8,803 research outputs found

    Hungarian Historical Review 12.

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    Winds of change in a ‘Saffronised’ Indian Borderland: dispossession and power in rural Kutch

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    Renewables are imagined in India around features of ‘greenness’ and ‘cleanness’ and are presented as the key solutions towards sustainable development and unlimited growth. But this narrative entails a problematic land politics and the reconfiguration of territories for capital accumulation: following the 2001 earthquake, Kutch district has been framed as a major resource frontier and experienced several waves of land liberalisation and industrialisation programs. Being a borderland district, the proximity with Pakistan and the presence of Muslim pastoral populations on both sides of the border have also fostered important ‘saffron’ Hindu nationalist discourses since 1947. What do the new territories of ‘green’ energy extraction look like in this context of sensitive borderland? This research focuses on the land politics of extracting wind energy as embedded within relations of caste and class, citizenship, and religious identities. Land is being imagined ‘empty’ and ‘waste’, shifting from one user to another via bureaucratic means, while it is materially aligned with companies’ interests. This process affects social differentiation and creates new trajectories of accumulation and domination for ground-level brokers and fixers who mediate consent and resistance. These actors merge the companies’ endless appetite for land with their own socio-economic and political gains affiliated with nationalist projects of territory revivalism. As the thesis argues, wind infrastructures align with broad ethno-religious conceptions of Indian citizenship and space as Hindu and their expansion over new border areas serves the enforcement of a racialised citizenship and security regime. Finally, the emergence of everyday resistance and political reactions to the arrival of wind power reveals continuity with traditional agrarian struggles, but also with caste politics and exclusive forms of mobilisation. This research adopts perspectives from political ecology, human geography, and critical agrarian studies and is grounded in a 7-month ethnographic investigation in mainland and borderland Kutch

    The Lives of Girls and Women in Bahrain and Qatar: Dress, Marriage, Health and Education in the Pearl Fishing and Early Oil Era

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    Drawing from data on Bahrain and Qatar, this dissertation is a study of women’s lived experiences during the pearl trade era and the transition to an oil economy. It explores how intersections in women’s identities influenced their positionalities and opportunities for productive labor within different socioeconomic institutions, namely: dress, education, marriage, and health. This dissertation embeds its analysis of women’s lived experiences within the emic concept of ‛ʿayb’ and the theoretical frameworks of postcolonial and feminist historiography. ‛ʿayb’ is the emic label given to behavior that obstructs the fantasy of a flawless society. Overall, this dissertation draws information from 32 interviews with 30 interlocutors. To collect data for this research project, I conducted 17 interviews with 18 interlocutors from Bahrain and Qatar. I also considered 29 interviews conducted by Msheireb Museums and reproduced relevant excerpts for my data from 15 interviews with 12 interlocutors. This dissertation's research questions are: 1. How did women live in the past? 2. What economic and social roles did women in Bahrain and Qatar play during the pearl trade and early oil eras? 3. How do the possibilities of production, through both waged and unwaged labor, influence the parameters of ʿayb? Conversely, how do the parameters of ʿayb influence women’s possibilities of production? Intersections of my identities affected my positionality against the interlocutors I interviewed and allowed me to synthesize data with the cultural sensitivity required in postcolonial and gender studies. As a Sunni Muslim woman from the Arabian littoral of the Gulf, I have a particular analytical insight into ʿayb’s operation in rapidly changing, yet conservative, societies

    Chukchi communities of the Bering Strait region, a hundred years after Bogoras

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    Dissertation (Ph.D.) University of Alaska Fairbanks, 2023The Chukchi are the Indigenous people of the farthest northeastern part of Eurasia, nowadays called Chukotka. It happens that, at the dawn of the 20th century, Chukchi culture became the focus of a landmark publication The Chukchee, authored by a luminary Russian ethnographer Waldemar Bogoras. Produced as part of the special series Publications of the Jesup North Pacific Expedition, this voluminous monograph, overwhelmingly, continues to be a go-to resource to learn about the Chukchi customs, spiritual beliefs, material culture, and way of life. As an Indigenous Chukchi scholar who, to my knowledge, is the first of my people to be earning a doctorate degree in anthropology, I find it valuable to present a contemporary ethnographic portrait of the Chukotkan communities, drawn from my lived experience and the field research conducted a little over a century past the time of Bogoras. Featuring insights from several towns and villages, this dissertation focuses mostly on the Chukchi communities of Neshkan and Enurmino located on the Arctic Coast of Chukotka. Traditional subsistence continues to be a great factor in shaping the identity and worldview of the Neshkan and Enurmino residents. Subsistence, however, is not the only source of influence that builds the sociocultural pattern of these communities. Today's Chukchi are complexly integrated within a global society that permeates even seemingly the most remote and isolated settlements with information technologies. The clash of influences gives rise to a complex pattern of human passions and life goals. Exploring the socio-economic, spiritual, and other cultural dimensions of contemporary Chukchi life, my research converges on the question: what are the modern-day Chukchi communities? By what means do these social units sustain a strong sense of distinct cultural identity as their members adapt to globalizing influences and environmental changes? Such questions are broadly applicable across social and historical contexts and offer fruitful grounds for considering anthropological theories of adaptation and culture in the largest sense.Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, and University of Alaska Museum of the NorthChapter 1. Introduction -- 1.1. Why Chukchi? -- 1.2. Why Bogoras? -- 1.3. Auto ethnography -- 1.3.1. Family -- 1.3.2. Exploring Chukchi and Non-Chukchi Societies -- 1.4. Overview of the forthcoming chapters. Chapter 2. Material and Methods -- 2.1. Research Setting -- 2.2. Data Collection -- 2.2.1. Participant Observation -- 2.2.2. Interviews -- 2.2.3. Documents -- 2.3. Data Analysis. Chapter 3. Social organization of Neshkan and Enurmino -- 3.1. Common features and differences between Neshkan and Enurmino -- 3.2. Formal village institutions and their influence on the community -- 3.2.1. School -- 3.2.2. Hospital -- 3.2.3. Merchants -- 3.2.4. Utility Services -- 3.2.5. Unemployed. Chapter 4. Subsistence groups of Neshkan and Enurmino -- 4.1. Stratification of subsistence groups -- 4.1.1. Subsidized subsistence enterprises -- 4.1.2. The hunting cohort of Rodion -- 4.2. Subsistence and transportation: meaning and social status -- 4.2.1. Transportation and social status -- 4.2.2. Trends in types of transportation -- 4.3. Food (k'ametvan) and way of life (lygi vagyrgyn) -- 4.3.1. Food patterns -- 4.3.2. Nutritional shifts among villagers -- 4.3.3. Subsistence consumer groups -- 4.3.4. Distribution of subsistence food -- 4.3.5. Processing of subsistence products -- 4.3.6. Global and local perspective on subsistence food governance -- 4.4. Subsistence trends -- 4.4.1. Between the sea and the tundra -- 4.4.2. Subsistence and cash: how it works in Neshkan and Enurmino. Chapter 5. Chukchi of Neshkan and Enurmino: What Do Community Members Think of Themselves and Their community? -- 5.1. Personal and Social Interpretations -- 5.1.1. Individual -- 5.1.2. Family -- 5.1.3. Community -- 5.2. What Influences Locals? -- 5.2.1. Alcoholism and Community -- 5.2.2. Global and Local Influences on Worldview of the Villagers. Chapter 6. Anthropology of contradictions -- 6.1. Contradictions and a social unit: overview of some outlooks -- 6.1.1. The concept of "Contradiction" for the purpose of examining the Chukotkan community -- 6.1.2. Aristotelian law of non-contradiction -- 6.1.3. Cultural relativism -- 6.1.4. Contradictions' process -- 6.2. Contradictions and Chukotkan community -- 6.2.1. Villagers and contradictions -- 6.2.2. Customary and federal laws -- 6.2.3. Contradictions and traditions. Chapter 7. So what is the Chukchi community a hundred years after Bogoras? -- Afterword -- References

    Borderlands Course Reader, Volume One

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    This collection compiles primary source documents and narratives from the present-day U.S.-Mexico Borderlands Region from c.1500 to 1865. The collection is designed for use with U.S. History and Mexican American surveys as well as Texas history and U.S.-Mexico Borderlands history courses. A few documents are abridged or excerpted from longer sources. All sources contain a citation or link to a source at the foot of the document. Documents span from indigenous accounts and sources of early contact through the late Spanish colonial period, era of Mexican independence, U.S. expansion and the American Civil War.https://scholarworks.utrgv.edu/oer/1004/thumbnail.jp

    Finnish Settler Colonialism in North America

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    Finnish Settler Colonialism in North America reinterprets Finnish experiences in North America by connecting them to the transnational processes of settler colonial conquest, far-settlement, elimination of natives, and capture of terrestrial spaces. Rather than merely exploring whether the idea of Finns as a different kind of immigrant is a myth, this book challenges it in many ways. It offers an analysis of the ways in which this myth manifests itself, why it has been upheld to this day, and most importantly how it contributes to settler colonialism in North America and beyond. The authors in this volume apply multidisciplinary perspectives in revealing the various levels of Finnish involvement in settler colonialism. In their chapters, authors seek to understand the experiences and representations of Finns in North American spatial projects, in territorial expansion and integration, and visions of power. They do so by analyzing how Finns reinvented their identities and acted as settlers, participated in the production of settler colonial narratives, as well as benefitted and took advantage of settler colonial structures. Finnish Settler Colonialism in North America aims to challenge traditional histories of Finnish migration, in which Finns have typically been viewed almost in isolation from the broader American context, not to mention colonialism. The book examines the diversity of roles, experiences, and narrations of and by Finns in the histories of North America by employing the settler colonial analytical framework

    A review of commercialisation mechanisms for carbon dioxide removal

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    The deployment of carbon dioxide removal (CDR) needs to be scaled up to achieve net zero emission pledges. In this paper we survey the policy mechanisms currently in place globally to incentivise CDR, together with an estimate of what different mechanisms are paying per tonne of CDR, and how those costs are currently distributed. Incentive structures are grouped into three structures, market-based, public procurement, and fiscal mechanisms. We find the majority of mechanisms currently in operation are underresourced and pay too little to enable a portfolio of CDR that could support achievement of net zero. The majority of mechanisms are concentrated in market-based and fiscal structures, specifically carbon markets and subsidies. While not primarily motivated by CDR, mechanisms tend to support established afforestation and soil carbon sequestration methods. Mechanisms for geological CDR remain largely underdeveloped relative to the requirements of modelled net zero scenarios. Commercialisation pathways for CDR require suitable policies and markets throughout the projects development cycle. Discussion and investment in CDR has tended to focus on technology development. Our findings suggest that an equal or greater emphasis on policy innovation may be required if future requirements for CDR are to be met. This study can further support research and policy on the identification of incentive gaps and realistic potential for CDR globally
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