1,566,190 research outputs found

    Extrapolating from Laboratory Behavioral Research on Nonhuman Primates Is Unjustified

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    Conducting research on animals is supposed to be valuable because it provides information on how human mechanisms work. But for the use of animal models to be ethically justified, it must be epistemically justified. The inference from an observation about an animal model to a conclusion about humans must be warranted for the use of animals to be moral. When researchers infer from animals to humans, it’s an extrapolation. Often non-human primates are used as animal models in laboratory behavioral research. The target populations are humans and other non-human primates. I argue that the epistemology of extrapolation renders the use of non-human primates in laboratory behavioral research unreliable. If the model is relevantly similar to the target, then the experimental conditions introduce confounding variables. If the model is not relevantly similar to the target, then the observations of the model cannot be extrapolated to the target. Since using non-human primates in as animal models in laboratory behavioral research is not epistemically justified, using them as animal models in laboratory behavioral research is not ethically justified

    Stem Cell Therapy on Animal Model (Rattus Norvegicus) End Gestational TIME Exposed to Carbon Black as Observed From Caspase-3 Expression

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    Background: Air pollution in the form of Diesel Exhaust Particles emerging from motor vehicles are harmful to health that have adverse reproductive health impacts, especially during pregnancy. The use of stem cells in treating white mice (Rattus norvegicus) exposed to carbon black can reveal the potential for treatment of placental impairment during pregnancy. Purpose: to demonstrate the effectivity of Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell therapy on rats (Rattus norvegicus) exposed to carbon black as observed from caspase-3 expression. Methods: This research uses a completely randomized design with factorial pattern. Forty-eight gravid female rats were divided into six treatment groups. Result: caspase-3 expression in each treatment showed no significant differences in the groups treated with RBMMSC in each gravid groups treatment (therapy GD 11 and GD 17) were exposed to carbon black and not treated with RBMMSC. The same are indicated by the normal trophoblast cells (cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast cells) in the RBMMSC treated group showed no significant difference with the group exposed to carbon black only. Conclusion: this research indicate that Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell therapy in Rattus norvegicus exposed to carbon black have not been able to reduce expression of caspase-3

    Zebrafish as animal model for aquaculture nutrition research.

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    The aquaculture industry continues to promote the diversification of ingredients used in aquafeed in order to achieve a more sustainable aquaculture production system. The evaluation of large numbers of diets in aquaculture species is costly and requires time-consuming trials in some species. In contrast, zebrafish (Danio rerio) can solve these drawbacks as an experimental model, and represents an ideal organism to carry out preliminary evaluation of diets. In addition, zebrafish has a sequenced genome allowing the efficient utilization of new technologies, such as RNA-sequencing and genotyping platforms to study the molecular mechanisms that underlie the organism's response to nutrients. Also, biotechnological tools like transgenic lines with fluorescently labeled neutrophils that allow the evaluation of the immune response in vivo, are readily available in this species. Thus, zebrafish provides an attractive platform for testing many ingredients to select those with the highest potential of success in aquaculture. In this perspective article aspects related to diet evaluation in which zebrafish can make important contributions to nutritional genomics and nutritional immunity are discussed

    Using accelerometer, high sample rate GPS and magnetometer data to develop a cattle movement and behaviour model

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    The study described in this paper developed a model of animal movement, which explicitly recognised each individual as the central unit of measure. The model was developed by learning from a real dataset that measured and calculated, for individual cows in a herd, their linear and angular positions and directional and angular speeds. Two learning algorithms were implemented: a Hidden Markov model (HMM) and a long-term prediction algorithm. It is shown that a HMM can be used to describe the animal's movement and state transition behaviour within several “stay” areas where cows remained for long periods. Model parameters were estimated for hidden behaviour states such as relocating, foraging and bedding. For cows’ movement between the “stay” areas a long-term prediction algorithm was implemented. By combining these two algorithms it was possible to develop a successful model, which achieved similar results to the animal behaviour data collected. This modelling methodology could easily be applied to interactions of other animal specie

    Animal spirits and credit cycles

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    In this paper we extend the behavioral macroeconomic model as proposed by De Grauwe (2012) to include a banking sector. The behavioral model takes the view that agents have limited cognitive abilities. As a result, it is “rational” to use simple forecasting rules and to subject the use of these rules to a fitness test. Agents are then driven to select the rule that performs best. The behavioral model produces endogenous and self-fulfilling movements of optimism and pessimism (animal spirits). Our main result is that the existence of banks intensifies these movements, creating a greater scope for booms and busts. Thus, banks do not create but amplify animal spirits. We find that increases in the equity ratios of banks tend to reduce the importance of animal spirits over the business cycle. The other policy conclusion we derive from our results is that the central bank has an important responsibility for stabilising output: output stabilization is an instrument to “tame the animal spirits”. This has the effect of improving the trade-off between inflation and output volatility

    Multiple environmental controls explain global patterns in soil animal communities

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    Soil animals play important roles in ecosystem functioning and stability, but the environmental controls on their communities are not fully understood. In this study, we compiled a dataset of soil animal communities for which the abundance and body mass of multiple soil animal groups were recorded. The mass–abundance scaling relationships were then used to investigate multiple environmental controls on soil animal community composition. The data reveal latitudinal shifts from high abundances of small soil animals at high latitudes to greater relative abundances of large soil animals at low latitudes. A hierarchical linear mixed effects model was applied to reveal the environmental variables shaping these latitudinal trends. The final hierarchical model identified mean annual temperature, soil pH and soil organic carbon content as key environmental controls explaining global mass–abundance scaling relationships in soil animal communities (R2c = 0.828, Ngroup = 117). Such relationships between soil biota with climate and edaphic conditions have been previously identified for soil microbial, but not soil animal, communities at a global scale. More comprehensive global soil community datasets are needed to better understand the generality of these relationships over a broader range of global ecosystems and soil animal groups

    Myocardial Dysfunction in an Animal Model of Cancer Cachexia

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    Aims Fatigue is a common occurrence in cancer patients regardless of tumor type or anti-tumor therapies and is an especially problematic symptom in persons with incurable tumor disease. In rodents, tumor-induced fatigue is associated with a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and increased expression of biomarkers of muscle protein degradation. The purpose of the present study was to determine if muscle wasting and expression of biomarkers of muscle protein degradation occur in the hearts of tumor-bearing mice, and if these effects of tumor growth are associated with changes in cardiac function. Main methods The colon26 adenocarcinoma cell line was implanted into female CD2F1 mice and skeletal muscle wasting, in vivo heart function, in vitro cardiomyocyte function, and biomarkers of muscle protein degradation were determined. Key findings Expression of biomarkers of protein degradation were increased in both the gastrocnemius and heart muscle of tumor-bearing mice and caused systolic dysfunction in vivo. Cardiomyocyte function was significantly depressed during both cellular contraction and relaxation. Significance These results suggest that heart muscle is directly affected by tumor growth, with myocardial function more severely compromised at the cellular level than what is observed using echocardiography
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