDA and epigenetic-based treatment is a potential new strategy to treat FRDA.peer-reviewe

    Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2: clinical, biological and genotype/phenotype correlation study of a cohort of 90 patients

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    Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2) is an autosomal recessive disease due to mutations in the senataxin gene, causing progressive cerebellar ataxia with peripheral neuropathy, cerebellar atrophy, occasional oculomotor apraxia and elevated alpha-feto-protein (AFP) serum level. We compiled a series of 67 previously reported and 58 novel ataxic patients who underwent senataxin gene sequencing because of suspected AOA2. An AOA2 diagnosis was established for 90 patients, originating from 15 countries worldwide, and 25 new senataxin gene mutations were found. In patients with AOA2, median AFP serum level was 31.0 mu g/l at diagnosis, which was higher than the median AFP level of AOA2 negative patients: 13.8 mu g/l, P = 0.0004; itself higher than the normal level (3.4 mu g/l, range from 0.5 to 17.2 mu g/l) because elevated AFP was one of the possible selection criteria. Polyneuropathy was found in 97.5% of AOA2 patients, cerebellar atrophy in 96%, occasional oculomotor apraxia in 51%, pyramidal signs in 20.5%, head tremor in 14%, dystonia in 13.5%, strabismus in 12.3% and chorea in 9.5%. No patient was lacking both peripheral neuropathy and cerebellar atrophy. The age at onset and presence of occasional oculomotor apraxia were negatively correlated to the progression rate of the disease (P = 0.03 and P = 0.009, respectively), whereas strabismus was positively correlated to the progression rate (P = 0.03). An increased AFP level as well as cerebellar atrophy seem to be stable in the course of the disease and to occur mostly at or before the onset of the disease. One of the two patients with a normal AFP level at diagnosis had high AFP levels 4 years later, while the other had borderline levels. The probability of missing AOA2 diagnosis, in case of sequencing senataxin gene only in non-Friedreich ataxia non-ataxia-telangiectasia ataxic patients with AFP level >= 7 mu g/l, is 0.23% and the probability for a non-Friedreich ataxia non-ataxia-telangiectasia ataxic patient to be affected with AOA2 with AFP levels >= 7 mu g/l is 46%. Therefore, selection of patients with an AFP level above 7 mu g/l for senataxin gene sequencing is a good strategy for AOA2 diagnosis. Pyramidal signs and dystonia were more frequent and disease was less severe with missense mutations in the helicase domain of senataxin gene than with missense mutations out of helicase domain and deletion and nonsense mutations (P = 0.001, P = 0.008 and P = 0.01, respectively). The lack of pyramidal signs in most patients may be explained by masking due to severe motor neuropathy

    Spinocerebellar ataxia types 1, 2, 3, and 6: disease severity and nonataxia symptoms.

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    OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that determine disease severity and clinical phenotype of the most common spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs), we studied 526 patients with SCA1, SCA2, SCA3. or SCA6. METHODS: To measure the severity of ataxia we used the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA). In addition, nonataxia symptoms were assessed with the Inventory of Non-Ataxia Symptoms (INAS). The INAS count denotes the number of nonataxia symptoms in each patient. RESULTS: An analysis of covariance with SARA score as dependent variable and repeat lengths of the expanded and normal allele, age at onset, and disease duration as independent variables led to multivariate models that explained 60.4% of the SARA score variance in SCA1, 45.4% in SCA2, 46.8% in SCA3, and 33.7% in SCA6. In SCA1, SCA2, and SCA3, SARA was mainly determined by repeat length of the expanded allele, age at onset, and disease duration. The only factors determining the SARA score in SCA6 were age at onset and disease duration. The INAS count was 5.0 +/- 2.3 in SCA1, 4.6 +/- 2.2 in SCA2, 5.2 +/- 2.5 in SCA3, and 2.0 +/- 1.7 in SCA6. In SCA1, SCA2, and SCA3, SARA score and disease duration were the strongest predictors of the INAS count. In SCA6, only age at onset and disease duration had an effect on the INAS count. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) 1, SCA2, and SCA3 share a number of common biologic properties, whereas SCA6 is distinct in that its phenotype is more determined by age than by disease-related factors

    Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 2

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    1. Introduction: The autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias (ADCA) are a clinically, pathologically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders caused by degeneration of cerebellum and its afferent and efferent connections. The degenerative process may additionally involves the ponto- medullar systems, pyramidal tracts, basal ganglia, cerebral cortex, peripheral nerves (ADCA I) and the retina (ADCA II), or can be limited to the cerebellum (ADCA III) (Harding et al., 1993). The most common of these dominantly inherited autosomal ataxias, ADCA I, includes many Spinocerebellar Ataxias (SCA) subtypes, some of which are caused by pathological CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the coding region on the mutated gene. Such is the case for SCA1, SCA2, SCA3/MJD, SCA6, SCA7, SCA17 and Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) (Matilla et al., 2006). Among the almost 30 SCAs, the variant SCA2 is the second most prevalent subtype worldwide, only surpassed by SCA3 (Schöls et al., 2004; Matilla et al., 2006; Auburger, 2011)..

    Epigenetic and neurological effects and safety of high-dose nicotinamide in patients with Friedreich's ataxia: an exploratory, open-label, dose-escalation study

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    Background: Friedreich's ataxia is a progressive degenerative disorder caused by deficiency of the frataxin protein. Expanded GAA repeats within intron 1 of the frataxin (FXN) gene lead to its heterochromatinisation and transcriptional silencing. Preclinical studies have shown that the histone deacetylase inhibitor nicotinamide (vitamin B3) can remodel the pathological heterochromatin and upregulate expression of FXN. We aimed to assess the epigenetic and neurological effects and safety of high-dose nicotinamide in patients with Friedreich's ataxia. Methods: In this exploratory, open-label, dose-escalation study in the UK, male and female patients (aged 18 years or older) with Friedreich's ataxia were given single doses (phase 1) and repeated daily doses of 2–8 g oral nicotinamide for 5 days (phase 2) and 8 weeks (phase 3). Doses were gradually escalated during phases 1 and 2, with individual maximum tolerated doses used in phase 3. The primary outcome was the upregulation of frataxin expression. We also assessed the safety and tolerability of nicotinamide, used chromatin immunoprecipitation to investigate changes in chromatin structure at the FXN gene locus, and assessed the effect of nicotinamide treatment on clinical scales for ataxia. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01589809. Findings: Nicotinamide was generally well tolerated; the main adverse event was nausea, which in most cases was mild, dose-related, and resolved spontaneously or after dose reduction, use of antinausea drugs, or both. Phase 1 showed a dose-response relation for proportional change in frataxin protein concentration from baseline to 8 h post-dose, which increased with increasing dose (p=0·0004). Bayesian analysis predicted that 3·8 g would result in a 1·5-times increase and 7·5 g in a doubling of frataxin protein concentration. Phases 2 and 3 showed that daily dosing at 3·5–6 g resulted in a sustained and significant (p<0·0001) upregulation of frataxin expression, which was accompanied by a reduction in heterochromatin modifications at the FXN locus. Clinical measures showed no significant changes. Interpretation: Nicotinamide was associated with a sustained improvement in frataxin concentrations towards those seen in asymptomatic carriers during 8 weeks of daily dosing. Further investigation of the long-term clinical benefits of nicotinamide and its ability to ameliorate frataxin deficiency in Friedreich's ataxia is warranted
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