40 research outputs found

    Izolacje i dewiacjeÔÇŽ O Sienkiewiczu, narodzie i (turbo)patriotyzmie

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    The article presents a critical analysis of Latarnik by Henryk Sienkiewicz and its reception in the school environment. The interpretation of the short story overlaps with a model of Polish patriotism which draws its inspiration from the 19th century. The model still seems to be publicly supported, also by the reformed school, despite the fact that it stands in opposition to current geopolitical, economic and social situation. Such an ever-present romantic concept along with polonocentric trends provoke a reflection on Polish presence in the modern, multicultural, dynamically changing world. What becomes the focal point of the article is the conflict between two systems chich intertwine with the main characterÔÇÖs life ÔÇô the universal, existential system versus local (national), thus, Polish-oriented one. This sets the Pole against the world. The author also points out to a mystical and Eucharistic character of the final part of Latarnik ÔÇô it idealizes a sudden wave of nostalgia felt by Skawi┼äski. In this way Polishness acquires a status of sacrum while the narrator-ideologist defeats the narrator-psychologist and thinker. Axiologically and anthropologically-wise, the main character appears as ÔÇťa product of Polish cultureÔÇŁ which values romantic acts of heroism more than everyday work or by far less spectacular diligence.Tre┼Ťci─ů artyku┼éu jest krytyczna lektura Sienkiewiczowskiego Latarnika w kontek┼Ťcie szkolnych uwarunkowa┼ä jego odbioru. Interpretacja noweli wpisuje si─Ö w szerszy namys┼é nad modelem polskiego patriotyzmu, kt├│ry czerpie swe inspiracje i si┼éy z kultury XIX wieku i kt├│ry ÔÇô niejako w opozycji do wsp├│┼éczesnej sytuacji geopolitycznej, gospodarczej i spo┼éecznej ÔÇô bywa promowany w przestrzeni publicznej, tak┼╝e przez reformowan─ů szko┼é─Ö. ┼╗ywotno┼Ť─ç romantycznego paradygmatu wraz z tendencjami do swoistego polonocentryzmu sk┼éaniaj─ů autora do refleksji nad formu┼é─ů obecno┼Ťci Polski w nowoczesnym, wielokulturowym, dynamicznie zmieniaj─ůcym si─Ö ┼Ťwiecie. G┼é├│wny akcent pada na konflikt dw├│ch porz─ůdk├│w, w jakie wpisuje si─Ö los bohatera ÔÇô uniwersalnego, czyli egzystencjalnego oraz partykularnego, czyli polskiego, co samo w sobie daje efekt przeciwstawienia Polaka ┼Ťwiatu. Autor zwraca r├│wnie┼╝ uwag─Ö na mistyczno-eucharystyczne zabarwienie finalnych scen Latarnika, uwznio┼Ťlaj─ůce nag┼éy atak nostalgii prze┼╝ywanej przez Skawi┼äskiego. W ten spos├│b polsko┼Ť─ç zyskuje status sacrum, a narrator-ideolog zwyci─Ö┼╝a nad narratorem-psychologiem i my┼Ťlicielem. Czytany w planie aksjologiczno-antropologicznym jawi si─Ö z kolei bohater jako ÔÇ×wytw├│r kultury polskiejÔÇŁ, kt├│ra wy┼╝ej ceni sobie heroiczne zrywy i romantyczne wzloty ni┼╝ codzienn─ů prac─Ö i ma┼éo widowiskow─ů sumienno┼Ť─ç. &nbsp

    Typologia Jonasz ÔÇô Pawe┼é w narracji o┬ápodr├│┼╝y morskiej do Rzymu (Dz 27,13ÔÇô28,16)

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    The article deals with potential typology of Jonah and Paul as undertaken by the author of the Acts of the Apostles (chapters 27ÔÇô28), describing the ApostleÔÇÖs voyage to Rome and his subsequent arrival in the capital of the Empire. It starts with a number of remarks about the Book of Acts as paradigmatic historiography. The next point is devoted to discussing the main literary techniques utilized by Luke, with particular emphasis on typology. It is then followed by an analysis of the typology of Jonah and Paul as well as its paradigmatic and theological significance. The typology being used enables Luke to show Paul as a prophet of Jesus. The typology also serves to convey the idea of universalism characterizing the ApostleÔÇÖs prophetic mission. Just as Jonah was sent by God to a pagan city of Nineveh, now Paul, by GodÔÇÖs will, becomes the apostle and prophet of both Jews and Gentiles. He fulfils his mission courageously thus bringing salvation to those who are ready to listen to His word.The article deals with potential typology of Jonah and Paul as undertaken by the author of the Acts of the Apostles (chapters 27ÔÇô28), describing the ApostleÔÇÖs voyage to Rome and his subsequent arrival in the capital of the Empire. It starts with a number of remarks about the Book of Acts as paradigmatic historiography. The next point is devoted to discussing the main literary techniques utilized by Luke, with particular emphasis on typology. It is then followed by an analysis of the typology of Jonah and Paul as well as its paradigmatic and theological significance. The typology being used enables Luke to show Paul as a prophet of Jesus. The typology also serves to convey the idea of universalism characterizing the ApostleÔÇÖs prophetic mission. Just as Jonah was sent by God to a pagan city of Nineveh, now Paul, by GodÔÇÖs will, becomes the apostle and prophet of both Jews and Gentiles. He fulfils his mission courageously thus bringing salvation to those who are ready to listen to His word

    Bruegel według Majewskiego. Literackie i malarskie problemy adaptacji

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    Lech MajewskiÔÇÖs The Mill and the Cross (2011) is a full-length feature film, a screen adaptation of Pieter BruegelÔÇÖs painting The Way of the Cross (1564). Majewski proves to be an excellent interpreter of BruegelÔÇÖs art, whom he considers a philosopher, an epic, and a poet. He relies on the research of Michael F. Gibson, and in his plotting he draws on a long-standing tradition of literary experience and digital technology (without this, it would have been impossible to faithfully reproduce the overall plan and realities of the painting). Majewski exposes the palimpsest nature of the narrative and shapes the film like a contemporary novel of space. In order to make the ideas of the screened painting comprehensible and to emphasize the fictionality of the depicted world, he introduces various versions of ÔÇťliterature about literatureÔÇŁ. In the film, he perfectly integrates painterly features (word reduction, stop motion, long static camera shots) and literary features (the structure of an episodic novel of manners).Lech MajewskiÔÇÖs The Mill and the Cross (2011) is a full-length feature film, a screen adaptation of Pieter BruegelÔÇÖs painting The Way of the Cross (1564). Majewski proves to be an excellent interpreter of BruegelÔÇÖs art, whom he considers a philosopher, an epic, and a poet. He relies on the research of Michael F. Gibson, and in his plotting he draws on a long-standing tradition of literary experience and digital technology (without this, it would have been impossible to faithfully reproduce the overall plan and realities of the painting). Majewski exposes the palimpsest nature of the narrative and shapes the film like a contemporary novel of space. In order to make the ideas of the screened painting comprehensible and to emphasize the fictionality of the depicted world, he introduces various versions of ÔÇťliterature about literatureÔÇŁ. In the film, he perfectly integrates painterly features (word reduction, stop motion, long static camera shots) and literary features (the structure of an episodic novel of manners)

    Wr├│g spod znaku d┼╝ihadu ÔÇô obraz islamu w pracach oriany Fallaci

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    Oriana Fallaci is one of the most controversial character of early twentyfirst century. Journalist and writer, veteran of many wars, became famous with the aggressive and passionate interviews with world leaders ÔÇô from the Ayatollah Khomeini to Lech Walesa. After years of silence, an Italian writer announced on the pages of ÔÇťCorriere della SeraÔÇŁ article ÔÇťThe Rage and the PrideÔÇŁ, in which attacks Islam and calls for the defense of western civilization. Introduced on 29 September 2001 and was the beginning of an intensive campaign against Islam. This article gave rise to the first work devoted to issues of contemporary Islam with the same title. Its quite a spectacular return to the scientific discourse, Fallaci explains that there are moments in life when silence becomes a sin, and the speech is imperative. Its message for modern civilization and Western Europe continued in the following books: ÔÇťThe Force of ReasonÔÇŁ and ÔÇťInterview with my self. Apocalypse. These three studies describe and analyze Islam, which for Fallaci is a great threat to the Christian Old Continent. Openly, bluntly presents an apocalyptic vision of a Europe which is happening in her eyes. Opinions about her and her work are different. Some love her and praise, others criticize and accuse of racism and promote hostility toward the Arabs. Also, critics are divided on the artistic value of her work. For sure, however, caused much confusion in the modern world with their original ideas and they are worth to discuss. Oriana Fallaci believes that she flows upstream and dares to say things, which are thrown out of the official discourse. In her view, this kind of taboo is Islam and its followers. Fallaci presents the current situation in Europe in terms of conflict. On the old continent compete Western civilization with Islamic civilization. Due to cultural differences and lack of shared values is not possible to coexistence and conflict is almost inevitable. In connection with the crisis of values and the negative natural increase, Europe is steadily losing its influence, which place is taken by the Muslim culture. Fallaci believes that the policy of multiculturalism promoted heavily defeated. Muslims do not want to accept European values, do not respect our rules and traditions, and openly express their hostility toward Western civilization. The password of the defenders of the Muslim minority, that there is a moderate Islam is one big bluff

    From the age of discovery to "White Fleet" : Portuguese diaspora in the world and Portuguese pre-emigration contacts with Canada

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    Portugalczycy to bez w─ůtpienia najwi─Öksi w dziejach odkrywcy i podr├│┼╝nicy. Od XV do XVII wieku panowali na oceanach ┼Ťwiata, ale b─Öd─ůc ma┼éym krajem bardzo szybko przegrywali walk─Ö o wp┼éywy na wi─Ökszo┼Ťci nowo odkrytych obszar├│w z mocniejszymi od siebie pot─Ögami europejskimi. Na prze┼éomie XV/XVI wieku portugalskie ┼╝aglowce dotar┼éy do wybrze┼╝y dzisiejszej Brazylii i ta, na ponad trzy wieki, sta┼éa si─Ö per┼é─ů w koronie portugalskich posiad┼éo┼Ťci zamorskich. Tam te┼╝, przez wieki, najcz─Ö┼Ťciej emigrowali Portugalczycy. Wyje┼╝d┼╝ali oni jednak nie tylko do swoich kolonii. Portugalia prawie nigdy nie by┼éa dostatnim krajem dla wi─Ökszo┼Ťci jej mieszka┼äc├│w. Od ko┼äca XIX wieku do lat 90. wieku XX z kraju wyjecha┼éo oko┼éo 4 mln os├│b. Wed┼éug statystyk w 2007 roku poza krajem przebywa┼éo niemal 5 mln Portugalczyk├│w. Najwi─Öcej w obu Amerykach 2,8 mln, w Europie diaspora portugalska liczy┼éa w 2007 roku niemal 1,6 mln os├│b. Portugalczycy nie tylko migruj─ů po ┼Ťwiecie, oni s─ů tak┼╝e znakomitymi rybakami, kt├│rzy przez ponad 500 lat ┼éowili na Grand Banks, u p├│┼énocno-zachodnich wybrze┼╝y dzisiejszej Kanady. W XX wieku ich obecno┼Ť─ç na ┼éowiskach wschodniokanadyjskich by┼éa zdominowana przez dzia┼éalno┼Ť─ç tzw. White Fleet, Frota Branca.The Portuguese are undoubtedly the greatest explorers and travelers in history. From the 15th to the 17th century, they ruled the worldÔÇÖs oceans, but being a small country they quickly lost their struggle for infl uence in most newly discovered areas to stronger European powers.At the turn of the 15th and 16th centuries, Portuguese sailing ships reached the coast of todayÔÇÖs Brazil, which for over three centuries became the pearl in the crown of Portuguese over-seas possessions for centuries. It was also Brazil where the Portuguese emigrated most oft en.However, they were leaving not only to their colonies. Portugal almost never was a pros-perous country for most of its inhabitants. In the period of 100 years, from the end of the 19th century to the 1990s, about 4 million people left the country. According to statistics, in 2007, almost 5 million Portuguese lived outside their country. Th e largest number of them lived in the Americas - 2.8 million, while across Europe the Portuguese Diaspora in 2007 was as large as almost 1.6 million people.Not only do the Portuguese migrate around the world, but they are also intrepid fi sher-men who fi shed for over 500 years on the Grand Banks, on the north-western coast of todayÔÇÖs Canada. In the 20th century, their presence in the East Canadian fi sheries was dominated by the so-called White Fleet, Frota Branca

    A ghost village. Spatial cleansing in Wigancice-┼╗ytawskie in the landscape of the Tur├│w mining and power complex, Lower Silesia

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    The article presents an excerpt of some empirical research undertaken by an anthropologist on local ways of experiencing the operation of the Tur├│w mining and energy complex in the Bogatynia commune in Lower Silesia within the context of an just energy transition. The aim of the reflections contained in this research sample is to present Wigancice ┼╗ytawskie ÔÇô a town once located in the Bogatynia commune in the Zgorzelec poviat as a ghost village that functions in the minds of its former inhabitants and the generations that have followed as a lost and demolished yet remembered place. Wigancice was demolished by the end of the 2oth century due to the expansion of the lignite open pit in the Tur├│w mine and the creation of an external dump, which was considered a threat to the village and its inhabitants. The text draws from Michael HerzfeldÔÇÖs understanding of the term  ÔÇśspatial cleansingÔÇÖ, which in the case of Wigancice was closely related to the activity of the Tur├│w mining and energy complex. Adopting energy anthropology as a theoretical framework, the anthropologist shows the course and effects of this process in terms of human/non-human assemblage, at the same time asking questions about the special characteristics of human life in areas rich in energy resources and ways of experiencing a landscape changing under the influence of industrialization processes. The author also attempts to recover the stories of the inhabitants of the ghost village, whose fates intertwined with the functioning of the Tur├│w mine and were marked by the experience of loss, dispossession and relocation in the process of industrial transformations in the region.The article presents an excerpt of some empirical research undertaken by an anthropologist on local ways of experiencing the operation of the Tur├│w mining and energy complex in the Bogatynia commune in Lower Silesia within the context of an just energy transition. The aim of the reflections contained in this research sample is to present Wigancice ┼╗ytawskie ÔÇô a town once located in the Bogatynia commune in the Zgorzelec poviat as a ghost village that functions in the minds of its former inhabitants and the generations that have followed as a lost and demolished yet remembered place. Wigancice was demolished by the end of the 2oth century due to the expansion of the lignite open pit in the Tur├│w mine and the creation of an external dump, which was considered a threat to the village and its inhabitants. The text draws from Michael HerzfeldÔÇÖs understanding of the term┬á ÔÇśspatial cleansingÔÇÖ, which in the case of Wigancice was closely related to the activity of the Tur├│w mining and energy complex. Adopting energy anthropology as a theoretical framework, the anthropologist shows the course and effects of this process in terms of human/non-human assemblage, at the same time asking questions about the special characteristics of human life in areas rich in energy resources and ways of experiencing a landscape changing under the influence of industrialization processes. The author also attempts to recover the stories of the inhabitants of the ghost village, whose fates intertwined with the functioning of the Tur├│w mine and were marked by the experience of loss, dispossession and relocation in the process of industrial transformations in the region

    O hiszpa┼äsko┼Ťci Wiktora Hugo (1802-1885): kilka refleksji

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    Dla ┼Ťwiata literackiej wyobra┼║ni Wiktora Hugo Hiszpania sta┼éa si─Ö tyglem, nieustannie dostarczaj─ůcym po┼╝ywki tak┼╝e dla jego mitologii osobistej. Poznana w dzieci┼ästwie Hiszpania (sp─Ödzi┼é tam oko┼éo roku) mia┼éa okaza─ç si─Ö fascynuj─ůcym krajem ÔÇ×zza Pirenej├│wÔÇŁ, historycznie i geograficznie nieodleg┼éym, cho─ç bardzo odmiennym, niemal egzotycznym, i tym silniej dzia┼éaj─ůcym na wyobra┼║ni─Ö tw├│rcy: uwodzicielskim. W poetyckich strofach kolejnych zbior├│w wierszy, w dialogach i monologach, w fabu┼éach powie┼Ťci, Hiszpania jest obecna jako s┼éowo, d┼║wi─Ök, obraz, miejsce akcji dramatycznej lub fikcji literackiej. Pojawiaj─ůcy si─Ö cz─Östo efekt antropomorfizacji i personifikacji sprawia, ┼╝e w imaginarium Hugo Hiszpania jawi si─Ö niby ukochana, bliska, cho─ç utracona, ┼╝ywa osoba. Artyku┼é ┼Ťledzi dynamik─Ö owej fascynacji, stale obecnej w tw├│rczo┼Ťci Hugo, cho─ç modyfikowanej tak┼╝e przez tragiczne zdarzenia w ┼╝yciu pisarza

    Narracje o jesieni kryzys├│w 2022 roku w ┼Ťwietle umiarkowanego realizmu poznawczego. Przyczynek do analizy otwartych (ontologicznie) proces├│w spo┼éecznych

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    This paper examines three discourses describing the reality of the 2022 crises: energy,inflation, recession and an emerging planetary crisis. These are the discourses of media, geopolitics and political economy. They are assessed from the point of view of theircognitive value, i.e. the extent to which they reveal the causal background and actionsof political actors and interpret the consequences of their actions. The cognitive value ofindividual discourses is determined by the conceptual apparatus used, closely intertwinedwith the language and categories used by the participants in the public debate. The morethe language is saturated with theoretical categories and general knowledge, the closerthe picture of the social world is to the postulates of moderate cognitive realism. In theauthorÔÇÖs opinion, the logic of the research procedure shown is an illustration of the methodof analysing open macro-social processes, i.e. when we do not yet know their causes and effects. The researcher has at his disposal, apart from available factual information, mainlygeneral knowledge about the mechanisms of duration and change of social structures.The erudition and imagination of the humanist are then important. The analysis of thecrises of autumn 2022 is, in the authorÔÇÖs intention, an attempt to realise the postulateof a new political economy as a reflection integrally linking economic knowledge, socialdynamics and politics.W artykule analizuje si─Ö trzy dyskursy opisuj─ůce rzeczywisto┼Ť─ç kryzys├│w 2022 roku: energetycznego, inflacji, recesji i zarysowuj─ůcego si─Ö kryzysu planetarnego. To dyskurs medialny, geopolityczny i ekonomii politycznej. S─ů one oceniane z punktu widzenia walor├│wpoznawczych, tj. stopnia ods┼éaniania t┼éa przyczynowego i dzia┼éa┼ä aktor├│w politycznychoraz interpretacji skutk├│w ich dzia┼éa┼ä. O warto┼Ťci poznawczej poszczeg├│lnych dyskurs├│wdecyduje zastosowany aparat poj─Öciowy, spleciony ┼Ťci┼Ťle z j─Özykiem i kategoriami, kt├│rymsi─Ö pos┼éuguj─ů uczestnicy debaty publicznej. Im j─Özyk jest bardziej nasycony kategoriamiteoretycznymi i wiedz─ů og├│ln─ů, tym obraz ┼Ťwiata spo┼éecznego bli┼╝szy jest postulatomumiarkowanego realizmu poznawczego. Ukazana logika post─Öpowania badawczego stanowi, zdaniem autora, ilustracj─Ö metody analizy otwartych proces├│w makrospo┼éecznych,a wi─Öc kiedy jeszcze nie znamy ich przyczyn i skutk├│w. Badacz ma do rozporz─ůdzenia,opr├│cz dost─Öpnych informacji faktograficznych, g┼é├│wnie wiedz─Ö og├│ln─ů o mechanizmachtrwania i zmiany struktur spo┼éecznych. Wa┼╝na jest w├│wczas erudycja i wyobra┼║nia humanisty. Analiza kryzys├│w jesieni 2022 stanowi w zamy┼Ťle autora pr├│b─Ö realizacji postulatu nowej ekonomii politycznej jako refleksji ┼é─ůcz─ůcej integralnie wiedz─Ö o gospodarce,dynamik─Ö spo┼éeczn─ů i polityk─Ö

    Struktura d├│br szlacheckich w ksi─Östwie g┼éogowskim i podstawy ich prawnego funkcjonowania w czasach habsburskich (1526ÔÇô1740)

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    The article discusses the problem of land ownership in the hands of the nobility in the Habsburg period in the Duchy of G┼éog├│w, which remained a separate administrative part of the then Czech rule. The issues were mainly connected with the population potential of the principality and with its territory, on the basis of which the development of small, medium and large landed property was analyzed. The noble property of the G┼éog├│w principality was entrusted in possession on the basis of three legal orders. The main division was on the line of unconditional inheritance, feudal heredity and transitory form. At the root of such diversity was the complicated history of the Duchy of G┼éog├│w in the middle and late Middle Ages, and thus its belonging to the Czech Crown, the rule of the G┼éog├│w Piasts, and then entrusting it to the members of the Polish-Lithuanian Jagiellonian Dynasty (Jan Olbracht and Zygmunt Jagiello┼äczyk, W┼éadys┼éaw Jagiello┼äczyk and Ludwik II). The discussed diversity in terms of the size of assets and their legal position vis-├á-vis the King of the Czech Republic was associated with the occurrence of such forms as powers, fideicommissions, majorates and a free state. The owners of each of them had different land rights, and their estates ÔÇô along with raising their rank ÔÇô could even become separate administrative units whose owners could acquire princely rights (including, for example, a separate position in public life by obtaining a vote during the Silesian parliament).W artykule om├│wiono problem kszta┼étowania si─Ö w┼éasno┼Ťci ziemskiej w r─Ökach szlachty w okresie habsburskim na obszarze ksi─Östwa g┼éogowskiego, pozostaj─ůcego wydzielon─ů cz─Ö┼Ťci─ů administracyjn─ů ├│wczesnego w┼éadztwa czeskiego. Poruszono g┼é├│wnie kwestie zwi─ůzane z potencja┼éem ludno┼Ťciowym ksi─Östwa, z jego terytorium, na bazie czego dokonano analizy rozwoju drobnej, ┼Ťredniej i wielkiej w┼éasno┼Ťci ziemskiej. Maj─ůtki szlacheckie ksi─Östwa g┼éogowskiego powierzane by┼éy w posiadanie na podstawie trzech porz─ůdk├│w prawnych. G┼é├│wny podzia┼é przebiega┼é na linii dziedziczno┼Ťci bezwarunkowej, dziedziczno┼Ťci lennej oraz formy przej┼Ťciowej. U podstaw takiego zr├│┼╝nicowania le┼╝a┼éa skomplikowana historia ksi─Östwa g┼éogowskiego tak w ┼Ťrodkowym, jak i p├│┼║nym ┼Ťredniowieczu, a wi─Öc jego przynale┼╝no┼Ť─ç do Korony Czech, w┼éadania nim przez Piast├│w g┼éogowskich, a nast─Öpnie powierzenie go w r─Öce cz┼éonk├│w polsko-litewskiej dynastii Jagiellon├│w (Jana Olbrachta i Zygmunta Jagiello┼äczyka, W┼éadys┼éawa Jagiello┼äczyka i Ludwika II). Opisane zr├│┼╝nicowanie pod wzgl─Ödem wielko┼Ťci maj─ůtk├│w i ich pozycji prawnej wzgl─Ödem kr├│la Czech zwi─ůzane by┼éo z wyst─Öpowaniem tutaj takich form, jak tzw. w┼éadztwa, fideikomisy, majoraty i wolne pa┼ästwo stanowe. W┼éa┼Ťciciele ka┼╝dego z nich dysponowali odmiennymi prawami do ziemi, a ich maj─ůtki ÔÇô wraz z podnoszeniem rangi ÔÇô mog┼éy sta─ç si─Ö nawet odr─Öbnymi jednostkami administracyjnymi, kt├│rych w┼éa┼Ťciciele mogli pozyska─ç dla siebie prawa r├│wne ksi─ů┼╝─Öcym (w tym np. osobn─ů pozycj─Ö w ┼╝yciu publicznym przez uzyskanie g┼éosu indywidualnego podczas obrad sejmu ┼Ťl─ůskiego)
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