11,326 research outputs found

    Broad-spectrum β-lactamases among Enterobacteriaceae of animal origin: molecular aspects, mobility and impact on public health

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    Broad-spectrum β-lactamase genes (coding for extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and AmpC β-lactamases) have been frequently demonstrated in the microbiota of food-producing animals. This may pose a human health hazard since these genes may be present in zoonotic bacteria, which would cause a direct problem. They can also be present in commensals, which may act as a reservoir of resistance genes for pathogens causing disease both in humans and animals. Broad-spectrum β-lactamase genes are frequently located on mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids, transposons and integrons, which often also carry additional resistance genes. This could limit treatment options for infections caused by broad-spectrum β-lactam-resistant microorganisms. This review addresses the growing burden of broad-spectrum β-lactam resistance among Enterobacteriaceae isolated from food, companion and wild animals worldwide. To explore the human health hazard, the diversity of broad-spectrum β-lactamases among Enterobacteriaceae derived from animals is compared with respect to their presence in human bacteria. Furthermore, the possibilities of the exchange of genes encoding broad-spectrum β-lactamases – including the exchange of the transposons and plasmids that serve as vehicles for these genes – between different ecosystems (human and animal) are discussed

    Assessing the occurrence and transfer dynamics of ESBL/pAmpC-producing Escherichia coli across the broiler production pyramid

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    Extended-spectrum \u3b2-lactamase (ESBL)- and plasmid mediated AmpC-type cephalosporinase (pAmpC)-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL/pAmpC E. coli) in food-producing animals is a major public health concern. This study aimed at quantifying ESBL/pAmpC-E. coli occurrence and transfer in Italy's broiler production pyramid. Three production chains of an integrated broiler company were investigated. Cloacal swabs were taken from parent stock chickens and offspring broiler flocks in four fattening farms per chain. Carcasses from sampled broiler flocks were collected at slaughterhouse. Samples were processed on selective media, and E. coli colonies were screened for ESBL/pAmpC production. ESBL/pAmpC genes and E. coli phylogroups were determined by PCR and sequencing. Average pairwise overlap of ESBL/pAmpC E. coli gene and phylogroup occurrences between subsequent production stages was estimated using the proportional similarity index, modelling uncertainty in a Monte Carlo simulation setting. In total, 820 samples were processed, from which 513 ESBL/pAmpC E. coli isolates were obtained. We found a high prevalence (92.5%, 95%CI 72.1-98.3%) in day-old parent stock chicks, in which blaCMY-2 predominated; prevalence then dropped to 20% (12.9-29.6%) at laying phase. In fattening broilers, prevalence was 69.2% (53.6-81.3%) at the start of production, 54.2% (38.9-68.6%) at slaughter time, and 61.3% (48.1-72.9%) in carcasses. Significantly decreasing and increasing trends for respectively blaCMY-2 and blaCTX-M-1 gene occurrences were found across subsequent production stages. ESBL/pAmpC E. coli genetic background appeared complex and bla-gene/phylogroup associations indicated clonal and horizontal transmission. Modelling revealed that the average transfer of ESBL/pAmpC E. coli genes between subsequent production stages was 47.7% (42.3-53.4%). We concluded that ESBL/pAmpC E. coli in the broiler production pyramid is prevalent, with substantial transfer between subsequent production levels

    Serotype epidemiology and multidrug resistance patterns of Salmonella enterica infecting humans in Italy

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    BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica is the zoonotic agent most frequently responsible for foodborne infections in humans worldwide. In this work the presence of S. enterica was investigated in 734 unique enteropathogenic isolates collected from human patients between 2011 and 2012. RESULTS: All Salmonella spp. isolates were subjected to serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Isolates displaying phenotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles different from the reference strains were genotipically characterized. Several plasmid-embedded resistance determinants were identified and characterized. Non-typhoidal serotypes were most frequently diagnosed; monophasic Salmonella typhimurium 1,4 [5],12:i- and S. typhimurium represented the most prevalent serovars. Five isolates displayed phenotypes with extremely reduced susceptibility to antimicrobials: we detected multidrug resistance elements belonging to Ambler class A and class C in two non-typhoidal S. enterica serovars, i.e. Rissen and monophasic S. typhimurium 1,4 [5],12:i-, and in one typhoidal serovar, i.e., Paratyphi B. These resistance determinants have been so far almost exclusively associated with non-Salmonella members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. Alarmingly, two colistin resistant Salmonella enteritidis were also found. CONCLUSIONS: This work draws the attention to the still low, but rising, percentage of multidrug resistant Salmonella isolates infecting humans in Italy. Our results suggest that prompt monitoring of Salmonella serovar dissemination and resistance to antimicrobials is highly required

    Emerg. Infect. Dis

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    The multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serotype Newport strain that produces CMY-2 β-lactamase(Newport MDR-AmpC) was the source of sporadic cases and outbreaks in humans in France during 2000–2005. Because this strain was not detected in food animals, it was most likely introduced into France through imported food products

    Escherichia coli of sequence type 3835 carrying blaNDM-1, blaCTX-M-15, blaCMY-42 and blaSHV-12

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    New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) represents a serious challenge for treatment and public health. A carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli clinical strain WCHEC13-8 was subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests, whole genome sequencing and conjugation experiments. It was resistant to imipenem (MIC, >256 μg/ml) and meropenem (MIC, 128 μg/ml) and belonged to ST3835. blaNDM-1 was the only carbapenemase gene detected. Strain WCHEC13-8 also had a plasmid-borne AmpC gene (blaCMY-42) and two extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes (blaCTX-M-15 and blaSHV-12). blaNDM-1 and blaSHV-12 were carried by a 54-kb IncX3 self-transmissible plasmid, which is identical to plasmid pNDM-HF727 from Enterobacter cloacae. blaCMY-42 was carried by a 64-kb IncI1 plasmid and blaCTX-M-15 was located on a 141-kb plasmid with multiple F replicons (replicon type: F36:A4:B1). blaCMY-42 was in a complicated context and the mobilisation of blaCMY-42 was due to the transposition of IS Ecp1 by misidentifying its right-end boundary. Genetic context of blaNDM-1 in strain WCHEC13-8 was closely related to those on IncX3 plasmids in various Enterobacteriaceae species in China. In conclusion, a multidrug-resistant ST3835 E. coli clinical strain carrying blaNDM-1, blaCTX-M-15, blaCMY-42 and blaSHV-12 was identified. IncX3 plasmids may be making a significant contribution to the dissemination of blaNDM among Enterobacteriaceae in China

    Use of whole genome sequencing of commensal Escherichia coli in pigs for antimicrobial resistance surveillance, United Kingdom, 2018

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    BackgroundSurveillance of commensal Escherichia coli, a possible reservoir of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes, is important as they pose a risk to human and animal health. Most surveillance activities rely on phenotypic characterisation, but whole genome sequencing (WGS) presents an alternative.AimIn this retrospective study, we tested 515 E. coli isolated from pigs to evaluate the use of WGS to predict resistance phenotype.MethodsMinimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for nine antimicrobials of clinical and veterinary importance. Deviation from wild-type, fully-susceptible MIC was assessed using European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) epidemiological cut-off (ECOFF) values. Presence of AMR genes and mutations were determined using APHA SeqFinder. Statistical two-by-two table analysis and Cohen's kappa (k) test were applied to assess genotype and phenotype concordance.ResultsOverall, correlation of WGS with susceptibility to the nine antimicrobials was 98.9% for test specificity, and 97.5% for the positive predictive value of a test. The overall kappa score (k = 0.914) indicated AMR gene presence was highly predictive of reduced susceptibility and showed excellent correlation with MIC. However, there was variation for each antimicrobial; five showed excellent correlation; four very good and one moderate. Suggested ECOFF adjustments increased concordance between genotypic data and kappa values for four antimicrobials.ConclusionWGS is a powerful tool for accurately predicting AMR that can be used for national surveillance purposes. Additionally, it can detect resistance genes from a wider panel of antimicrobials whose phenotypes are currently not monitored but may be of importance in the future

    Whole genome sequence analysis of antimicrobial resistance genes, multilocus sequence types and plasmid sequences in ESBL/AmpC Escherichia coli isolated from broiler caecum and meat

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    Plasmid-encoded extended-spectrum β-lactamase and AmpC gene-carrying Escherichia coli (ESBL/AmpC E. coli) is an increasing cause of human infections worldwide. Increasing carbapenem and colistin resistance further complicate treatment of these infections. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of ESBL/AmpC E. coli in different broiler flocks and farms, as well as in broiler meat, in a country with no antimicrobial usage in broiler production. An additional goal was to assess the genetic characteristics of ESBL/AmpC E. coli isolates by using whole genome sequencing (WGS). Altogether 520 caecal swabs and 85 vacuum-packed broiler meat samples were investigated at the slaughterhouse level. WGS of the bacterial isolates revealed acquired antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes, multilocus sequence types (MLST) and plasmid sequences. ESBL/AmpC E. coli was identified in 92 (18%) of the caecum and 27 (32%) of the meat samples. ESBL/AmpC E. coli-carrying birds derived from six (33%) out of 18 farms. Of the two blaESBL/AmpC genes detected by PCR, blaCMY-2 (96%) was predominant over blaCTX-M-1 (4%). Furthermore, WGS revealed an additional AMR gene sul2. Carbapenemase, colistin, and other AMR genes were not detected from the isolates of either the caecal or meat samples. Altogether seven MLSTs (ST101, ST117, ST212, ST351, ST373, ST1594 and an unknown ST) and a variety of different plasmid sequences (IncB/O/K/Z, IncI1, IncFII, IncII, IncFIB, IncFIC, IncX1 and an additional set of Col-plasmids) were detected. This is the first study on genomic epidemiology of ESBL/AmpC E. coli on broiler farms and flocks with no antimicrobial usage, by using WGS analysis. Results show that ESBL/AmpC E. coli occurrence is common both in the caecum and in the packaged meat. However, compared to other European countries, the occurrence is low and the presence of AMR genes other than blaCMY-2 and blaCTX-M-1 is rare. More studies are needed to understand the ESBL/AmpC E. coli occurrence in broiler production to prevent the meat from contamination during slaughter and processing, thereby also preventing zoonotic transmission of ESBL/AmpC E. coli. Additionally, more studies are needed to understand the ecology and fitness cost of Enterobacteriaceae plasmids in animal production in order to prevent their acquisition of plasmid-encoded antimicrobial resistance genes such as carbapenem and colistin resistance genes, as this would pose a great hazard to food safety.Peer reviewe

    Impact of short-term storage on the quantity of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase–producing Escherichia coli in broiler litter under practical conditions

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    Applying broiler litter containing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)–producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) to arable land poses a potential risk for humans to get colonized by contact with contaminated soil or vegetables. Therefore, an inactivation of these bacteria before land application of litter is crucial. We performed 2 short-term litter storage trials (one in summer and winter, respectively), each covering a time span of 5 D to investigate the effectiveness of this method for inactivation of ESBL-producing E. coli in chicken litter. Surface and deep litter samples were taken from a stacked, ESBL-positive chicken litter heap in triplicates in close sampling intervals at the beginning and daily for the last 3 D of the experiments. Samples were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively for ESBL-producing E. coli, total E. coli, and enterococci. Selected isolates were further characterized by whole-genome sequencing (WGS). In the depth of the heap ESBL-producing E. coli were detected quantitatively until 72 h and qualitatively until the end of the trial in winter. In summer detection was possible quantitatively up to 36 h and qualitatively until 72 h. For surface litter samples a qualitative detection of ESBL-producing E. coli was possible in all samples taken in both trials. In the deep samples a significant decrease in the bacterial counts of over 2 Log10 was observed for total E. coli in the winter and for total E. coli and enterococci in the summer. Genetic differences of the isolates analyzed by WGS did not correlate with survival advantage. In conclusion, short-term storage of chicken litter stacked in heaps is a useful tool for the reduction of bacterial counts including ESBL-producing E. coli. However, incomplete inactivation was observed at the surface of the heap and at low ambient temperatures. Therefore, an extension of the storage period in winter as well as turning of the heap to provide aerobic composting conditions should be considered if working and storage capacities are available on the farms

    Detection of extended spectrum B-lactamases in urinary isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae in relation to Bla SHV, Bla TEM and Bla CTX-M gene carriage

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    Background: Resistance to contemporary broad-spectrum β-lactam antibiotics mediated by extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) is increasing worldwide. Klebsiella pneumoniae, an important cause of nosocomial and community acquired urinary tract infections has rapidly become the most common ESBL producing organism. We examined ESBL production in urinary isolates of K. pneumoniae in relation to the presence of bla SHV, bla TEM and bla CTX-M genes. Methods: Antibiotic resistance of 51 clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae was determined to amoxicillin, amikacin, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, cefteriaxon, ceftizoxime, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and nitrofurantoin by disc diffusion. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were also measured for ceftazidime, cefotaxime, cefteriaxon, ceftizoxime and ciprofloxacin. ESBL production was detected by the double disc synergy test and finally, presence of the bla SHV, bla TEM and bla CTX-M genes were shown using specific primers and PCR. Results: Disc diffusion results showed that 96.08 % of the isolates were resistant to amoxicillin followed by 78.43 % resistance to nitrofurantoin, 49.02 % to amikacin and ceftazidime, 41.17 % to ceftriaxone, 37.25% resistance to cefotaxime and ceftizoxime, and 29.42 % to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. Both resistant and intermediately resistant organisms were resistant in MIC determinations. Twenty two isolates (43.14%) carried bla SHV, 18 (35.29%) had bla TEM and 16 (31.37%) harbored bla CTX-M genes. ESBL production was present in 14 isolates (27.45 %) of which, 3 did not harbor any of the 3 genes. Among the non- ESBL producers, 9 lacked all 3 genes and 2 carried them all. Conclusion: No relation was found between gene presence and ESBL expression
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