16,297 research outputs found

    Heterogeneity in mode choice behavior: A spatial latent class approach based on accessibility measures

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    We propose a method to estimate mode choice models, where preference parameters are sensitive to the spatial context of the trip origin, challenging traditional assumptions of spatial homogeneity in the relationship between travel modes and the built environment. The framework, called Spatial Latent Classes (SLC), is based on the integrated choice and latent class approach, although instead of defining classes for the decision maker, it estimates the probability of a location belonging to a class, as a function of spatial attributes. For each Spatial Latent Class, a different mode choice model is specified, and the resulting behavioral model for each location is a weighted average of all class-specific models, which is estimated to maximize the likelihood of reproducing observed travel behavior. We test our models with data from Portland, Oregon, specifying spatial class membership models as a function of local and regional accessibility measures. Results show the SLC increases model fit when compared with traditional methods and, more importantly, allows segmenting urban space into meaningful zones, where predominant travel behavior patterns can be easily identified. We believe this is a very intuitive way to spatially analyze travel behavior trends, allowing policymakers to identify target areas of the city and the accessibility levels required to attain desired modal splits

    ├ëvaluation de l'impact du changement climatique sur la d├ęfoliation de l'├ępinette noire par la tordeuse des bourgeons de l'├ępinette

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    Les mod├Ęles ├ęcologiques actuels pr├ęvoient de profonds effets des changements climatiques sur les r├ęgimes de perturbations naturelles des for├¬ts. La tordeuse des bourgeons de l'├ępinette (Choristoneura fumiferana) (TBE) est le principal insecte d├ęfoliateur dans l'est de l'Am├ęrique du Nord. Les ├ępid├ęmies de TBE ont un impact majeur sur la structure et la fonction de la for├¬t bor├ęale canadienne puisque la d├ęfoliation entra├«ne une diminution de la croissance des arbres, une augmentation de la mortalit├ę et une baisse de la productivit├ę foresti├Ęre. Les ├ępid├ęmies de TBE sont devenues plus s├ęv├Ęres au cours du dernier si├Ęcle ├á cause des changements climatiques; cependant, nous savons peu de choses sur la mani├Ęre dont l'effet int├ęgr├ę du climat et du TBE modifie la croissance des esp├Ęces h├┤tes. Nous ├ęvaluons ici comment lÔÇÖinteraction entre le climat et la gravit├ę de l'├ępid├ęmie affecte la croissance de l'├ępinette noire (Picea mariana) pendant l'├ępid├ęmie de TBE qui a eu lieu entre 1968-1988 et 2006-2017. Nous avons compil├ę des s├ęries dendrochronologiques (2271 arbres), des donn├ęes de s├ęv├ęrit├ę de l'├ępid├ęmie (estim├ęe par la d├ęfoliation a├ęrienne observ├ęe) et des donn├ęes climatiques pour 164 sites au Qu├ębec, Canada. Nous avons utilis├ę un mod├Ęle lin├ęaire ├á effets mixtes pour d├ęterminer l'impact des param├Ętres climatiques, de la d├ęfoliation cumulative (des cinq ann├ęes pr├ęc├ędentes) et de leur effet coupl├ę sur la croissance en surface terri├Ęre. ├Ç la gravit├ę maximale de l'├ępid├ęmie, la croissance en surface terri├Ęre de l'├ępinette noire a ├ęt├ę r├ęduite de 14 ├á 18 % sur les cinq ann├ęes en raison de l'effet TBE. Cette croissance a ├ęt├ę affect├ęe par le climat : des temp├ęratures minimales estivales pr├ęc├ędentes plus ├ęlev├ęes et un indice d'humidit├ę climatique estival plus ├ęlev├ę ont r├ęduit la croissance de 11 % et 4 % respectivement. En revanche, l'effet n├ęgatif de la d├ęfoliation a ├ęt├ę att├ęnu├ę de 9% pour une temp├ęrature minimale plus ├ęlev├ęe au printemps pr├ęc├ędent et de 7% pour une temp├ęrature maximale plus ├ęlev├ęe l'├ęt├ę pr├ęc├ędent. Cette ├ętude am├ęliore notre compr├ęhension des effets combin├ęs de la TBE et du climat et aide ├á pr├ęvoir les dommages futurs caus├ęs par cet insecte dans les peuplements forestiers afin de soutenir la gestion durable des for├¬ts. Nous recommandons ├ęgalement que les projections des ├ęcosyst├Ęmes dans la for├¬t bor├ęale incluent plusieurs classes de d├ęfoliation de la TBE et plusieurs sc├ęnarios climatiques

    The stumbling block in ÔÇśthe race of our livesÔÇÖ: transition-critical materials, financial risks and the NGFS climate scenarios

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    Several ÔÇścriticalÔÇÖ raw materials, including metals, minerals and Rare Earth Elements (REEs), play a central role in the low-carbon transition and are needed to expand the deployment of low-carbon technologies. The reliable and affordable supply of these resources is subject to supply-side risks and demand-induced pressures. This paper empirically estimates the material demand requirements for ÔÇśTransition-Critical MaterialsÔÇÖ (TCMs) implied under two NGFS Climate Scenarios, namely the ÔÇśNet Zero by 2050ÔÇÖ and ÔÇśDelayed TransitionÔÇÖ scenarios. We apply material intensity estimates to the underlying assumptions on the deployment of low-carbon technologies to determine the implied material demand between 2021 and 2040 for nine TCMs. We find several materials to be subject to significant demand-induced pressures under both scenarios. Subsequently, the paper examines the possible emergence of material bottlenecks for three materials, namely copper, lithium and nickel. The results indicate possible substantial mismatches between supply and demand, which would be further exacerbated if the transition is delayed rather than realised immediately. We discuss these findings in the context of different possible transmission channels through which these bottlenecks could affect financial and price stability, and propose avenues for future research

    Corporate Social Responsibility: the institutionalization of ESG

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    Understanding the impact of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) on firm performance as it relates to industries reliant on technological innovation is a complex and perpetually evolving challenge. To thoroughly investigate this topic, this dissertation will adopt an economics-based structure to address three primary hypotheses. This structure allows for each hypothesis to essentially be a standalone empirical paper, unified by an overall analysis of the nature of impact that ESG has on firm performance. The first hypothesis explores the evolution of CSR to the modern quantified iteration of ESG has led to the institutionalization and standardization of the CSR concept. The second hypothesis fills gaps in existing literature testing the relationship between firm performance and ESG by finding that the relationship is significantly positive in long-term, strategic metrics (ROA and ROIC) and that there is no correlation in short-term metrics (ROE and ROS). Finally, the third hypothesis states that if a firm has a long-term strategic ESG plan, as proxied by the publication of CSR reports, then it is more resilience to damage from controversies. This is supported by the finding that pro-ESG firms consistently fared better than their counterparts in both financial and ESG performance, even in the event of a controversy. However, firms with consistent reporting are also held to a higher standard than their nonreporting peers, suggesting a higher risk and higher reward dynamic. These findings support the theory of good management, in that long-term strategic planning is both immediately economically beneficial and serves as a means of risk management and social impact mitigation. Overall, this contributes to the literature by fillings gaps in the nature of impact that ESG has on firm performance, particularly from a management perspective

    Long term low emission and climate resilient development strategies

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    Two sets of slides used to deliver the module on long-term climate resilient development strategies within the AGNES-led Climate Governance, Diplomacy and Negotiations Leadership Progra

    Towards a unified eco-evolutionary framework for fisheries management: Coupling advances in next-generation sequencing with species distribution modelling

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    The establishment of high-throughput sequencing technologies and subsequent large-scale genomic datasets has flourished across fields of fundamental biological sciences. The introduction of genomic resources in fisheries management has been proposed from multiple angles, ranging from an accurate re-definition of geographical limitations of stocks and connectivity, identification of fine-scale stock structure linked to locally adapted subpopulations, or even the integration with individual-based biophysical models to explore life history strategies. While those clearly enhance our perception of patterns at the light of a spatial scale, temporal depth and consequently forecasting ability might be compromised as an analytical trade-off. Here, we present a framework to reinforce our understanding of stock dynamics by adding also a temporal point of view. We propose to integrate genomic information on temporal projections of species distributions computed by Species Distribution Models (SDMs). SDMs have the potential to project the current and future distribution ranges of a given species from relevant environmental predictors. These projections serve as tools to inform about range expansions and contractions of fish stocks and suggest either suitable locations or local extirpations that may arise in the future. However, SDMs assume that the whole population respond homogenously to the range of environmental conditions. Here, we conceptualize a framework that leverages a conventional Bayesian joint-SDM approach with the incorporation of genomic data. We propose that introducing genomic information at the basis of a joint-SDM will explore the range of suitable habitats where stocks could thrive in the future as a function of their current evolutionary potential.Funda├ž├úo para a Ci├¬ncia e Tecnollogia - FCT; ARNETinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Central-provincial Politics and Industrial Policy-making in the Electric Power Sector in China

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    In addition to the studies that provide meaningful insights into the complexity of technical and economic issues, increasing studies have focused on the political process of market transition in network industries such as the electric power sector. This dissertation studies the centralÔÇôprovincial interactions in industrial policy-making and implementation, and attempts to evaluate the roles of Chinese provinces in the market reform process of the electric power sector. Market reforms of this sector are used as an illustrative case because the new round of market reforms had achieved some significant breakthroughs in areas such as pricing reform and wholesale market trading. Other policy measures, such as the liberalization of the distribution market and cross-regional market-building, are still at a nascent stage and have only scored moderate progress. It is important to investigate why some policy areas make greater progress in market reforms than others. It is also interesting to examine the impacts of Chinese central-provincial politics on producing the different market reform outcomes. Guangdong and Xinjiang are two provinces being analyzed in this dissertation. The progress of market reforms in these two provinces showed similarities although the provinces are very different in terms of local conditions such as the stages of their economic development and energy structures. The actual reform can be understood as the outcomes of certain modes of interactions between the central and provincial actors in the context of their particular capabilities and preferences in different policy areas. This dissertation argues that market reform is more successful in policy areas where the central and provincial authorities are able to engage mainly in integrative negotiations than in areas where they engage mainly in distributive negotiations

    Examples of works to practice staccato technique in clarinet instrument

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    Klarnetin staccato tekni─čini g├╝├žlendirme a┼čamalar─▒ eser ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒yla uygulanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Staccato ge├ži┼člerini h─▒zland─▒racak ritim ve n├╝ans ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒na yer verilmi┼čtir. ├çal─▒┼čman─▒n en ├Ânemli amac─▒ sadece staccato ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒ de─čil parmak-dilin e┼č zamanl─▒ uyumunun hassasiyeti ├╝zerinde de durulmas─▒d─▒r. Staccato ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒n─▒ daha verimli hale getirmek i├žin eser ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n i├žinde et├╝t ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒na da yer verilmi┼čtir. ├çal─▒┼čmalar─▒n ├╝zerinde titizlikle durulmas─▒ staccato ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n ilham verici etkisi ile m├╝zikal kimli─če yeni bir boyut kazand─▒rm─▒┼čt─▒r. Sekiz ├Âzg├╝n eser ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n her a┼čamas─▒ anlat─▒lm─▒┼čt─▒r. Her a┼čaman─▒n bir sonraki performans ve tekni─či g├╝├žlendirmesi esas al─▒nm─▒┼čt─▒r. Bu ├žal─▒┼čmada staccato tekni─činin hangi alanlarda kullan─▒ld─▒─č─▒, nas─▒l sonu├žlar elde edildi─či bilgisine yer verilmi┼čtir. Notalar─▒n parmak ve dil uyumu ile nas─▒l ┼čekillenece─či ve nas─▒l bir ├žal─▒┼čma disiplini i├žinde ger├žekle┼čece─či planlanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Kam─▒┼č-nota-diyafram-parmak-dil-n├╝ans ve disiplin kavramlar─▒n─▒n staccato tekni─činde ayr─▒lmaz bir b├╝t├╝n oldu─ču saptanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Ara┼čt─▒rmada literat├╝r taramas─▒ yap─▒larak staccato ile ilgili ├žal─▒┼čmalar taranm─▒┼čt─▒r. Tarama sonucunda klarnet tekni─čin de kullan─▒lan staccato eser ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n az oldu─ču tespit edilmi┼čtir. Metot taramas─▒nda da et├╝t ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n daha ├žok oldu─ču saptanm─▒┼čt─▒r. B├Âylelikle klarnetin staccato tekni─čini h─▒zland─▒rma ve g├╝├žlendirme ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒ sunulmu┼čtur. Staccato et├╝t ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒ yap─▒l─▒rken, araya eser ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n girmesi beyni rahatlatt─▒─č─▒ ve isteklili─či daha artt─▒rd─▒─č─▒ g├Âzlemlenmi┼čtir. Staccato ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒ yaparken do─čru bir kam─▒┼č se├žimi ├╝zerinde de durulmu┼čtur. Staccato tekni─čini do─čru ├žal─▒┼čmak i├žin do─čru bir kam─▒┼č─▒n dil h─▒z─▒n─▒ artt─▒rd─▒─č─▒ saptanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Do─čru bir kam─▒┼č se├žimi kam─▒┼čtan rahat ses ├ž─▒kmas─▒na ba─čl─▒d─▒r. Kam─▒┼č, dil atma g├╝c├╝n├╝ vermiyorsa daha do─čru bir kam─▒┼č se├žiminin yap─▒lmas─▒ gereklili─či vurgulanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Staccato ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒nda ba┼čtan sona bir eseri yorumlamak zor olabilir. Bu a├ž─▒dan ├žal─▒┼čma, verilen m├╝zikal n├╝anslara uyman─▒n, dil at─▒┼č performans─▒n─▒ rahatlatt─▒─č─▒n─▒ ortaya koymu┼čtur. Gelecek nesillere edinilen bilgi ve birikimlerin aktar─▒lmas─▒ ve geli┼čtirici olmas─▒ te┼čvik edilmi┼čtir. ├ç─▒kacak eserlerin nas─▒l ├ž├Âz├╝lece─či, staccato tekni─činin nas─▒l ├╝stesinden gelinebilece─či anlat─▒lm─▒┼čt─▒r. Staccato tekni─činin daha k─▒sa s├╝rede ├ž├Âz├╝me kavu┼čturulmas─▒ ama├ž edinilmi┼čtir. Parmaklar─▒n yerlerini ├Â─čretti─čimiz kadar belle─čimize de ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒n kaydedilmesi ├Ânemlidir. G├Âsterilen azmin ve sabr─▒n sonucu olarak ortaya ├ž─▒kan yap─▒t ba┼čar─▒y─▒ daha da yukar─▒ seviyelere ├ž─▒karacakt─▒r

    Exploring Potential Domains of Agroecological Transformation in the United States

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    There is now substantial evidence that agroecology constitutes a necessary pathway towards socially just and ecologically resilient agrifood systems. In the United States, however, agroecology remains relegated to the margins of research and policy spaces. This dissertation explores three potential domains of agroecological transformation in the US. Domains of transformation are sites of contestation in which agroecology interfaces with the industrial agrifood system; these material and conceptual spaces may point to important pathways for scaling agroecology. To explore this concept, I examine formal agroecology education (Chapter 1), extension services and statewide discourses around soil health (Chapter 2), and models of farmland access not based on private property (Chapter 3). While these constitute three distinct topics, I seek to demonstrate that they are linked by similar forces that enable and constrain the extent to which these domains can be sites of agroecological transformation. First, I use case study methodology to explore the evolution of an advanced undergraduate agroecology course at the University of Vermont. I examine how course content and pedagogy align with a transformative framing of agroecology as inherently transdisciplinary, participatory, action-oriented, and political. I find that student-centered pedagogies and experiential education on farms successfully promote transformative learning whereby students shift their understanding of agrifood systems and their role(s) within them. In my second chapter, I zoom out to consider soil health discourses amongst farmers and extension professionals in Vermont. Using co-created mental models and participatory analysis, I find that a singular notion of soil health based on biological, chemical, and physical properties fails to capture the diverse ways in which farmers and extension professionals understand soil health. I advocate for a principles-based approach to soil health that includes social factors and may provide a valuable heuristic for mobilizing knowledge towards agroecology transition pathways. My third chapter, conducted in collaboration with the national non-profit organization Agrarian Trust, considers equitable farmland access. Through semi-structured interviews with 13 farmers and growers across the US, I explore both farmer motivations for engaging with alternative land access models (ALAMs) and the potential role(s) these models may play within broader transformation processes. I argue that ALAMs constitute material and conceptual ÔÇśthird spacesÔÇÖ within which the private property regime is challenged and new identities and language around land ownership can emerge; as such, ALAMs may facilitate a (re)imagining of land-based social-ecological relationships. I conclude the dissertation by identifying conceptual and practical linkages across the domains explored in Chapters 1-3. I pay particular attention to processes that challenge neoliberal logics, enact plural ways of knowing, and prefigure just futures. In considering these concepts, I apply an expansive notion of pedagogy to explore how processes of teaching and (un)learning can contribute to cultivating foundational capacities for transition processes
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