5,271 research outputs found

    Integrated results from the COPERNICUS and GALILEO studies.

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    OBJECTIVES: To report on the efficacy and safety of intravitreal aflibercept in patients with macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) in an integrated analysis of COPERNICUS and GALILEO. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were randomized to receive intravitreal aflibercept 2 mg every 4 weeks or sham injections until week 24. From week 24 to week 52, all intravitreal aflibercept-treated patients in both studies and sham-treated patients in COPERNICUS were eligible to receive intravitreal aflibercept based on prespecified criteria. In GALILEO, sham-treated patients continued to receive sham treatment through week 52. RESULTS: At week 24, mean gain in best-corrected visual acuity and mean reduction in central retinal thickness were greater for intravitreal aflibercept-treated patients compared with sham, consistent with individual trial results. At week 52, after 6 months of intravitreal aflibercept as-needed treatment in COPERNICUS, patients originally randomized to sham group experienced visual and anatomic improvements but did not improve to the extent of those initially treated with intravitreal aflibercept, while the sham group in GALILEO did not improve over week 24 mean best-corrected visual acuity scores. Ocular serious adverse events occurred in CONCLUSION: This analysis of integrated data from COPERNICUS and GALILEO confirmed that intravitreal aflibercept is an effective treatment for macular edema following CRVO

    European medicines agency approval summary: zaltrap for the treatment of patients with oxaliplatin-resistant metastatic colorectal cancer

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    On 1 February 2013, a marketing authorisation valid throughout the European Union was issued for aflibercept (Zaltrap) in combination with irinotecan/5-fluorouracil/ folinic acid chemotherapy for the treatment of adults with metastatic colorectal cancer resistant to or progressive after an oxaliplatin-containing regimen. Aflibercept is a recombinant fusion protein which blocks the activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors and the proliferation of endothelial cells, acting as a soluble decoy receptor that binds to VEGF-A with higher affinity than its native receptors, as well as placental growth factor and VEGF-B. The use of aflibercept was studied in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study, in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) who had previously been treated with an oxaliplatinbased treatment with or without prior bevacizumab. Aflibercept (n=612) was compared with placebo (n=614), both in combination with FOLFIRI (infusional fluorouracil, leucovorin and irinotecan). The primary endpoint of the study was overall survival (OS). The median OS in the intent-to-treat population was 13.5 months in subjects treated with aflibercept compared with 12.1 months for subjects in the control arm (stratified HR=0.817, 95% CI 0.714 to 0.935, stratified pvalue=0.0032). The frequency of adverse events was higher in the aflibercept arm compared with the placebo arm, reflecting the toxicity profile of anti-VEGF agents in combination with chemotherapy. This paper is based on the scientific review of the application leading to approval of aflibercept in the EU. The detailed scientific assessment report and product information for this product are available on the European Medicines Agency website

    Intravitreal Anti-VEGF Drugs and Signals of Dementia and Parkinson-Like Events: Analysis of the VigiBase Database of Spontaneous Reports

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    Introduction: Since vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) regulates several aspects of the central nervous system, particularly in dopaminergic neurons, VEGF inhibitors may be linked to Parkinson-like events and dementia, or variants of these diseases. Two recent case reports have found a potential link between intravitreal anti-VEGF use and Parkinson’s disease (PD) and dementia. Aim: To evaluate disproportionality in a large spontaneous reporting database concerning intravitreal anti-VEGF drugs and PD or dementia, and related conditions. Methods: Using VigiBase, individual case safety reports (ICSRs) attributed to intravitreal ranibizumab, aflibercept, pegaptanib, and bevacizumab were identified from 2010 to 2016. Within Standardised Narrow Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA®) Queries (SMQs) for “Parkinson-like events” and “Dementia,” suspected events were identified using preferred terms (PTs). The Proportional Reporting Ratio (PRR) was estimated with the lower 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all drug-event pairs with ≥3 suspected events. The vigiGrade completeness score was reported for the ICSRs. The analyses were repeated, including only persons aged 65 and over. Results: Out of 18.9 million ICSRs, 7,945 (0.004%) concerned intravitreal anti-VEGF drugs. Of these, 27 (0.34%) were identified concerning the SMQs “Dementia” (N = 17, 62.96%) and “Parkinson-like events” (N = 10, 37.94%) in persons of all ages. Among persons age 65 and over, 4,758 (59.88% of relevant ICSRs) ICSRs were identified for anti-VEGF drugs. When restricting disproportionality analysis to persons aged 65 and over, no disproportionality was seen for any of the drug-event pairs at the level of SMQ. However, on analysing disproportionality by PT, a potential signal emerged for intravitreal ranibizumab and Parkinson’s disease [N = 6 ICSRs; PRR: 3.05 (95% CI: 1.36-6.81)]. In general, the vigiGrade completeness score was low for all the ICSRs of interest, as no ICSR had a score >0.8. Conclusion: Present findings suggest a potential signal for Parkinson’s disease related to intravitreal ranibizumab. This is supported by several biologically plausible mechanisms but requires confirmation through pharmacoepidemiological studies, especially because of the low number of cases

    Factors influencing choice of chemotherapy in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC)

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    Management of metastatic colorectal cancer requires a multimodal approach and must be performed by an experienced, multidisciplinary expert team. The optimal choice of the individual treatment modality, according to disease localization and extent, tumor biology, and patient clinical characteristics, will be one that can maintain quality of life and long-term survival, and even cure selected patients. This review is an overview of the different therapeutic approaches available in metastatic colorectal cancer, for the purpose of defining personalized therapeutic algorithms according to tumor biology and patient clinical features

    Proteome Analysis of Aflibercept Intervention in Experimental Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

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    Aflibercept is a frequently used inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the treatment of macular edema following central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Retinal proteome changes following aflibercept intervention in CRVO remain largely unstudied. Studying proteomic changes of aflibercept intervention may generate a better understanding of mechanisms of action and uncover aspects related to the safety profile. In 10 Danish Landrace pigs, CRVO was induced in both eyes with an argon laser. Right eyes were treated with intravitreal aflibercept while left control eyes received isotonic saline water. Retinal samples were collected 15 days after induced CRVO. Proteomic analysis by tandem mass tag-based mass spectrometry identified a total of 21 proteins that were changed in content following aflibercept intervention. In retinas treated with aflibercept, high levels of aflibercept components were reached, including the VEGF receptor-1 and VEGF receptor-2 domains. Fold changes in the additional proteins ranged between 0.70 and 1.19. Aflibercept intervention resulted in a downregulation of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) (fold change = 0.84) and endoplasmin (fold change = 0.91). The changes were slight and could thereby not be confirmed with less precise immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Our data suggest that aflibercept had a narrow mechanism of action in the CRVO model. This may be an important observation in cases when macular edema secondary to CRVO is resistant to aflibercept intervention

    Neonatal Fc receptor FcRn is involved in intracellular transport of the Fc fusion protein aflibercept and its transition through retinal endothelial cells

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    AbstractRetinal endothelial cells (REC) likely contribute to the clearance of intravitreally injected IgG. Because this is of high relevance to the pharmacokinetic assessment of the widely used therapeutic Fc fusion protein aflibercept, we studied its transport through immortalized bovine REC (iBREC) in detail. For shuttling of IgG or Fc fusion proteins like aflibercept, endothelial cells use the highly conserved neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) also expressed in iBREC where it is down regulated by serum depletion. Therefore, we focused on studying intracellular localization and transport of aflibercept under conditions affecting its interaction with the FcRn. Intracellular localization of aflibercept was assessed by Western-blot analyses of subcellular protein fractions or by immunofluorescence staining. After uptake in a temperature-dependent process, aflibercept co-localized with early endosomes, which harbor FcRn. Similar amounts of aflibercept were co-extracted with proteins from membranes/organelles irrespectively of the amount of FBS in the culture medium. Lowering the concentration of FBS resulted in a strong, but reversible association with cytoskeletal proteins suggesting a block in intracellular transport. In accordance with this finding, aflibercept's transport through an iBREC monolayer grown on porous membrane inserts was markedly delayed in the absence of FBS in the culture medium indicating that aflibercept is taken up but not exocytosed under these conditions. Transcytosis of aflibercept was also strongly delayed by inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase with LY294002, which affects FcRn-mediated IgG transport. A similar inhibition of aflibercept's transport was observed with IgG-binding proteins (i.e. protein A or protein G) that block interaction between FcRn and aflibercept. Interfering with aflibercept's binding to the FcRn with protein A (or protein G) or the inhibitory FcRn-specific monoclonal antibody 1G3 resulted in a reduced amount of intracellular aflibercept. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that FcRn is involved in transport of aflibercept through REC in vitro

    The role of stereotactic body radiation therapy in oligometastatic colorectal cancer

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    Rationale: Regorafenib is the new standard third-line therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, the reported 1-year overall survival rate does not exceed 25%. Patient concerns: A 55-year-old man affected by mCRC, treated with regorafenib combined with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), showing a durable response. Interventions: After 6 months of regorafenib, a PET/CT scan revealed a focal uptake in a solid lung nodule which was treated with SBRT, whereas continuing regorafenib administration. Fourteen months later, the patient had further progression in a parasternal lymph node, but treatment with regorafenib was continued. The regorafenib-associated side effects, such us the hand-foot syndrome, were favorable managed by reducing the dose from 160 to 120 mg/day. Outcomes: Patient-reported outcome was characterized by a progression-free survival of approximately 3 years. Lessons: in presence of oligometastatic progression, a local SBRT while retaining the same systemic therapy may be a better multidisciplinary approach. Moreover, disease progression is no longer an absolute contraindication for continuing the regorafenib treatment

    Viability of Primary Human Pigment Epithelium Cells and Muller-Glia Cells after Intravitreal Ziv-Aflibercept and Aflibercept

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    Purpose: The aim of this study was to access the safety profiles of 2 fusion proteins with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor action (ziv-aflibercept and aflibercept) on retinal pigment epithelium cells and Muller-Glia cells in culture by assessing cell viability post drug exposure. Methods: Primary human retinal pigment epithelium cells (pRPE) and Muller-Glia cells (Mio-M1) were exposed to the clinical standardized concentrations of ziv-aflibercept (25 mg/mL) and aflibercept (40 mg/mL). Progressively higher concentrations of NaCI (300, 500, 1,000, 1,500, 2,000, 5,000, and 10,000 mosm/kg) were also applied to cells to assess the possibility of potentiating hyperosmotic cytotoxity effect. The study was applied to measure pRPE and Mio-M1 viability by a tetrazolium dye-reduction assay (XTT). Results: Cell viability of both pRPE and Mio-M1 presented no significant changes after exposure of ziv-aflibercept and aflibercept. Progressive NaCI concentrations did not significantly alter cell viability. The exposure to the negative control of 75 mu L/mL of dimethyl sulfoxide showed significant reduction in cell viability. Conclusions: At clinical doses, neither ziv-aflibercept nor aflibercept caused any significant reduction in cell viability in vitro. Furthermore, injection solutions of NaCI with higher osmolality caused no significant reduction in cell viability. (C) 2017 S. Karger AG, Base

    Escaping Antiangiogenic Therapy: Strategies Employed by Cancer Cells

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    IndexaciĂłn: Web of ScienceTumor angiogenesis is widely recognized as one of the hallmarks of cancer. Consequently, during the last decades the development and testing of commercial angiogenic inhibitors has been a central focus for both basic and clinical cancer research. While antiangiogenic drugs are now incorporated into standard clinical practice, as with all cancer therapies, tumors can eventually become resistant by employing a variety of strategies to receive nutrients and oxygen in the event of therapeutic assault. Herein, we concentrate and review in detail three of the principal mechanisms of antiangiogenic therapy escape: (1) upregulation of compensatory/alternative pathways for angiogenesis; (2) vasculogenic mimicry; and (3) vessel co-option. We suggest that an understanding of how a cancer cell adapts to antiangiogenic therapy may also parallel the mechanisms employed in the bourgeoning tumor and isolated metastatic cells delivering responsible for residual disease. Finally, we speculate on strategies to adapt antiangiogenic therapy for future clinical uses.http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/17/9/148
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