67,242 research outputs found

    From Modernism and under the Fascist flag of Italian Nation to Post-modernist urban sprawl

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    This paper was presented during the International conference: ‘Theoretical Currents I: Architecture, Design, and the Nation’. Theme: ‘Historical Perspectives’. It was presented on 15th September 2010 and published in the Proceedings of Theoretical Currents I in 2010.In early 20th century, architecture had no place as a national recognised school in Italy. Architects’ professional formation was blended inside the Academies of Arts and just few of them were trained in Engineering Schools of the northern part of the country. There were strict limitations in being creative in design and architecture, because of the tendency to imitate and follow the past, until the strategy of design and architecture changed tune by aligning modernist ideas to a controversial transformation. With the Rationalist Exhibitions of architectural design in the 1930s, architecture acquired the official support and protection of Mussolini himself; the ultra modernist projects of the first students of the newly founded architectural schools of Rome and Florence had an immediate impact to politics in such a way that in the following years modernist architecture became the Nation’s architecture showing up in large scale competitions, such the EUR in Rome and the Railway Station of Florence. The Nation’s architecture had such an influence to policy making that all the planning laws after World War II were based on the first laws in the 1930s and 1940s; the nationalist regime managed to put forward rules and regulations which had to re-format the built environment through the development master plans in the 1950s and beyond.ADT funds, University of Derb

    Designing contested heritage within the sacred context. The AÎ§Î•Î™ÎĄÎŸÎ ÎŸÎ™Î—Î€ÎŸÎŁ monastery, Cyprus

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    The analysis of the AχΔÎčÏÎżÏ€ÎżÎŻÎ·Ï„ÎżÏ‚ monastery shows the superimposition of different buildings: a domed church with a central plan, built in late Byzantine times over the ruins of an early Christian basilica, enlarged by the addition of three successive narthexes, and therefore transformed into a longitudinal basilica. The name AχΔÎčÏÎżÏ€ÎżÎŻÎ·Ï„ÎżÏ‚, literally “made without hands”, referred to a sacred icon hosted therein. A walled enclosure surrounds the church and contains the monastery, which developed in subsequent phases, with different additions, demolitions and restorations. We outlined the formation process of the complex, from the V cent. Basilica, to the transformation of the monastery into military barracks in the 1970s, as a premise for the restoration project. Recently the Department of Antiquities assigned the monastery to the Girne American University for its restoration and it is urgent to accomplish some statical interventions. The management of this site, hence the political situation of northern Cyprus, represents an interesting case study on the contested heritage issue. Nevertheless, the heritage management in Cyprus, for the complex political situation of the island, bears more difficulties than in other UE countries, but we should consider that every heritage site has someway a contested character. An architectural project was experimented, according to the typo-morphological approach of the Muratorian Italian School, based on the principle that new buildings should be the continuation of the old ones, without imitating them, but following their formation process, as the last step of an ongoing process. We did not conceive the new architecture as an object contrasting with the context, but following the full understanding of the processual transformations of the site, it was possible to design the new addition to the monastic building as a living organism, in conformity with the sacred context

    The architectural gesture

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    Reading the Transformations of an Urban Edge: From Liberty Era Palermo to the City of Today

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    To honour the battle of 27 May 1860, in 1910 the Palermo City Government decided to realise a commemorative monument. A position at the centre of a large circular plaza was of have afforded the monument a greater solemnity. The commission for the Monument was awarded to Ernesto Basile. In 1927 the City Government decided to dedicate the monument to the Fallen and asked Basile to complete the monument adding an architectural backdrop. The first version of the new project was a fence that enveloped the entire square and the ring road, interrupted only by entrances near the streets flowing into the square, and dividing it into four sectors. The final design instead called for the realisation of a semi-circular exedra of columns interrupted at the centre by a large gate that allows access to the square and to the back of the monument. The successive development of the city engulfed the square in the midst of tall and anonymous buildings realised, beginning in the 1960s, without any order of relations, stripping the surrounding fabric of its identity. Through the survey of the today‘s configuration, the analysis of Basile‘s original drawings and the representation of the modifications made over time, this text proposes an original reading of the configuration of Piazza Vittorio Veneto and the Monument to the Fallen, in relation to important moments in its history, from its design to the present day. The three-dimensional models reproduce the monument and its surroundings at the time of its construction in 1910, based on the first version for its expansion (unbuilt), with the addition of the exedra from 1930 and in its current condition. The redesign and extrapolation of different views of the digital models also provided original images of use to new readings of the perception of this space

    The 1996 architecture biennale: the unfulfilled promise of Hans Hollein's exhibition concept

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    Despite its faint historical afterimage and its mystifying rhetoric about the individual architect as seismograph, the Venice architecture biennale of 1996 is worth reconsidering. This article argues that the exhibition's premise that architecture culture is marked by a growing individualisation remains relevant. It evaluates the no less problematic translation of this sharp observation into concrete decisions concerning the selection and presentation of 'individual positions' in this biennale

    Milazzo Harbour Project: Pier Regeneration Plan and Cable Car Scheme

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    This urban regeneration project for the city of Milazzo, Sicily was initiated by the Cittá di Milazzo under the European Union PIST-PISU (Piani integrati di sviluppo territorial & Piani integrati di sviluppo urbano) programme in 2010. It entailed two related urban design proposals: one for a decommissioned military pier and one that connected the historical Castello di Milazzo and the city’s western beaches. Both were vital to the future economy of the city. The primary research questions addressed by the project were: How can new urban connections and relationships be structured? How can the city’s waterfront be revitalised? How can the economic life of the city be extended into the winter months, and what are the pedagogical values of involving students in real projects? The project started with a five-day design workshop in Milazzo in February 2010, in which six postgraduate students from the University of Westminster participated. This concluded with a short presentation of sketch urban propositions. The London and Messina offices of Urban Future Organization, led by Andrew Yau, continued to develop the work with close dialogue with the city administration. The project was awarded an Education Award from Quadrante di Architettura in Italy in September 2010

    Labyrinth as passive defense system. An analysis of Renaissance treatise of Francesco di Giorgio Martini

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    The labyrinth enriching Francesco De Marchi's treatise on fortification, which could be interpreted as just a generic and decorative symbol of protection useful to illustrate the contents and aims of the treatise, in reality also refers to a widespread design tradition in the construction of fortresses. This figure embodies an architectural device of opacity and deceiving that can be found in the design of the meandering doors, in the arrangement of the rooms and doors of ravelins and case mates and even in the more general conception of a fortress. Its use as a passive defense system is testified both by buildings in Syria and Spain, and by 15th-century treatises, such as Francesco di Giorgio Martini's, whose capannato in particular is here analyzed and redrawn to evaluate the role of labyrinth in the general concept

    Mathematics in the work of Spinoza and Guarini

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    During the seventeenth century mathematics and the exact sciences brought about a scientific revolution, and seemed to be involved in all novel social developments of the time. To give just a few examples, Newton (1643-1727) used mathematical principles to explain the philosophy of nature in his Principia, and, prior to that, Descartes (1569-1650) used mathematics as a model for his metaphysics, his main concern for many years. His greatest legacy, for the purposes and framing of this paper, has to do with moving classical geometry within the reach of algebra, putting into connection Euclid's and Vitruvius’s theories. This has great relevance within the field of architecture, translating these theories to the building experience of that period. Baroque architecture indeed shares with mathematics a spatial structure which combines the arts and the sciences. Space is controlled by the possible variations of mathematical laws — which is the cause of the way in which architects struggle to work within pre-established rules.The aim of this paper, intended as research from a history of architectural points of view, is to find relations between the idea of mathematics used by Spinoza (Ethics) and Guarini (Placita philosophica; Architettura civile) in their metaphysics, and the outcomes they had in architecture. In addition, if it is difficult to establish whether Spinoza had any influence on Guarini — their most relevant texts were published posthumously — the role of mathematics in the work of these two figures, whose similarities and differences are worth enumerating, is particularly interesting when related to the architectural period of Baroque, a period when the use of mathematics in architecture might be said to have reached a peak.Universidad de Málaga. Campus de Excelencia Internacional Andalucía Tech
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