51,673 research outputs found

    Urinary Escheria coli Susceptibility Profiles and their Association with Community Antibiotic Use in Tasmania, Australia

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    This study assessed urinary Escherichia coli antibiotic susceptibility patterns in Tasmania, Australia, and examined their association with community antibiotic use. The susceptibility profiles of all urinary E. coli isolates collected in Tasmania between January 2010 and December 2012 were included

    Development of a rapid, antimicrobial susceptibility test for E. coli based on low-cost, screen-printed electrodes

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    Antibiotic resistance has been cited by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as one of the greatest threats to public health. Mitigating the spread of antibiotic resistance requires a multipronged approach with possible interventions including faster diagnostic testing and enhanced antibiotic stewardship. This study employs a low-cost diagnostic sensor test to rapidly pinpoint the correct antibiotic for treatment of infection. The sensor comprises a screen-printed gold electrode, modified with an antibiotic-seeded hydrogel to monitor bacterial growth. Electrochemical growth profiles of the common microorganism, Escherichia coli (E. coli) (ATCC 25922) were measured in the presence and absence of the antibiotic streptomycin. Results show a clear distinction between the E. coli growth profiles depending on whether streptomycin is present, in a timeframe of ≈2.5 h (p < 0.05), significantly quicker than the current gold standard of culture-based antimicrobial susceptibility testing. These results demonstrate a clear pathway to a low cost, phenotypic and reproducible antibiotic susceptibility testing technology for the rapid detection of E. coli within clinically relevant concentration ranges for conditions such as urinary tract infections

    Fluoromycobacteriophages for rapid, specific, and sensitive antibiotic susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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    Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is of paramount importance as multiple- and extensively- drug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis emerge and spread. We describe here a virus-based assay in which fluoromycobacteriophages are used to deliver a GFP or ZsYellow fluorescent marker gene to M. tuberculosis, which can then be monitored by fluorescent detection approaches including fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry. Pre-clinical evaluations show that addition of either Rifampicin or Streptomycin at the time of phage addition obliterates fluorescence in susceptible cells but not in isogenic resistant bacteria enabling drug sensitivity determination in less than 24 hours. Detection requires no substrate addition, fewer than 100 cells can be identified, and resistant bacteria can be detected within mixed populations. Fluorescence withstands fixation by paraformaldehyde providing enhanced biosafety for testing MDR-TB and XDR-TB infections. © 2009 Piuri et al

    Limited association between disinfectant use and either antibiotic or disinfectant susceptibility of Escherichia coli in both poultry and pig husbandry

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    Background Farm disinfectants are widely used in primary production, but questions have been raised if their use can select for antimicrobial resistance. The present study examined the use of disinfectants in poultry and pig husbandry and its contribution to the antibiotic and disinfectant susceptibility of Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains obtained after cleaning and disinfection. On those field isolates antibiotic susceptibility was monitored and susceptibility to commonly used active components of farm disinfectants (i.e. glutaraldehyde, benzalkoniumchloride, formaldehyde, and a formulation of peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide) was tested. Results This study showed a high resistance prevalence (> 50%) for ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and tetracycline for both production animal categories, while for ciprofloxacin only a high resistance prevalence was found in broiler houses. Disinfectant susceptibility results were homogenously distributed within a very small concentration range. Furthermore, all E. coli strains were susceptible to in-use concentrations of formaldehyde, benzalkoniumchloride and a formulation of peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide, indicating that the practical use of disinfectants did not select for disinfectant resistance. Moreover, the results showed no indications for the selection of antibiotic resistant bacteria through the use of disinfectants in agricultural environments. Conclusion Our study suggests that the proper use of disinfectants in agricultural environments does not promote antibiotic resistance nor reduce E. coli disinfectant susceptibility

    Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Correlation of Cefquinome Against Experimental Catheter-Associated Biofilm Infection Due to Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Biofilm formations play an important role in Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis and contribute to antibiotic treatment failures in biofilm-associated infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) profiles of cefquinome against an experimental catheter-related biofilm model due to S. aureus, including three clinical isolates and one non-clinical isolate. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC), biofilm bactericidal concentration (BBC), minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) and biofilm prevention concentration (BPC) and in vitro time-kill curves of cefquinome were studied in both planktonic and biofilm cells of study S. aureus strains. The in vivo post-antibiotic effects (PAEs), PK profiles and efficacy of cefquinome were performed in the catheter-related biofilm infection model in murine. A sigmoid E max model was utilized to determine the PK/PD index that best described the dose-response profiles in the model. The MICs and MBICs of cefquinome for the four S. aureus strains were 0.5 and 16 μg/mL, respectively. The BBCs (32-64 μg/mL) and MBECs (64-256 μg/mL) of these study strains were much higher than their corresponding BPC values (1-2 μg/mL). Cefquinome showed time-dependent killing both on planktonic and biofilm cells, but produced much shorter PAEs in biofilm infections. The best-correlated PK/PD parameters of cefquinome for planktonic and biofilm cells were the duration of time that the free drug level exceeded the MIC (fT &gt; MIC, R (2) = 96.2%) and the MBIC (fT &gt; MBIC, R (2) = 94.7%), respectively. In addition, the AUC24h/MBIC of cefquinome also significantly correlated with the anti-biofilm outcome in this model (R (2) = 93.1%). The values of AUC24h/MBIC for biofilm-static and 1-log10-unit biofilm-cidal activity were 22.8 and 35.6 h; respectively. These results indicate that the PK/PD profiles of cefquinome could be used as valuable guidance for effective dosing regimens treating S. aureus biofilm-related infections

    Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Pregnant Women and Their Newborns in Las Vegas, Nevada

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    Colonization and infection by resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus are being reported in epidemic proportions. The goal of this study was to determine the local prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization in pregnant women in southern Nevada and how it correlates with colonization and infection of their neonates. Signed consent was obtained, and a brief questionnaire was administered by the medical staff to each pregnant woman to collect demographic data and pertinent medical, family and social history. Nasal and vaginal specimens were obtained from pregnant women at ≥35 weeks gestation, and nasal and umbilicus specimens were obtained from their newborns. Specimens were cultured onto two selective media for S. aureus and MRSA. Potential MRSA isolates were further evaluated for susceptibility to antibiotics. Specimens from 307 pregnant women and 174 neonates were collected, resulting in 172 mother-neonate paired specimens. A total of 278 questionnaires were received from study participants. MRSA prevalence in pregnant women was 1.0% and 0.3% for nasal and vaginal specimens, respectively. The MRSA prevalence in neonates was 0% and 0.6% for nasal and umbilical specimens, respectively. Four different antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were observed among the MRSA isolates. The results did not show transmission of MRSA from pregnant women to their newborns, or infections of newborns with MRSA. It is expected that the results of this study will inform future decisions on surveillance, treatment and prevention of MRSA infections in Nevada

    Inflammatory cytokines and biofilm production sustain Staphylococcus aureus outgrowth and persistence: A pivotal interplay in the pathogenesis of Atopic Dermatitis

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    Individuals with Atopic dermatitis (AD) are highly susceptible to Staphylococcus aureus colonization. However, the mechanisms driving this process as well as the impact of S. aureus in AD pathogenesis are still incompletely understood. In this study, we analysed the role of biofilm in sustaining S. aureus chronic persistence and its impact on AD severity. Further we explored whether key inflammatory cytokines overexpressed in AD might provide a selective advantage to S. aureus. Results show that the strength of biofilm production by S. aureus correlated with the severity of the skin lesion, being significantly higher (P < 0.01) in patients with a more severe form of the disease as compared to those individuals with mild AD. Additionally, interleukin (IL)-β and interferon γ (IFN-γ), but not interleukin (IL)-6, induced a concentration-dependent increase of S. aureus growth. This effect was not observed with coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from the skin of AD patients. These findings indicate that inflammatory cytokines such as IL1-β and IFN-γ, can selectively promote S. aureus outgrowth, thus subverting the composition of the healthy skin microbiome. Moreover, biofilm production by S. aureus plays a relevant role in further supporting chronic colonization and disease severity, while providing an increased tolerance to antimicrobials