20,456 research outputs found

    Treatment of fractured concrete via microbially induced carbonate precipitation : from micro-scale characteristics to macro-scale behaviour

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    The development of techniques for concrete repair will reduce environmental impacts associated with concrete usage by extending the lifespan of existing structures. This study investigates microbially induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) for treating fractured concrete. Our results demonstrate the excellent penetrability of MICP with precipitates well-distributed along core length. Some individual treatment cycles resulted in ~one order of magnitude reduction in core permeability. Treatment efficiency is shown to be dependent on fracture network characteristics, i.e. number of fractures, fracture orientation, initial hydraulic aperture. Furthermore, bridging of precipitates across fracture surfaces resulted in a recovery of 26-50% of initial tensile strength

    Examples of works to practice staccato technique in clarinet instrument

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    Klarnetin staccato tekni─čini g├╝├žlendirme a┼čamalar─▒ eser ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒yla uygulanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Staccato ge├ži┼člerini h─▒zland─▒racak ritim ve n├╝ans ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒na yer verilmi┼čtir. ├çal─▒┼čman─▒n en ├Ânemli amac─▒ sadece staccato ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒ de─čil parmak-dilin e┼č zamanl─▒ uyumunun hassasiyeti ├╝zerinde de durulmas─▒d─▒r. Staccato ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒n─▒ daha verimli hale getirmek i├žin eser ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n i├žinde et├╝t ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒na da yer verilmi┼čtir. ├çal─▒┼čmalar─▒n ├╝zerinde titizlikle durulmas─▒ staccato ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n ilham verici etkisi ile m├╝zikal kimli─če yeni bir boyut kazand─▒rm─▒┼čt─▒r. Sekiz ├Âzg├╝n eser ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n her a┼čamas─▒ anlat─▒lm─▒┼čt─▒r. Her a┼čaman─▒n bir sonraki performans ve tekni─či g├╝├žlendirmesi esas al─▒nm─▒┼čt─▒r. Bu ├žal─▒┼čmada staccato tekni─činin hangi alanlarda kullan─▒ld─▒─č─▒, nas─▒l sonu├žlar elde edildi─či bilgisine yer verilmi┼čtir. Notalar─▒n parmak ve dil uyumu ile nas─▒l ┼čekillenece─či ve nas─▒l bir ├žal─▒┼čma disiplini i├žinde ger├žekle┼čece─či planlanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Kam─▒┼č-nota-diyafram-parmak-dil-n├╝ans ve disiplin kavramlar─▒n─▒n staccato tekni─činde ayr─▒lmaz bir b├╝t├╝n oldu─ču saptanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Ara┼čt─▒rmada literat├╝r taramas─▒ yap─▒larak staccato ile ilgili ├žal─▒┼čmalar taranm─▒┼čt─▒r. Tarama sonucunda klarnet tekni─čin de kullan─▒lan staccato eser ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n az oldu─ču tespit edilmi┼čtir. Metot taramas─▒nda da et├╝t ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n daha ├žok oldu─ču saptanm─▒┼čt─▒r. B├Âylelikle klarnetin staccato tekni─čini h─▒zland─▒rma ve g├╝├žlendirme ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒ sunulmu┼čtur. Staccato et├╝t ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒ yap─▒l─▒rken, araya eser ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n girmesi beyni rahatlatt─▒─č─▒ ve isteklili─či daha artt─▒rd─▒─č─▒ g├Âzlemlenmi┼čtir. Staccato ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒ yaparken do─čru bir kam─▒┼č se├žimi ├╝zerinde de durulmu┼čtur. Staccato tekni─čini do─čru ├žal─▒┼čmak i├žin do─čru bir kam─▒┼č─▒n dil h─▒z─▒n─▒ artt─▒rd─▒─č─▒ saptanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Do─čru bir kam─▒┼č se├žimi kam─▒┼čtan rahat ses ├ž─▒kmas─▒na ba─čl─▒d─▒r. Kam─▒┼č, dil atma g├╝c├╝n├╝ vermiyorsa daha do─čru bir kam─▒┼č se├žiminin yap─▒lmas─▒ gereklili─či vurgulanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Staccato ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒nda ba┼čtan sona bir eseri yorumlamak zor olabilir. Bu a├ž─▒dan ├žal─▒┼čma, verilen m├╝zikal n├╝anslara uyman─▒n, dil at─▒┼č performans─▒n─▒ rahatlatt─▒─č─▒n─▒ ortaya koymu┼čtur. Gelecek nesillere edinilen bilgi ve birikimlerin aktar─▒lmas─▒ ve geli┼čtirici olmas─▒ te┼čvik edilmi┼čtir. ├ç─▒kacak eserlerin nas─▒l ├ž├Âz├╝lece─či, staccato tekni─činin nas─▒l ├╝stesinden gelinebilece─či anlat─▒lm─▒┼čt─▒r. Staccato tekni─činin daha k─▒sa s├╝rede ├ž├Âz├╝me kavu┼čturulmas─▒ ama├ž edinilmi┼čtir. Parmaklar─▒n yerlerini ├Â─čretti─čimiz kadar belle─čimize de ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒n kaydedilmesi ├Ânemlidir. G├Âsterilen azmin ve sabr─▒n sonucu olarak ortaya ├ž─▒kan yap─▒t ba┼čar─▒y─▒ daha da yukar─▒ seviyelere ├ž─▒karacakt─▒r

    Prevalence of wormian bones worldwide: a critical review

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    Wormian bones (WB) are the irregular bone structures developed from additional centers of ossification. Although they are commonly found in healthy individuals, under certain conditions (number >10, mosaic pattern, large size), they can indicate pathology. While their coexistence with numerous diseases is well-documented, and various studies have reported their prevalence in populations of various geographic regions, no qualitative critical review of such studies has been conducted. The aim of this paper is to perform a critical review of research studies on the presence of Wormian bones in populations worldwide, with a particular emphasis on the methodology used and the selection of the samples studied.A sample of 44 original research articles was selected via PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Four criteria were assessed: 1) number of individuals in each group, 2) known sex of individuals, 3) selection criteria of individuals, and 4) implementation of the statistical analysis. The origin of the research sample was determined as well as the method of the WB calculation, and data on the WB prevalence worldwide was collected in tabular form.The reported size of the research samples varies from 22 to 628 individuals, derived from both contemporary and archaeological populations. Four major formulas were used in order to provide the frequency of WB. The sex of individuals was known in 18 (40.9%) articles. Most of the articles focused on Asian samples.The difficulties in comparing data on the Wormian bones are caused by considerable inconsistency in the methodology used to research this phenomenon. Therefore, the interpopulation comparisons currently made may not be correctly estimated. Our study highlights the need for using more comprehensive and consistent data collection as well as processing protocol suitable for populational research on sutural bones

    Valtionavustustoiminnan sanasto : 2. laajennettu laitos

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    Valtionavustustoiminnan sanastossa m├Ą├Ąritell├Ą├Ąn valtionavustustoimintaa koskevat keskeiset k├Ąsitteet ja annetaan n├Ąille valtakunnalliset termisuositukset sek├Ą niiden vastineet ruotsiksi ja englanniksi. Tavoitteena on selkeytt├Ą├Ą ja yhdenmukaistaa yli 90 valtionapuviranomaisen k├Ąytt├Ąm├Ąt k├Ąsitteet. Sanastoa on valmisteltu yhteisty├Âss├Ą eri hallinnonaloilla toimivien valtionavustustoiminnan asiantuntijoiden ja valtionavustuksen hakijoiden kanssa. Terminologista sanastoty├Ât├Ą on toteuttanut Sanastokeskuksen terminologi yhdess├Ą CSC ÔÇô Tieteen tietotekniikan keskuksen asiantuntijan kanssa. Ruotsin ja englannin kieliversioista on vastannut valtioneuvoston kanslian k├Ą├Ąnn├Âs- ja kielitoimiala. Jatkossa ty├Âryhm├Ąty├Âskentely painottuu sanaston yll├Ąpit├Ąmiseen ja kehitt├Ąmiseen. Julkaisu t├Ąydent├Ą├Ą aikaisempaa sanaston versiota, joka julkaistiin vuonna 2021. Sanastoa on t├Ąydennetty luvuilla 7ÔÇö8, joissa m├Ą├Ąritell├Ą├Ąn valtionavustuksella rahoitettavaan toimintaan, vaikuttavuuteen ja arviointiin sek├Ą talouteen ja toiminnan resursseihin liittyvi├Ą k├Ąsitteit├Ą. Sanastosta aiemmin julkaistu osa (luvut 1ÔÇö6) sis├Ąlt├Ą├Ą valtionavustuslajeihin sek├Ą valtionapuviranomaisten ja valtionavustusten hakijoiden v├Ąliseen toimintaan liittyvi├Ą k├Ąsitteit├Ą. N├Ąihin k├Ąsitteisiin on tehty tarkennuksia ja uusia k├Ąsitesuhdeviittauksia sanaston uusien osuuksien valmistelun aikana

    The Archaeology of Peasant Protagonism: New Directions in the Early Medieval Iberian Countryside

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    The inherent complexity of early medieval rural society is now widely recognised by scholars; this is in no small part thanks to the transformative effect that archaeology has had on our understanding of many aspects of peasant life. Yet it is only in the last twenty years that an archaeology of peasant society of early medieval Christian Iberia has emerged to challenge the supremacy of deeply-entrenched historiographical motifs, explored in detail herein, which underplay peasant agency, confine peasants to familiar contextual paradigms (poverty, risk-aversion, resistance), and treat the peasantry as an undifferentiated mass of largely passive ÔÇśrecipientsÔÇÖ of History. This article focuses upon a case-study ÔÇô early medieval northern Iberia ÔÇô to show that, far from an auxiliary discipline used to bolster or reject interpretations founded upon documentary analysis, archaeology now underpins our efforts to understand complex aspects of the society and economy of the early medieval countryside

    Coloniality and the Courtroom: Understanding Pre-trial Judicial Decision Making in Brazil

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    This thesis focuses on judicial decision making during custody hearings in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The impetus for the study is that while national and international protocols mandate the use of pre-trial detention only as a last resort, judges continue to detain people pre-trial in large numbers. Custody hearings were introduced in 2015, but the initiative has not produced the reduction in pre-trial detention that was hoped. This study aims to understand what informs judicial decision making at this stage. The research is approached through a decolonial lens to foreground legacies of colonialism, overlooked in mainstream criminological scholarship. This is an interview-based study, where key court actors (judges, prosecutors, and public defenders) and subject matter specialists were asked about influences on judicial decision making. Interview data is complemented by non-participatory observation of custody hearings. The research responds directly to Aliverti et al.'s (2021) call to ÔÇśdecolonize the criminal questionÔÇÖ by exposing and explaining how colonialism informs criminal justice practices. Answering the call in relation to judicial decision making, findings provide evidence that colonial-era assumptions, dynamics, and hierarchies were evident in the practice of custody hearings and continue to inform judgesÔÇÖ decisions, thus demonstrating the coloniality of justice. This study is significant for the new empirical data presented and theoretical innovation is also offered via the introduction of the ÔÇśanticitizenÔÇÖ. The concept builds on SouzaÔÇÖs (2007) ÔÇśsubcitizenÔÇÖ to account for the active pursuit of dangerous Others by judges casting themselves as crime fighters in a modern moral crusade. The findings point to the limited utility of human rights discourse ÔÇô the normative approach to influencing judicial decision making around pre-trial detention ÔÇô as a plurality of conceptualisations compete for dominance. This study has important implications for all actors aiming to reduce pre-trial detention in Brazil because unless underpinning colonial logics are addressed, every innovation risks becoming the next lei para ingl├¬s ver (law [just] for the English to see)

    Supernatural crossing in Republican Chinese fiction, 1920sÔÇô1940s

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    This dissertation studies supernatural narratives in Chinese fiction from the mid-1920s to the 1940s. The literary works present phenomena or elements that are or appear to be supernatural, many of which remain marginal or overlooked in Sinophone and Anglophone academia. These sources are situated in the May Fourth/New Culture ideological context, where supernatural narratives had to make way for the progressive intellectualsÔÇÖ literary realism and their allegorical application of supernatural motifs. In the face of realism, supernatural narratives paled, dismissed as impractical fantasies that distract one from facing and tackling real life. Nevertheless, I argue that the supernatural narratives do not probe into another mystical dimension that might co-exist alongside the empirical world. Rather, they imagine various cases of the charactersÔÇÖ crossing to voice their discontent with contemporary society or to reflect on the notion of reality. ÔÇťCrossingÔÇŁ relates to charactersÔÇÖ acts or processes of trespassing the boundary that separates the supernatural from the conventional natural world, thus entailing encounters and interaction between the natural and the supernatural. The dissertation examines how crossing, as a narrative device, disturbs accustomed and mundane situations, releases hidden tensions, and discloses repressed truths in Republican fiction. There are five types of crossing in the supernatural narratives. Type 1 is the crossing into ÔÇťhauntedÔÇŁ houses. This includes (intangible) human agency crossing into domestic spaces and revealing secrets and truths concealed by the scary, feigned ÔÇśhauntingÔÇÖ, thus exposing the hidden evil and the other house occupiersÔÇÖ silenced, suffocated state. Type 2 is men crossing into female ghostsÔÇÖ apparitional residences. The female ghosts allude to heart-breaking, traumatic experiences in socio-historical reality, evoking sympathetic concern for suffering individuals who are caught in social upheavals. Type 3 is the crossing from reality into the charactersÔÇÖ delusional/hallucinatory realities. While they physically remain in the empirical world, the charactersÔÇÖ abnormal perceptions lead them to exclusive, delirious, and quasi-supernatural experiences of reality. Their crossings blur the concrete boundaries between the real and the unreal on the mental level: their abnormal perceptions construct a significant, meaningful reality for them, which may be as real as the commonly regarded objective reality. Type 4 is the crossing into the netherworld modelled on the real world in the authorsÔÇÖ observation and bears a spectrum of satirised objects of the Republican society. The last type is immortal visitors crossing into the human world. This type satirises humanityÔÇÖs vices and destructive potential. The primary sources demonstrate their writersÔÇÖ witty passion to play with super--natural notions and imagery (such as ghosts, demons, and immortals) and stitch them into vivid, engaging scenes using techniques such as the gothic, the grotesque, and the satirical, in order to evoke sentiments such as terror, horror, disgust, dis--orientation, or awe, all in service of their insights into realist issues. The works also creatively tailor traditional Chinese modes and motifs, which exemplifies the revival of Republican interest in traditional cultural heritage. The supernatural narratives may amaze or disturb the reader at first, but what is more shocking, unpleasantly nudging, or thought-provoking is the problematic society and peopleÔÇÖs lives that the supernatural (misunderstandings) eventually reveals. They present a more compre--hensive treatment of reality than Republican literature with its revolutionary consciousness surrounding class struggle. The critical perspectives of the supernatural narratives include domestic space, unacknowledged history and marginal individuals, abnormal mentality, and pervasive weaknesses in humanity. The crossing and supernatural narratives function as a means of better understanding the lived reality. This study gathers diverse primary sources written by Republican writers from various educational and political backgrounds and interprets them from a rare perspective, thus filling a research gap. It promotes a fuller view of supernatural narratives in twentieth-century Chinese literature. In terms of reflecting the social and personal reality of the Republican era, the supernatural narratives supplement the realist fiction of the time

    TOWARDS AN UNDERSTANDING OF EFFORTFUL FUNDRAISING EXPERIENCES: USING INTERPRETATIVE PHENOMENOLOGICAL ANALYSIS IN FUNDRAISING RESEARCH

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    Physical-activity oriented community fundraising has experienced an exponential growth in popularity over the past 15 years. The aim of this study was to explore the value of effortful fundraising experiences, from the point of view of participants, and explore the impact that these experiences have on peopleÔÇÖs lives. This study used an IPA approach to interview 23 individuals, recognising the role of participants as proxy (nonprofessional) fundraisers for charitable organisations, and the unique organisation donor dynamic that this creates. It also bought together relevant psychological theory related to physical activity fundraising experiences (through a narrative literature review) and used primary interview data to substantiate these. Effortful fundraising experiences are examined in detail to understand their significance to participants, and how such experiences influence their connection with a charity or cause. This was done with an idiographic focus at first, before examining convergences and divergences across the sample. This study found that effortful fundraising experiences can have a profound positive impact upon community fundraisers in both the short and the long term. Additionally, it found that these experiences can be opportunities for charitable organisations to create lasting meaningful relationships with participants, and foster mutually beneficial lifetime relationships with them. Further research is needed to test specific psychological theory in this context, including self-esteem theory, self determination theory, and the martyrdom effect (among others)

    Filling in the Gap: A quantitative analysis of dental restoration types among body donors of Asian descent at the Mann-Labrash Osteological Collection

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    The Mann-Labrash Osteological Collection at the University of HawaiÔÇÖi John A. Burns School of Medicine houses over 230 skeletal remains amassed through the Willed Body Program. Of these donors, seventy-eight were of East and Southeast Asian American and Pacific Islander descent. This unique collection offers an exciting opportunity for skeletal analyses of these populations left understudied in the body of anthropological scientific literature. This thesis explores the dietary causes of dental disease and dental restorations from the past to the present. Additionally, macroscopic analyses and Chi-square statistical tests determined which sex cohorts utilized dental restorative prostheses in life. Also addressed are the socioeconomic determinants of dental care access among these underrepresented groups. Lastly, because of the marginal availability of East and Southeast Asian American and Pacific Islander skeletal remains in US reference collections, an examination of death ideologies and organ donor hesitancies held by these communities are reviewed
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