19,645 research outputs found

    Microplastic in Beach Sediment of Nasi Island, Aceh Besar Regency, Indonesia

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    Microplastic might be a small size of plastic that is directly released into the environment or the result of larger in size of plastic degradations. The presence and effect of microplastic have been reported globally. However, the existence of microplastic trapped in beach sediment of Nasi Island is limited. This research was conducted to analyse the type of sediment, abundance and type of microplastic polymer found in beach sediments in Nasi Island, Aceh Besar Regency, Aceh Province, Indonesia. Sampling was carried out in April 2022 at Nipah Beach and Alue Riyeung Beach in Nasi Island, Aceh Besar Regency. Sediment type was analysed by dry sieve method, using a stratified sieve shaker while the observation of microplastic and its polymer were identified by microscope and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. The results showed that the types of sediment at both beaches belonged to the sand type. There were three types of microplastics found, namely fragments, films, and fibres. The highest abundance of microplastics was found in a 0.063mm filter at Nipah Beach with an amount of 2651 Particles/Kg while the lowest was found in a 0.125mm filter with an amount of 8 Particles/Kg at Alue Riyeung Beach. As the polymer types, it is found that fragment type microplastics are likely to have PETE (Polyethylene Terephthalate) polymers, film type microplastics are likely to have PS (Polystyrene) polymer types and Fibre microplastics are likely to have LDPE (Low-Density Polyethylene) polymers

    Internal tides off the Amazon shelf – Part 1: The importance of the structuring of ocean temperature during two contrasted seasons

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    The impact of internal and barotropic tides on the vertical and horizontal temperature structure off the Amazon River was investigated during two highly contrasted seasons (AMJ: April–May–June; ASO: August–September–October) over a 3-year period from 2013 to 2015. Twin regional simulations, with and without tides, were used to highlight the general effect of tides. The findings reveal that tides have a cooling effect on the ocean from the surface (∼ 0.3 ∘C) to above the thermocline (∼ 1.2 ∘C), while warming it up below the thermocline (∼ 1.2 ∘C). The heat budget analysis indicates that the vertical mixing is the dominant process driving temperature variations within the mixed layer, while it is associated with both horizontal and vertical advection to explain temperature variations below. The increased mixing in the simulations including tides is attributed to breaking of internal tides (ITs) on their generation sites over the shelf break and offshore along their propagation pathways. Over the shelf, mixing is driven by the dissipation of the barotropic tides. In addition, the vertical terms of the heat budget equation exhibit wavelength patterns typical of mode-1 IT. The study highlights the key role of tides and particularly how IT-related vertical mixing shapes the ocean temperature off the Amazon. Furthermore, we found that tides impact the interactions between the upper ocean interface and the overlying atmosphere. They contribute significantly to increasing the net heat flux between the atmosphere and the ocean, with a notable seasonal variation from 33.2 % in AMJ to 7.4 % in ASO seasons. This emphasizes the critical role of tidal dynamics in understanding regional-scale climate.</p

    Consequences of transport conditions on the welfare of slaughter pigs with different health status and RYR-1 genotype

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    This study assessed the influence of transport conditions on welfare indicators of slaughter pigs with different health status and RYR-1 genotype. The group of pigs, predominantly consisting of Nn (56.67%) and subclinically diseased (60.00%) individuals, that were exposed to short transportation (<30 min) at high loading density (~235 kg/m2 ) had the highest slipping (p < 0.0001), falling (p = 0.0009), turning back (p < 0.0001), reluctance to move (p < 0.0001), panting (p < 0.0001) and shivering (p < 0.0001) frequencies at unloading. Subclinically diseased Nn pigs subjected to short transportation (<30 min) and high loading density (~235 kg/m2 ) had the highest lactate (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0001), glucose (p = 0.0450 and p = 0.0002), CK (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0010), LDH (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0484), AST (p = 0.0208 and p = 0.0170), ALT (p = 0.0500 and p = 0.00081), ceruloplasmin (p = 0.0334 and p < 0.0001) and MDA (p = 0.0048 and p < 0.0001) concentrations, but the lowest sodium (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0001), chloride (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.0432), albumin (p < 0.0090 and p < 0.0001), PON-1 (p = 0.0122 and p = 0.0500) and GSH (p = 0.0042 and p = 0.0340) levels, respectively. In the group consisting of of stress-resistant (100%) and predominantly healthy (60.00%) pigs subjected to short transportation (<30 min) at high loading density (~235 kg/m2 ), none of the individuals showed irregular behavioural reactions during unloading. Healthy NN pigs that underwent short transportation (<30 min) at high loading density (~235 kg/m2 ) had the lowest lactate (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0001), glucose (p = 0.0450 and p = 0.0002), CK (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0010), LDH (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0484) and ceruloplasmin (p = 0.0334 and p < 0.0001) levels, but the highest sodium (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0001) and chloride (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.0432) concentrations, respectively. Inconclusion, the most compromised welfare was recorded in subclinically diseased Nn pigs exposed to short transportation (<30 min) and high loading density (~235 kg/m2 ), while under the same conditions, the welfare of healthy NN pigs was not compromised. Therefore, stress-carrier pigs with subclinical pathological lesions should not be considered fit for transportation, indicating that the health status and genotype are the key factors for optimising pig welfar

    Matlab Code for EQ prediction for Whole Earth Example with 5 regions

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    Matlab Code for EQ prediction for Whole Earth Example with 5 regions. 5 Regions areIndia+BD+NepalChina+NeplaChiliJapanSumatra+Andaman</p

    Tectonic signals documented in gravel and silt beds : A comprehensive review of the eastern Tibetan plateau

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    Acknowledgements This project was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (42207239) and National Nonprofit Fundamental Research Grant of China, Institute of Geology, China Earthquake Administration (IGCEA1906). We gratefully acknowledge the editors of the journal and the anonymous reviewers for their useful and detailed comments and suggestions to improve the original submission.Peer reviewedPostprin

    Analysis of the Skewed Sex Ratio and Female Foeticide in India

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    The present study is aimed at drawing attention and concern of the readers towards nefarious female foeticide problem in India. Female Foeticide is the death sentence to a girl even before her birth. The objectives of the study are met by analysing the problem of female foeticide by studying skewed sex ratio and child sex ratio in India and its states. The primary causes of female foeticide are addressed along with its adverse consequences on society. Study on the status of sex ratio in countries of world lists India at 4rth rank in most skewed sex ratio. Although sex ratio has improved recently yet child sex ratio is still the worst in India. The Northern Indian states & union territories have lowest sex ratio. The rural areas with less literacy have more sex ratio than urban areas with higher literacy. Indian government has taken many initiatives to promote girl child birth and enacted a number of laws to curb female foeticide, yet the immoral female foeticide is still in practice. Present study also suggests some measures to prevent this malpractice and hence empower the Women

    Understanding sea wave height conditions in sumatra waters

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    Ocean waves play a crucial role in influencing a wide range of marine and fisheries activities. In this research study, we aim to analyze the climatological conditions of sea wave heights in Sumatran waters over a span of 83 years (1940-2022). We utilize three-dimensional Copernicus numerical model simulations to examine seasonal patterns of sea wave heights and assess the likelihood of extreme wave events. Our findings reveal that high waves, reaching heights of 4-5 meters, are predominantly observed in the western and southern zones off the coast of Sumatra, particularly in the vicinity of smaller islands. Conversely, in enclosed or semi-enclosed waters, such as the lee side of Sumatra and the Malacca Strait, sea wave heights tend to be relatively lower. Seasonally, our study indicates that extreme wave heights are more likely to occur during the west season as opposed to the east season. This research provides valuable insights into the dynamic ocean wave conditions in Sumatran waters, which can have significant implications for various sectors reliant on the ocean environment

    Study on earthquake and tsunami hazard: evaluating probabilistic seismic hazard function (PSHF) and potential tsunami height simulation in the coastal cities of Sumatra Island

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    This study uses integrated geological, geodesy, and seismology data to assess the potential tsunami and Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Function (PSHF) near Sumatra’s coastal cities. It focuses on estimating the possible level of ground shaking due to the seismic activity within the Sumatran Fault Zone (SFZ) and subduction zone. It uses the Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) as a measure. An amplification factor that is based on the previous study is used. It is calculated through the Horizontal-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR), which measures possible surface ground shaking. The Seismic Hazard Function (SHF) is calculated considering magnitudes 6.5 to 9.0 for subduction sources and 6.5 to 7.8 for SFZ sources. Also, the PGA based on the Maximum Possible Earthquake (MPE) magnitude is estimated, and tsunami heights are simulated to assess the possible hazard risk. The tsunami source model in this study is characterized by considering the possibility of the long-term perspectives on giant earthquakes and tsunamis that might occur in subduction zones around the off-coast of southern Sumatra Island. The potentiality source zone is characterized based on the utilization of the cross-correlation of correlation dimension (DC) based on the shallow earthquake catalog of 2010 to 2022 and the SHmax-rate of surface strain rate. Based on the MPE, the relatively high estimated PGA at the base rock was found around Mentawai and Pagai Utara islands at about 0.224 g and 0.328 g, with the largest estimated PGA based on the MPE at the surface with values of about 0.5 g and 0.6 g. The possible maximum tsunami height (Hmax) estimated based on source scenarios position around the west coast of Sumatera Island, such as for Kota Padang and Kota Bungus, reaches up to 12.0 m and 22.0 m, respectively. The findings provide valuable insight into seismic and tsunami hazards, benefiting future mitigation strategies

    The application and sustainable development of coral in traditional medicine and its chemical composition, pharmacology, toxicology, and clinical research

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    This review discusses the variety, chemical composition, pharmacological effects, toxicology, and clinical research of corals used in traditional medicine in the past two decades. At present, several types of medicinal coral resources are identified, which are used in 56 formulas such as traditional Chinese medicine, Tibetan medicine, Mongolian medicine, and Uyghur medicine. A total of 34 families and 99 genera of corals are involved in medical research, with the Alcyoniidae family and Sarcophyton genus being the main research objects. Based on the structural types of compounds and the families and genera of corals, this review summarizes the compounds primarily reported during the period, including terpenoids, steroids, nitrogen-containing compounds, and other terpenoids dominated by sesquiterpene and diterpenes. The biological activities of coral include cytotoxicity (antitumor and anticancer), anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antibacterial, antiviral, immunosuppressive, antioxidant, and neurological properties, and a detailed summary of the mechanisms underlying these activities or related targets is provided. Coral toxicity mostly occurs in the marine ornamental soft coral Zoanthidae family, with palytoxin as the main toxic compound. In addition, nonpeptide neurotoxins are extracted from aquatic corals. The compatibility of coral-related preparations did not show significant acute toxicity, but if used for a long time, it will still cause toxicity to the liver, kidneys, lungs, and other internal organs in a dose-dependent manner. In clinical applications, individual application of coral is often used as a substitute for orthopedic materials to treat diseases such as bone defects and bone hyperplasia. Second, coral is primarily available in the form of compound preparations, such as Ershiwuwei Shanhu pills and Shanhu Qishiwei pills, which are widely used in the treatment of neurological diseases such as migraine, primary headache, epilepsy, cerebral infarction, hypertension, and other cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. It is undeniable that the effectiveness of coral research has exacerbated the endangered status of corals. Therefore, there should be no distinction between the advantages and disadvantages of listed endangered species, and it is imperative to completely prohibit their use and provide equal protection to help them recover to their normal numbers. This article can provide some reference for research on coral chemical composition, biological activity, chemical ecology, and the discovery of marine drug lead compounds. At the same time, it calls for people to protect endangered corals from the perspectives of prohibition, substitution, and synthesis

    PickBlue: Seismic Phase Picking for Ocean Bottom Seismometers With Deep Learning

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    Detecting phase arrivals and pinpointing the arrival times of seismic phases in seismograms is crucial for many seismological analysis workflows. For land station data, machine learning methods have already found widespread adoption. However, deep learning approaches are not yet commonly applied to ocean bottom data due to a lack of appropriate training data and models. Here, we compiled an extensive and labeled ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) data set from 15 deployments in different tectonic settings, comprising ∼90,000 P and ∼63,000 S manual picks from 13,190 events and 355 stations. We propose PickBlue, an adaptation of the two popular deep learning networks EQTransformer and PhaseNet. PickBlue joint processes three seismometer recordings in conjunction with a hydrophone component and is trained with the waveforms in the new database. The performance is enhanced by employing transfer learning, where initial weights are derived from models trained with land earthquake data. PickBlue significantly outperforms neural networks trained with land stations and models trained without hydrophone data. The model achieves a mean absolute deviation of 0.05 s for P-waves and 0.12 s for S-waves, and we apply the picker on the Hikurangi Ocean Bottom Tremor and Slow Slip OBS deployment offshore New Zealand. We integrate our data set and trained models into SeisBench to enable an easy and direct application in future deployments
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