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    Examples of works to practice staccato technique in clarinet instrument

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    Klarnetin staccato tekniğini gĂŒĂ§lendirme aƟamaları eser çalÄ±ĆŸmalarıyla uygulanmÄ±ĆŸtır. Staccato geçiƟlerini hızlandıracak ritim ve nĂŒans çalÄ±ĆŸmalarına yer verilmiƟtir. ÇalÄ±ĆŸmanın en önemli amacı sadece staccato çalÄ±ĆŸması değil parmak-dilin eƟ zamanlı uyumunun hassasiyeti ĂŒzerinde de durulmasıdır. Staccato çalÄ±ĆŸmalarını daha verimli hale getirmek için eser çalÄ±ĆŸmasının içinde etĂŒt çalÄ±ĆŸmasına da yer verilmiƟtir. ÇalÄ±ĆŸmaların ĂŒzerinde titizlikle durulması staccato çalÄ±ĆŸmasının ilham verici etkisi ile mĂŒzikal kimliğe yeni bir boyut kazandırmÄ±ĆŸtır. Sekiz özgĂŒn eser çalÄ±ĆŸmasının her aƟaması anlatılmÄ±ĆŸtır. Her aƟamanın bir sonraki performans ve tekniği gĂŒĂ§lendirmesi esas alınmÄ±ĆŸtır. Bu çalÄ±ĆŸmada staccato tekniğinin hangi alanlarda kullanıldığı, nasıl sonuçlar elde edildiği bilgisine yer verilmiƟtir. Notaların parmak ve dil uyumu ile nasıl Ɵekilleneceği ve nasıl bir çalÄ±ĆŸma disiplini içinde gerçekleƟeceği planlanmÄ±ĆŸtır. KamÄ±ĆŸ-nota-diyafram-parmak-dil-nĂŒans ve disiplin kavramlarının staccato tekniğinde ayrılmaz bir bĂŒtĂŒn olduğu saptanmÄ±ĆŸtır. AraƟtırmada literatĂŒr taraması yapılarak staccato ile ilgili çalÄ±ĆŸmalar taranmÄ±ĆŸtır. Tarama sonucunda klarnet tekniğin de kullanılan staccato eser çalÄ±ĆŸmasının az olduğu tespit edilmiƟtir. Metot taramasında da etĂŒt çalÄ±ĆŸmasının daha çok olduğu saptanmÄ±ĆŸtır. Böylelikle klarnetin staccato tekniğini hızlandırma ve gĂŒĂ§lendirme çalÄ±ĆŸmaları sunulmuƟtur. Staccato etĂŒt çalÄ±ĆŸmaları yapılırken, araya eser çalÄ±ĆŸmasının girmesi beyni rahatlattığı ve istekliliği daha arttırdığı gözlemlenmiƟtir. Staccato çalÄ±ĆŸmasını yaparken doğru bir kamÄ±ĆŸ seçimi ĂŒzerinde de durulmuƟtur. Staccato tekniğini doğru çalÄ±ĆŸmak için doğru bir kamÄ±ĆŸÄ±n dil hızını arttırdığı saptanmÄ±ĆŸtır. Doğru bir kamÄ±ĆŸ seçimi kamÄ±ĆŸtan rahat ses çıkmasına bağlıdır. KamÄ±ĆŸ, dil atma gĂŒcĂŒnĂŒ vermiyorsa daha doğru bir kamÄ±ĆŸ seçiminin yapılması gerekliliği vurgulanmÄ±ĆŸtır. Staccato çalÄ±ĆŸmalarında baƟtan sona bir eseri yorumlamak zor olabilir. Bu açıdan çalÄ±ĆŸma, verilen mĂŒzikal nĂŒanslara uymanın, dil atÄ±ĆŸ performansını rahatlattığını ortaya koymuƟtur. Gelecek nesillere edinilen bilgi ve birikimlerin aktarılması ve geliƟtirici olması teƟvik edilmiƟtir. Çıkacak eserlerin nasıl çözĂŒleceği, staccato tekniğinin nasıl ĂŒstesinden gelinebileceği anlatılmÄ±ĆŸtır. Staccato tekniğinin daha kısa sĂŒrede çözĂŒme kavuƟturulması amaç edinilmiƟtir. Parmakların yerlerini Ă¶ÄŸrettiğimiz kadar belleğimize de çalÄ±ĆŸmaların kaydedilmesi önemlidir. Gösterilen azmin ve sabrın sonucu olarak ortaya çıkan yapıt baƟarıyı daha da yukarı seviyelere çıkaracaktır

    DĂ©veloppement d’un systĂšme intelligent de reconnaissance automatisĂ©e pour la caractĂ©risation des Ă©tats de surface de la chaussĂ©e en temps rĂ©el par une approche multicapteurs

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    Le rĂŽle d’un service dĂ©diĂ© Ă  l’analyse de la mĂ©tĂ©o routiĂšre est d’émettre des prĂ©visions et des avertissements aux usagers quant Ă  l’état de la chaussĂ©e, permettant ainsi d’anticiper les conditions de circulations dangereuses, notamment en pĂ©riode hivernale. Il est donc important de dĂ©finir l’état de chaussĂ©e en tout temps. L’objectif de ce projet est donc de dĂ©velopper un systĂšme de dĂ©tection multicapteurs automatisĂ©e pour la caractĂ©risation en temps rĂ©el des Ă©tats de surface de la chaussĂ©e (neige, glace, humide, sec). Ce mĂ©moire se focalise donc sur le dĂ©veloppement d’une mĂ©thode de fusion de donnĂ©es images et sons par apprentissage profond basĂ©e sur la thĂ©orie de Dempster-Shafer. Les mesures directes pour l’acquisition des donnĂ©es qui ont servi Ă  l’entrainement du modĂšle de fusion ont Ă©tĂ© effectuĂ©es Ă  l’aide de deux capteurs Ă  faible coĂ»t disponibles dans le commerce. Le premier capteur est une camĂ©ra pour enregistrer des vidĂ©os de la surface de la route. Le second capteur est un microphone pour enregistrer le bruit de l’interaction pneu-chaussĂ©e qui caractĂ©rise chaque Ă©tat de surface. La finalitĂ© de ce systĂšme est de pouvoir fonctionner sur un nano-ordinateur pour l’acquisition, le traitement et la diffusion de l’information en temps rĂ©el afin d’avertir les services d’entretien routier ainsi que les usagers de la route. De façon prĂ©cise, le systĂšme se prĂ©sente comme suit :1) une architecture d’apprentissage profond classifiant chaque Ă©tat de surface Ă  partir des images issues de la vidĂ©o sous forme de probabilitĂ©s ; 2) une architecture d’apprentissage profond classifiant chaque Ă©tat de surface Ă  partir du son sous forme de probabilitĂ©s ; 3) les probabilitĂ©s issues de chaque architecture ont Ă©tĂ© ensuite introduites dans le modĂšle de fusion pour obtenir la dĂ©cision finale. Afin que le systĂšme soit lĂ©ger et moins coĂ»teux, il a Ă©tĂ© dĂ©veloppĂ© Ă  partir d’architectures alliant lĂ©gĂšretĂ© et prĂ©cision Ă  savoir Squeeznet pour les images et M5 pour le son. Lors de la validation, le systĂšme a dĂ©montrĂ© une bonne performance pour la dĂ©tection des Ă©tats surface avec notamment 87,9 % pour la glace noire et 97 % pour la neige fondante

    Impact de l’expérience émotionnelle sur l’e-fidélité du consommateur Marocain

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    Le monde assiste à une évolution de la technologie numérique qui coïncide avec un changement de comportement d'achat des consommateurs qui rend le client plus indépendant et informé. Les entreprises doivent donc vendre différemment et acquérir un avantage concurrentiel. En suivant le comportement des consommateurs grâce à l'utilisation de certaines technologies numériques pour personnaliser les expériences des consommateurs et offrir aux clients des sentiments inoubliables plutôt qu'une simple rencontre avec un produit et/ou un service. Dans cet article, nous nous intéresserons principalement à l'expérience émotionnelle que ressent le client lors de l'achat en ligne, avec l'intégration des dimensions ergonomiques du site marchand, et leur impact sur la fidélité électronique. Pour toutes ces raisons, une attention particulière sera portée au choix des variables à étudier, à l'élaboration des hypothèses et du modèle conceptuel qui seront étudiés dans le cadre de l'impact de l'expérience émotionnelle sur la fidélité électronique au site marchand

    The forgotten age group: The need for targeted physical activity and healthy lifestyle promotion for older adolescents

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    Introduction Globally, limited research has examined healthy lifestyle promotion for older adolescents (16–18 years), yet habitual healthy lifestyles can be developed at this time. Most initiatives have been aimed at adults or younger children and research has highlighted England to be up to ten tears behind other countries in prioritising health education (Berkman et al., 2010). This research aims to examine older adolescents’ knowledge and understanding of healthy lifestyle [nutrition and physical activity (PA)] recommendations and compare these to their self-reported PA, active transportation, active leisure and food intake. It will also ask their experiences of how healthy lifestyles are promoted to them. Method Ninety-three participants (39M; 54F) (M age=16.9, SD=.40 years), from 3 low socio-economic English high schools completed an online questionnaire on their self-reported: (1) daily physical activity (PA); (2) active transportation (AT); (3) active leisure time (AL); (4) food intake; (5) experiences of healthy lifestyles promotion; and (6) perceived healthiness. Questions were merged from both the validated Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) (WHO, 2004) and the Short Form Food Frequency Questionnaire (SFFFQ) (Cleghorn & Cade, 2017). To examine perceived healthiness, participants rated their overall health on a 5-point scale over the past 12 months. Daily PA, active transport, active leisure and how participants felt healthy lifestyles were promoted to them, were asked via open-ended questions. The SFFFQ was used to generate a food group score [via the Diet and Nutrition Tool for Evaluation (Cleghorn & Cade, 2017)], which were then added together to create an overall diet quality score (DQS). Data analysis was undertaken within SPSS 24.0 (IBM Corp, Armok, NY, USA). A multi-variance of statistical analysis (MANOVA) assessed group differences across multiple dependent variables of the food group scores and overall DQS. GPAQ questions were analysed individually according to demographics: sex, and perceived healthiness. Univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) was then undertaken for each question to assess the group differences per element of PA. Thematic analysis was used to analyse all open-ended questions. Statistical significance was set at <.05. Results Only 60% reached PA recommended guidelines. Yet, 92% (n=86) used active travel for a least 10 mins continuously; of these, 86% (n=80) undertook this at least 5 days per week. Over half (51%, n=47) undertook MVPA as active leisure. However, 66% (n=61) spent ≄5 hours sedentary and only 17% (n=16) met recommended nutritional guidelines for health. Males who rated themselves as having poor health had eaten the recommended intakes of fat (1.00±.00), compared to females who rated themselves as having poor health but ate more than the recommended intakes of fat (2.60±.89). Nearly all participants (90%, n=80) did not report school as a place that promoted healthy lifestyles. Discussion As a public health measure and an educational policy matter, it is recommended schools implement more targeted PA and healthy eating initiatives for older adolescents. Further research is also needed to examine male older adolescents’ health literacy to get a deeper insight into their understanding and application of information relating to their health. References Berkman, N. D., Davis, T. C., & McCormack, L. (2010). Health literacy: what is it? Journal of Health Communication, 15(S2), 9-19. Cleghorn, C., & Cade, J. (2017). Short Form Food Frequency Questionnaire. Available online: https://www.nutritools.org/tools/ World Health Organization (2004). Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). World Health Organization. Geneva, Switzerland

    Modélisation et comparaison de la structure de gÚnes

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    La bio-informatique est un domaine de recherche multi-disciplinaire, Ă  la croisĂ©e de diffĂ©rents domaines : biologie, mĂ©decine, mathĂ©matiques, statistiques, chimie, physique et informatique. Elle a pour but de concevoir et d’appliquer des modĂšles et outils statistiques et computationnels visant l’avancement des connaissances en biologie et dans les sciences connexes. Dans ce contexte, la comprĂ©hension du fonctionnement et de l’évolution des gĂšnes fait l’objet de nombreuses Ă©tudes en bio-informatique. Ces Ă©tudes sont majoritairement fondĂ©es sur la comparaison des gĂšnes et en particulier sur l’alignement de sĂ©quences gĂ©nomiques. Cependant, dans leurs calculs d’alignement de sĂ©quences gĂ©nomiques, les mĂ©thodes existantes se basent uniquement sur la similaritĂ© des sĂ©quences et ne tiennent pas compte de la structure des gĂšnes. L’alignement prenant en compte la structure des sĂ©quences offre l’opportunitĂ© d’en amĂ©liorer la prĂ©cision ainsi que les rĂ©sultats des mĂ©thodes dĂ©veloppĂ©es Ă  partir de ces alignements. C’est dans cette hypothĂšse que s’inscrit l’objectif de cette thĂšse de doctorat : proposer des modĂšles tenant compte de la structure des gĂšnes lors de l’alignement des sĂ©quences de familles de gĂšnes. Ainsi, par cette thĂšse, nous avons contribuĂ© Ă  accroĂźtre les connaissances scientifiques en dĂ©veloppant des modĂšles d’alignement de sĂ©quences biologiques intĂ©grant des informations sur la structure de codage et d’épissage des sĂ©quences. Nous avons proposĂ© un algorithme et une nouvelle fonction du score pour l’alignement de sĂ©quences codantes d’ADN (CDS) en tenant compte de la longueur des dĂ©calages du cadre de traduction. Nous avons aussi proposĂ© un algorithme pour aligner des paires de sĂ©quences d’une famille de gĂšnes en considĂ©rant leurs structures d’épissage. Nous avons Ă©galement dĂ©veloppĂ© un algorithme pour assembler des alignements Ă©pissĂ©s par paire en alignements multiples de sĂ©quences. Enfin, nous avons dĂ©veloppĂ© un outil pour la visualisation d’alignements Ă©pissĂ©s multiples de famille de gĂšnes. Dans cette thĂšse, nous avons soulignĂ© l’importance et dĂ©montrĂ© l’utilitĂ© de tenir compte de la structure des sĂ©quences en entrĂ©e lors du calcul de leur alignement

    In search of 'The people of La Manche': A comparative study of funerary practices in the Transmanche region during the late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age (250BC-1500BC)

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    This research project sets out to discover whether archaeological evidence dating between 2500 BC - 1500 BC from supposed funerary contexts in Kent, flanders and north-eastern Transmanche France is sufficient to make valid comparisons between social and cultural structures on either side of the short-sea Channel region. Evidence from the beginning of the period primarily comes in the form of the widespread Beaker phenomenon. Chapter 5 shows that this class of data is abundant in Kent but quite sparse in the Continental zones - most probably because it has not survived well. This problem also affects the human depositional evidence catalogued in Chapter 6, particularly in Fanders but also in north-eastern Transmanche France. This constricts comparative analysis, however, the abundant data from Kent means that general trends are still discernible. The quality and volume of data relating to the distribution, location, morphology and use of circular monuments in all three zones is far better - as demonstrated in Chapter 7 -mostly due to extensive aerial surveying over several decades. When the datasets are taken as a whole, it becomes possible to successfully apply various forms of comparative analyses. Most remarkably, this has revealed that some monuments apparently have encoded within them a sophisticated and potentially symbolically charged geometric shape. This, along with other less contentious evidence, demonstrates a level of conformity that strongly suggests a stratum of cultural homogeneity existed throughout the Transmanche region during the period 2500 BC - 1500 BC. The fact that such changes as are apparent seem to have developed simultaneously in each of the zones adds additional weight to the theory that contact throughout the Transmanche region was endemic. Even so, it may not have been continuous; there may actually have been times of relative isolation - the data is simply too course to eliminate such a possibility

    A diversidade da lĂ­ngua inglesa: o ponto de partida para o desenvolvimento da competĂȘncia plurilingue

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    Reconhecendo a pertinĂȘncia e a urgĂȘncia investigativas das temĂĄticas relacionadas com as polĂ­ticas linguĂ­sticas educativas que o Conselho da Europa (e nĂŁo sĂł) tem promovido, valorizamos o plurilinguismo, a diversidade linguĂ­stica e cultural e o diĂĄlogo intercultural como elementos essenciais Ă  cidadania democrĂĄtica e Ă  coesĂŁo social nas sociedades do sĂ©culo XXI (cf. Beacco & Byram, 2003). Neste contexto, atribui-se particular importĂąncia ao desenvolvimento dos repertĂłrios linguĂ­stico-comunicativos dos sujeitos, bem como Ă  promoção das suas competĂȘncias plurilingue e intercultural (cf. Andrade et al., 2003; Beacco & Byram, 2003, 2007; Byram, 1997), que integram os conhecimentos, as capacidades e as atitudes que devem nortear a interação e a convivĂȘncia com o Outro. A educação Ă©, assim, desafiada a contribuir, colocando-se em destaque as mais-valias do ensino e aprendizagem de lĂ­nguas para a concretização destes objetivos. Nesse sentido, e tomando a lĂ­ngua inglesa como foco do nosso estudo - devido ao seu estatuto de lĂ­ngua internacional, Ă  posição privilegiada que lhe Ă© amplamente reconhecida no contexto de ensino e aprendizagem de lĂ­nguas estrangeiras, em Portugal e um pouco por todo o mundo, e ao facto de ser, em si mesma, uma lĂ­ngua plural e diversa - concebemos um projeto de investigação que visa compreender a relação entre o ensino e aprendizagem desta lĂ­ngua em particular, recorrendo a uma abordagem didĂĄtica baseada na diversidade intralinguĂ­stica e cultural que a caracteriza (cf. Kachru, 1995; Schneider, 2011), e o desenvolvimento das competĂȘncias plurilingue e intercultural dos alunos. Para o efeito, e situando a nossa investigação, de natureza qualitativa, no paradigma interpretativo, desenvolvemos um estudo de caso, com caracterĂ­sticas de investigação-ação. Este estudo organizou-se em duas fases: numa primeira fase, realizĂĄmos uma anĂĄlise do CurrĂ­culo Nacional do Ensino BĂĄsico – CompetĂȘncias Essenciais (MinistĂ©rio da Educação, 2001) e do Programa e Organização Curricular do InglĂȘs para o 3.Âș CEB (MinistĂ©rio da Educação, 1997), documentos que, Ă  data, orientavam o ensino da lĂ­ngua inglesa no 9.Âș ano de escolaridade, o ano escolhido para a intervenção. PretendĂ­amos, com esta anĂĄlise, contextualizar o plano de intervenção didĂĄtica que virĂ­amos a desenvolver na fase seguinte, identificando o modo como os conceitos basilares do projeto – as competĂȘncias plurilingue e intercultural e a diversidade intralinguĂ­stica e cultural da lĂ­ngua inglesa – sĂŁo aĂ­ apresentados. Na segunda fase, procedemos Ă  construção de um plano de intervenção didĂĄtica e Ă  sua dinamização numa turma do 9.Âș ano de escolaridade, de uma escola do concelho de Aveiro, na disciplina de InglĂȘs. Este plano consubstanciou-se num conjunto de mĂłdulos pedagĂłgico-didĂĄticos que, tendo sido planificados em total articulação com as orientaçÔes programĂĄticas e demais planificaçÔes para este nĂ­vel de ensino, foram operacionalizados num total de 16 sessĂ”es, ao longo de um ano letivo. As atividades desenvolvidas promoveram o contacto dos alunos com diferentes variedades da lĂ­ngua inglesa (Englishes), sob diferentes formas. Os dados recolhidos durante a implementação deste plano – por meio de gravaçÔes ĂĄudio e vĂ­deo, da observação participante e de um Portfolio de Turma – foram tratados e analisados segundo os procedimentos da anĂĄlise de conteĂșdo, tendo sido definidas trĂȘs macro categorias de anĂĄlise que representam as dimensĂ”es comuns aos modelos conceptuais das competĂȘncias plurilingue e intercultural: Conhecimentos, Capacidades e Atitudes. A anĂĄlise e discussĂŁo dos resultados colocou em evidĂȘncia indĂ­cios de que a abordagem didĂĄtica adotada neste estudo pode, de facto, constituir-se como um ponto de partida para o desenvolvimento destas competĂȘncias, ao ter proporcionado: i) a expansĂŁo e o enriquecimento do conhecimento dos alunos sobre “o mundo das lĂ­nguas e culturas” e “o mundo da lĂ­ngua inglesa”; ii) o desenvolvimento de capacidades variadas, nomeadamente de natureza metalinguĂ­stica e metacomunicativa; iii) a tomada de consciĂȘncia para a importĂąncia das lĂ­nguas e culturas; e iv) a adoção de atitudes de respeito e curiosidade face a variedades da lĂ­ngua inglesa e/ou a outras lĂ­nguas e culturas, ainda que nĂŁo tenha sido possĂ­vel desconstruir algumas das imagens estereotipadas que os alunos revelaram. Face aos resultados e Ă s conclusĂ”es obtidas, acreditamos que o nosso estudo terĂĄ contribuĂ­do para o reconhecimento de que o ensino e aprendizagem da lĂ­ngua inglesa, muitas vezes visto como uma ameaça Ă  preservação da diversidade linguĂ­stica e cultural, pode, na verdade, incorporar em si essa mesma diversidade. Com efeito, uma abordagem Ă  lĂ­ngua inglesa que englobe a sua diversidade intralinguĂ­stica e cultural, valorizando as vozes distintas que se expressam atravĂ©s dela, e explore questĂ”es globais, pode desempenhar um papel importante no desenvolvimento das competĂȘncias plurilingue e intercultural dos jovens.Acknowledging the interest and urgency of research into topics related to the language education policies promoted by the Council of Europe (among other institutions), we value plurilingualism, linguistic and cultural diversity and intercultural dialogue as essential elements of democratic citizenship and social cohesion in 21st century societies (cf. Beacco & Byram, 2003). In this context, the development of individuals’ linguistic and communicative repertoires and the promotion of their plurilingual and intercultural competences (cf. Andrade et al., 2003; Beacco & Byram, 2003, 2007; Byram, 1997) are given particular recognition, as they combine the knowledge, skills and attitudes which should guide interaction and coexistence with others. Education is therefore challenged to contribute to the accomplishment of these goals, with the advantages of language teaching and learning given particular emphasis. Against this background, we took the English language as the focus of our study – due to its status as an international language, the privileged position it holds in the context of foreign language teaching and learning in Portugal, and in most parts of the world, and for being, in itself, a plural and diverse language – and we designed a research project that aims to understand the relationship between the teaching and learning of this language, by adopting a didactic approach based on its internal linguistic and cultural diversity (cf. Kachru, 1995; Schneider, 2011), and the development of students’ plurilingual and intercultural competences. In order to achieve this goal, and situating our research within a qualitative and interpretative paradigm, we developed a case study, with some features of action research. This study was organised in two phases: in the first phase, we analysed two official documents which, at the time, regulated and guided the teaching of the English language in the 9th grade, the year we had chosen for our didactic intervention – the national curriculum and the English language syllabus. In this way, we intended to contextualise the didactic intervention plan we would develop in the following phase by identifying the way the concepts of plurilingual competence, intercultural competence and intra-linguistic and cultural diversity of the English language are presented in these documents. In the second phase, we created a didactic intervention plan and we implemented it in a 9th grade class, in a school in Aveiro, Portugal, in the English subject. This plan was composed of a set of didactic modules, which were designed in articulation with the syllabus and other curricular guidelines for that grade, and were carried out in a total of 16 sessions, throughout a school year. The plan’s activities promoted the students’ contact with different varieties of the English language (Englishes), in different ways. The data collected during the implementation of this intervention plan - by means of audio and video recordings, participant observation and a Class Portfolio - were processed and analysed according to the procedures of content analysis. Three main categories of analysis were defined, which represent the shared dimensions of the conceptual models of plurilingual and intercultural competences: Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes. The analysis and discussion of the results provided indications that the didactic approach adopted in this study can, in fact, be a starting point for the development of the aforementioned competences, because it enabled: i) the expansion and enrichment of the students’ knowledge about “the world of languages and cultures” and “the world of the English language”; ii) the development of a variety of skills, namely skills of a metalinguistic and metacommunicative nature; iii) awareness to the importance of languages and cultures; and iv) the adoption of attitudes of respect and curiosity towards other varieties of English and/or other languages and cultures, even though it was not possible to deconstruct some of the stereotypical images that the students revealed. Considering the results and the conclusions we have drawn, we believe that our study can contribute to the acknowledgment that the teaching and learning of the English language, which is often considered a threat to the preservation of linguistic and cultural diversity, can, indeed, incorporate that diversity. In fact, a didactic approach to the English language which includes its intra-linguistic and cultural diversity, by valuing the different voices that are expressed through this language, and explores global issues, can play an important role in the development of plurilingual and intercultural competences of young people.Programa Doutoral em Educaçã

    De l’impact d’un dispositif d’« entraĂźnement au langage » sur l’apprendre Ă  parler des enfants de maternelle allophones

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    Le langage est au cƓur des prĂ©occupations de l’école et de la sociĂ©tĂ©, en particulier parce qu’il est au fondement des questions d’apprentissage. Dans le cadre scolaire, la question du plurilinguisme est un sujet sensible au regard 1) des reprĂ©sentations qu’il vĂ©hicule, en particulier pour les milieux dits dĂ©favorisĂ©s, 2) des objectifs didactiques et pĂ©dagogiques des enseignants liĂ©s Ă  la maĂźtrise du français. Nous proposons d’aborder ici la problĂ©matique de l’apprentissage du langage des Ă©lĂšves allophones d’école maternelle dans le cadre d’un dispositif « d’entraĂźnement au langage ». Nous montrerons qu’au cours de la pĂ©riode d’acquisition du langage, ce n’est pas tant la question du plurilinguisme qui est au centre de la problĂ©matique que la stimulation langagiĂšre dont les enfants bĂ©nĂ©ficient ou pas.Language lies at the heart of the school and the society concerns, mainly because it is the basis of learning issues. Within the school, multilingualism is a sensitive matter regarding 1) the representations it conveys, especially for children from low incomes family, 2) the teachers training and learning objectives in French proficiency. We tackle here the issue of language learning for non French-speaking children attending pre-schools as part of a language training program. We show that during the period of language acquisition it is not multilingualism the core of the problem but language stimulation that children are provided with
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