10,367 research outputs found

    Enhancing satiety and aerobic performance with beer microparticles-based non-alcoholic drinks: exploring dose and duration effects

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    Beer is an alcoholic beverage, rich in carbohydrates, amino acids, vitamins and polyphenols, consumed worldwide as a social drink. There is a large number of beer styles which depends on the ingredients and brewing process. The consumption of beer as a fluid replacement after sport practice is a current discussion in literature. A non-alcoholic pale-ale microparticles-based beverage (PABM) have been previously designed, however, its phenolic profile and ergogenic effect remain unknown. Thus, this study aims to verify the ergogenic potential (increase of running performance) of PAMB in male Wistar rats. Beer microparticles were obtained by spray drying and beverages with different concentrations were prepared in water. Wistar rats were subjected to a training protocol on a treadmill (5 times/week, 60 min/day) and daily intake of PABM (20 mg.kg-1 or 200 mg.kg-1) or water by gavage. Chlorogenic acid was found to be the main component in the phenolic profile (12.28 mg·g-1) of PABM analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. An increase in the aerobic performance was observed after 4 weeks in the 20 mg.kg-1 group, but the same dose after 8 weeks and a higher dose (200 mg.kg-1) blunted this effect. A higher dose was also related to decrease in food intake. These data suggest that PABM can improve satiety and aerobic performance, but its effect depends on the dose and time of consumption

    Memory deficits and hippocampal cytokine expression in a rat model of ADHD

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    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex behavioral disorder characterized by hyperactivity, impulsivity, inattention, and deficits in working memory and time perception. While animal models have advanced our neurobiological understanding of this condition, there are limited and inconsistent data on working and elapsed time memory function. Inflammatory signaling has been identified as a key factor in memory and cognitive impairments, but its role in ADHD remains unclear. Additionally, the disproportionate investigation of male subjects in ADHD research has contributed to a poor understanding of the disorder in females. This study sought to investigate the potential connections between memory, neuroimmunology, and ADHD in both male and female animals. Specifically, we utilized the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), one of the most extensively studied animal models of ADHD. Compared to their control, the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat, male SHR are reported to exhibit several behavioral phenotypes associated with ADHD, including hyperactivity, impulsivity, and poor sustained attention, along with impairments in learning and memory. As the hippocampus is a key brain region for learning and memory, we examined the behavior of male and female SHR and WKY rats in two hippocampal-dependent memory tasks. Our findings revealed that SHR have delay-dependent working memory deficits that were similar to, albeit less severe than, those seen in hippocampal-lesioned rats. We also observed impairments in elapsed time processing in female SHR, particularly in the discrimination of longer time durations. To investigate the impact of inflammatory signaling on memory in these rats, we analyzed the levels of several cytokines in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus of SHR and WKY. Although we found some sex and genotype differences, concentrations were generally similar between groups. Taken together, our results indicate that SHR exhibit deficits in spatial working memory and memory for elapsed time, as well as some differences in hippocampal cytokine concentrations. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiological basis of ADHD in both sexes and may inform future research aimed at developing effective treatments for the disorder. Nonetheless, the potential mediating role of neuroinflammation in the memory symptomatology of SHR requires further investigation

    Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition prevents renal toxicity but not hypertension during sunitinib treatment

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    Background: Anticancer angiogenesis inhibitors cause hypertension and renal injury. Previously we observed in rats that high-dose aspirin (capable of blocking cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and-2) was superior to low-dose aspirin (blocking COX-1 only) to prevent these side-effects during treatment with the angiogenesis inhibitor sunitinib, suggesting a role for COX-2. High-dose aspirin additionally prevented the rise in COX-derived prostacyclin (PGI2). Therefore, we studied the preventive effects of selective COX-2 inhibition and the hypothesized contributing role of PGI2 during angiogenesis inhibition. Methods: Male WKY rats received vehicle, sunitinib ((SU), 14 mg/kg/day) alone or combined with COX-2 inhibition (celecoxib, 10 mg/kg/day) or a PGI2 analogue (iloprost, 100 μg/kg/day) for 8 days (n = 8–9 per group). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured via radiotelemetry, biochemical measurements were performed via ELISA and vascular function was assessed via wire myography. Results: SU increased MAP (17±1mmHg versus 3±1mmHg after vehicle on day 4, P &lt; 0.002), which could not be significantly blunted by celecoxib (+12±3mmHg on day 4, P = 0.247), but was temporarily attenuated by iloprost (treatment days 1 + 2 only). Urinary PGI2 (996 ± 112 versus 51 ± 11ng/24h after vehicle, P &lt; 0.001), but not circulating PGI2 increased during SU, which remained unaffected by celecoxib and iloprost. Celecoxib reduced sunitinib-induced albuminuria (0.36 ± 0.05 versus 0.58 ± 0.05mg/24h after SU, P = 0.005). Wire myography demonstrated increased vasoconstriction to endothelin-1 after SU (Emax P = 0.005 versus vehicle), which remained unaffected by celecoxib or iloprost. Conclusion: Selective COX-2 inhibition ameliorates albuminuria during angiogenesis inhibition with sunitinib, which most likely acts independently of PGI2. To combat angiogenesis inhibitor-induced hypertension, dual rather than selective COX-1/2 blockade seems preferential.</p

    Hypertensive rats show increased renal excretion and decreased tissue concentrations of glycine betaine, a protective osmolyte with diuretic properties

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    Hypertension leads to water-electrolyte disturbances and end-organ damage. Betaine is an osmolyte protecting cells against electrolyte imbalance and osmotic stress, particularly in the kidneys. This study aimed to evaluate tissue levels and hemodynamic and renal effects of betaine in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Betaine levels were assessed using highperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) in normotensive rats (Wistar-Kyoto, WKYs) and Spontaneously Hypertensive rats (SHRs), a model of genetic hypertension. Acute effects of IV betaine on blood pressure, heart rate, and minute diuresis were evaluated. Gene and protein expression of chosen kidney betaine transporters (SLC6a12 and SLC6a20) were assessed using real-time PCR and Western blot. Compared to normotensive rats, SHRs showed significantly lower concentration of betaine in blood serum, the lungs, liver, and renal medulla. These changes were associated with higher urinary excretion of betaine in SHRs (0.20 ± 0.04 vs. 0.09 ± 0.02 mg/ 24h/ 100g b.w., p = 0.036). In acute experiments, betaine increased diuresis without significantly affecting arterial blood pressure. The diuretic response was greater in SHRs than in WKYs. There were no significant differences in renal expression of betaine transporters between WKYs and SHRs. Increased renal excretion of betaine contributes to decreased concentration of the protective osmolyte in tissues of hypertensive rats. These findings pave the way for studies evaluating a causal relation between depleted betaine and hypertensive organ damage, including kidney injury

    Behavioural characteristics and sex differences of a treatment-resistant depression model:Chronic mild stress in the Wistar-Kyoto rat

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    Depression affects 20% of the general population and is a leading cause of disability worldwide, with a strong female prevalence. Current pharmacotherapies have significant limitations, and one third of patients are unresponsive. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS) were recently proposed as a model to study antidepressant resistance. However, sex differences and interindividual vulnerability to stress are yet unexplored in this model. We aimed to investigate these in the context of the behavioural impact of CMS in the sucrose preference test, elevated plus maze (EPM), forced swim test (FST), open field test and daily locomotor activity rhythms, in male and female WKY rats exposed or not to a 4-week CMS protocol. CMS-exposed animals were clustered through K-means into subgroups based on the EPM and FST results. In both sexes, one subgroup behaved similarly to non-stressed animals and was labelled stress-non vulnerable; the second exhibited less open arms exploration in the EPM and higher immobility in the FST and was named stress-vulnerable. Vulnerable males presented phase delay in daily locomotor activity following CMS, but no significant rhythm could be determined in females. CMS-exposed males of both groups showed hyperlocomotion in reaction to novelty and slower weight gain through the course of CMS, while CMS-exposed females showed smaller sucrose intake. Unexpectedly, CMS did not affect sucrose preference. Our findings strengthen the view that in models of psychiatric pathologies based on stress exposure it is important to consider the effect of sex and to differentiate the non vulnerable and vulnerable subpopulations.</p

    Effect of Boswellia serrata extract on Methotrexate induced testicular damage

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    This study aimed to determine the effect of Boswellia serrata extract on Methotrexate– induced testicular damage by evaluating antioxidant system, reproductive organ weights, some spermatological parametres and serum Testesterone levels. For this purpose, 40 Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups. 1. Control Group (n=10): No treatment was given for 10 days. 2. B. serrata Group (n=10): B. serrata was given by gavage at a dose of 500 mg·kg-1 for 10 days. 3. Methotrexate Group (n=10): Methotrexate was given intraperitoneally as a single dose of 20 mg·kg-1. 4. Methotrexate + B. serrata Group (n=10): After methotrexate was given intraperitoneally as a single dose of 20 mg·kg-1, 500 mg·kg-1 B. serrata was given by gavage for 10 days. It was determined that B. serrata significantly increased serum Testosterone levels (P0.05) and the increase in GSH–Px enzyme activity of testes (P>0.05) and final body weight (P>0.05) were not significant in Methotrexate + B. serrata group compared to the Methotrexate group. In conclusion, the negative effects of Methotrexate on the male reproductive system can be reduced by administering B. serrata extract

    Dietary intake of table olives exerts antihypertensive effects in association with changes in gut microbiota in spontaneously hypertensive rats

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    Arbequina table olive (AO) consumption lowers blood pressure (BP) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). This study evaluates whether dietary supplementation with AO induced changes in the gut microbiota that are consistent with the purported antihypertensive effects. Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY-c) and SHR-c received water, while SHR-o were supplemented by gavage with AO (3.85 g kg-1) for 7 weeks. Faecal microbiota was analysed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. SHR-c showed increased Firmicutes and decreased Bacteroidetes compared to WKY-c. AO supplementation in SHR-o decreased BP by approximately 19 mmHg, and reduced plasmatic concentrations of malondialdehyde and angiotensin II. Moreover, reshaped faecal microbiota associated with antihypertensive activity by lowering Peptoniphilus and increasing Akkermansia, Sutterella, Allobaculum, Ruminococcus, and Oscillospira. Also promoted the growth of probiotic strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium and modified the relationship of Lactobacillus with other microorganisms, from competitive to symbiotic. In SHR, AO promotes a microbiota profile compatible with the antihypertensive effects of this food

    A double‐blind, randomized, placebo‐controlled study assessing the impact of probiotic supplementation on the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome in females

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    Background: A previous exploratory study demonstrated the ability of the Lab4 probiotic to alleviate the symptoms of IBS, and post hoc data analysis indicated greatest improvements in the female subgroup. The aim of this study is to confirm the impact of this multistrain probiotic on IBS symptom severity in females. Methods: An 8‐week, single‐center, randomized, double‐blinded, placebo‐controlled, superiority study in 70 females with Rome IV‐diagnosed irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) receiving the Lab4 probiotic (25 billion colony‐forming units) daily or a matched placebo. Changes from baseline in the IBS‐symptom severity score (IBS‐SSS), daily bowel habits, anxiety, depression, IBS‐related control, and avoidance behavior, executive function, and the fecal microbiota composition were assessed. The study was prospectively registered: ISRCTN 14866272 (registration date 20/07/22). Key Results: At the end of the study, there were significant between‐group reductions in IBS‐SSS (−85.0, p < 0.0001), anxiety and depression scores (−1.9, p = 0.0002 and −2.4, p < 0.0001, respectively), and the IBS‐related control and avoidance behavior score (−7.5, p = 0.0002), all favoring the probiotic group. A higher proportion of the participants in the probiotic group had normal stool form (p = 0.0106) and/or fewer defecations with loose stool form (p = 0.0311). There was little impact on the overall diversity of the fecal microbiota but there were significant differences in Roseburia, Holdemanella, Blautia, Agathobacter, Ruminococcus, Prevotella, Bacteroides, and Anaerostipes between the probiotic and placebo groups at the end of the study. Conclusions & Inferences: Daily supplementation with this probiotic may represent an option to be considered in the management of IBS