12,805 research outputs found

    Organicité et imagicité

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    L’intérêt d’Eisenstein pour William Hogarth (1697-1794), peintre, graveur, essayiste anglais, auteur de satires en image fustigeant les mœurs de la société britannique, ses « pièces morales », date de 1917 et ne se dément pas, évoluant de son œuvre artistique à sa théorie esthétique exprimée dans son livre l’Analyse de la beauté. Hogarth y affirme l’importance de la ligne ondulée ou serpentine, la « ligne de beauté ». Passionné par toutes les doctrines et les pratiques fondées sur le dynamisme, le mouvement, Eisenstein s’y réfère dès sa période théâtrale et de plus en plus dans son enseignement au VGIK comme en témoigne ce texte inédit en français de 1934 et il ne cessera de le faire jusque dans ses Notes pour Histoire générale du cinéma (1947). « Cette ligne doit devenir un élément du culte esthétique », écrit-il, maintenant que les religions sont repoussées par les arts, « les emblèmes symboliques et cultuels passent dans l’arsenal des principaux canons et moyens d’influence esthétiques ». Il en fait « la représentation graphique du caractère même de la dynamique de l’action » et « l’“image” graphique de l’un des processus essentiels du devenir et du mouvement de l’ordre naturel », du processus de croissance et du mouvement organique (il y a un continuum entre ligne serpentine, spirale logarithmique, Nautilus, phyllotaxie, Yin et Yang...), autant dire de la dialectique telle que formalisée par Friedrich Engels dans l’Anti-Dühring et qu’il explorera dans Méthode, son dernier grand essai inachevé.Eisenstein’s interest in William Hogarth (1697-1794) – English painter, engraver, essayist, author of visual satires or “moral subjects” castigating the mores of British society – dates from 1917 and ranges from Hogarth’s artistic work to his aesthetic theory expressed in his book Analysis of Beauty (1753). Hogarth affirms the importance of the undulating or serpentine line, the “line of beauty”. Fascinated by doctrines and practices based on dynamism and movement, Eisenstein refers to Hogarth from as early as his theatrical period, throughout his teaching at the VGIK, as evidenced by this previously unpublished French text of 1934, and right up to his Notes for a General History of Cinema (1947). “This line must become an element of aesthetic worship”, he writes, claiming that since religions are rejected by the arts “symbolic and cult emblems join the arsenal of the main aesthetic canons and means of influence”. It is “the graphic representation of the very character of the dynamics of action”, and “the graphic image” of one of the essential processes of the becoming and movement of the natural order”, the process of growth and organic movement (there is a continuum between serpentine line, logarithmic spiral, Nautilus, phyllotaxy, Yin and Yang...), as well as the dialectic as formalised by Friedrich Engels in the Anti-Dühring, and which Eisenstein will explore in his last great unfinished essay, Method.L’interesse di Ejzenštejn per William Hogarth (1697-1794), pittore, incisore, saggista inglese, autore di pièces morali e di satire per immagini fustigatrici dei costumi della società britannica, risale al 1917 e non viene mai meno, spaziando dalla sua opera artistica alla teoria estetica espressa nel libro L’Analisi della bellezza. Hogarth vi afferma l’importanza della linea ondulata o serpentina, la « linea di bellezza ». Appassionato di tutte le dottrine e le pratiche fondate sul dinamismo e sul movimento, Ejzenštejn vi fa riferimento fin dal suo periodo teatrale e vieppiù nel suo insegnamento al VGIK, come testimonia questo testo del 1934, inedito in francese, e non cesserà di farlo fino alle sue Note per una storia generale del cinema (1947). « Questa linea deve divenire un elemento di culto estetico », scrive, ora che le religioni sono respinte dalle arti « gli emblemi simbolici e cultuali passano nell’arsenale dei principali canoni e mezzi d’influenza estetica ». Ne fa « la rappresentazione grafica del carattere stesso della dinamica dell’azione » e « l’“immagine” grafica di uno dei processi essenziali del divenire e del movimento dell’ordine naturale », dal processo di crescita e del movimento organico (c’è un continuum tra linea serpentina, spirale logaritmica, Nautilus, fillotassi, Yin e Yang...) fino alla dialettica quale fu formalizzata da Friedrich Engels in L’Anti-Dühring e che esplorerà nel Metodo, il suo ultimo grande saggio incompiuto

    Do Catholics have an external locus of evaluation? Inauthentic experiences of Catholic guilt in the pursuit of self-forgiveness

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    This two-part mixed methods study investigated emotional response to transgression and selffor-giveness in Catholic individuals in concert with locus of evaluation orientation following a hypothe-sis that Catholics may be particularly unable to find self-forgiveness in the teachings of their reli-gion. Study 1 was a qualitative semi-structured interview with a sample of 20 practicing Catholic participants. Questions focused on the emotive experiences of selfforgiveness and transgressions and the contribution that Catholic practices (prayer and reconciliation) make to the process. Data were analysed using thematic analysis which supported evidence of Catholic guilt but suggested that there may be some inauthenticity and insincerity with which penitents' approach reconciliato-ry practices. Study 2 used a sample of 239 Christian participants in groups of Catholics and Christian non-Catholics. Participants responded to two psychometric questionnaires: the Heartland Forgiveness Scale, and the Locus of Evaluation Inventory. Followed by two additional questions pertaining to self-forgiveness experiences, and one question requiring participants to prioritise types of forgiveness. The results found no difference between Catholics and non-Catholics in their response to self-forgiveness or locus of evaluation orientation. However, in non-Catholic Christians but not in Catholics, the frequency of religious practice correlated with higher total forgiveness and its subscales (including self-forgiveness), with more internal locus of evaluation, and with lower self-regard, suggesting that church attendance does not relate to the propensity for self-forgiveness in Catholic individuals

    Elite perceptions of the Victorian and Edwardian past in inter-war England

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    It is often argued by historians that members of the cultivated Elite after 1918 rejected the pre-war past. or at least subjected it to severe denigration. This thesis sets out to challenge such a view. Above all, it argues that inter-war critics of the Victorian and Edwardian past were unable to reject it even if that was what they felt inclined to do. This was because they were tied to those periods by the affective links of memory, family, and the continually unfolding consequences of the past in the present. Even the severest critics of the pre-war world, such as Lytton Strachey, were less frequently dismissive of history than ambivalent towards it. This ambivalence, it is argued, helped to keep the past alive and often to humanise it. The thesis also explores more positive estimation of Victorian and Edwardian history between the wars. It examines nostalgia for the past, as well as instances of continuity of practice and attitude. It explores the way in which inter-war society drew upon aspects of Victorian and Edwardian history both as illuminating parallels to contemporary affairs and to understand directly why the present was shaped as it was. Again, this testifies to the enduring power of the past after 1918. There are three parts to this thesis. Part One outlines the cultural context in which writers contemplated the Victorian and Edwardian past. Part Two explores some of the ways in which history was written about and used by inter-war society. Part Three examines the ways in which biographical depictions of eminent Victorians after 1918 encouraged emotional negotiation with the pas

    The place where curses are manufactured : four poets of the Vietnam War

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    The Vietnam War was unique among American wars. To pinpoint its uniqueness, it was necessary to look for a non-American voice that would enable me to articulate its distinctiveness and explore the American character as observed by an Asian. Takeshi Kaiko proved to be most helpful. From his novel, Into a Black Sun, I was able to establish a working pair of 'bookends' from which to approach the poetry of Walter McDonald, Bruce Weigl, Basil T. Paquet and Steve Mason. Chapter One is devoted to those seemingly mismatched 'bookends,' Walt Whitman and General William C. Westmoreland, and their respective anthropocentric and technocentric visions of progress and the peculiarly American concept of the "open road" as they manifest themselves in Vietnam. In Chapter, Two, I analyze the war poems of Walter McDonald. As a pilot, writing primarily about flying, his poetry manifests General Westmoreland's technocentric vision of the 'road' as determined by and manifest through technology. Chapter Three focuses on the poems of Bruce Weigl. The poems analyzed portray the literal and metaphorical descent from the technocentric, 'numbed' distance of aerial warfare to the world of ground warfare, and the initiation of a 'fucking new guy,' who discovers the contours of the self's interior through a set of experiences that lead from from aerial insertion into the jungle to the degradation of burning human feces. Chapter Four, devoted to the thirteen poems of Basil T. Paquet, focuses on the continuation of the descent begun in Chapter Two. In his capacity as a medic, Paquet's entire body of poems details his quotidian tasks which entail tending the maimed, the mortally wounded and the dead. The final chapter deals with Steve Mason's JohnnY's Song, and his depiction of the plight of Vietnam veterans back in "The World" who are still trapped inside the interior landscape of their individual "ghettoes" of the soul created by their war-time experiences

    Message Journal, Issue 5: COVID-19 SPECIAL ISSUE Capturing visual insights, thoughts and reflections on 2020/21 and beyond...

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    If there is a theme running through the Message Covid-19 special issue, it is one of caring. Of our own and others’ resilience and wellbeing, of friendship and community, of students, practitioners and their futures, of social justice, equality and of doing the right thing. The veins of designing with care run through the edition, wide and deep. It captures, not designers as heroes, but those with humble views, exposing the need to understand a diversity of perspectives when trying to comprehend the complexity that Covid-19 continues to generate. As graphic designers, illustrators and visual communicators, contributors have created, documented, written, visualised, reflected, shared, connected and co-created, designed for good causes and re-defined what it is to be a student, an academic and a designer during the pandemic. This poignant period in time has driven us, through isolation, towards new rules of living, and new ways of working; to see and map the world in a different light. A light that is uncertain, disjointed, and constantly being redefined. This Message issue captures responses from the graphic communication design community in their raw state, to allow contributors to communicate their experiences through both their written and visual voice. Thus, the reader can discern as much from the words as the design and visualisations. Through this issue a substantial number of contributions have focused on personal reflection, isolation, fear, anxiety and wellbeing, as well as reaching out to community, making connections and collaborating. This was not surprising in a world in which connection with others has often been remote, and where ‘normal’ social structures of support and care have been broken down. We also gain insight into those who are using graphic communication design to inspire and capture new ways of teaching and learning, developing themselves as designers, educators, and activists, responding to social justice and to do good; gaining greater insight into society, government actions and conspiracy. Introduction: Victoria Squire - Coping with Covid: Community, connection and collaboration: James Alexander & Carole Evans, Meg Davies, Matthew Frame, Chae Ho Lee, Alma Hoffmann, Holly K. Kaufman-Hill, Joshua Korenblat, Warren Lehrer, Christine Lhowe, Sara Nesteruk, Cat Normoyle & Jessica Teague, Kyuha Shim. - Coping with Covid: Isolation, wellbeing and hope: Sadia Abdisalam, Tom Ayling, Jessica Barness, Megan Culliford, Stephanie Cunningham, Sofija Gvozdeva, Hedzlynn Kamaruzzaman, Merle Karp, Erica V. P. Lewis, Kelly Salchow Macarthur, Steven McCarthy, Shelly Mayers, Elizabeth Shefrin, Angelica Sibrian, David Smart, Ane Thon Knutsen, Isobel Thomas, Darryl Westley. - Coping with Covid: Pedagogy, teaching and learning: Bernard J Canniffe, Subir Dey, Aaron Ganci, Elizabeth Herrmann, John Kilburn, Paul Nini, Emily Osborne, Gianni Sinni & Irene Sgarro, Dave Wood, Helena Gregory, Colin Raeburn & Jackie Malcolm. - Coping with Covid: Social justice, activism and doing good: Class Action Collective, Xinyi Li, Matt Soar, Junie Tang, Lisa Winstanley. - Coping with Covid: Society, control and conspiracy: Diana Bîrhală, Maria Borțoi, Patti Capaldi, Tânia A. Cardoso, Peter Gibbons, Bianca Milea, Rebecca Tegtmeyer, Danne Wo

    The Disputation: The Enduring Representations in William Holman Hunt's “The Finding of the Saviour in the Temple,” 1860

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    This interdisciplinary thesis problematizes the Jewish presence in the painting The Finding of the Saviour in the Temple (1860) by William Holman Hunt. This “Jewish presence” refers to characters within the painting, Jews who posed for the picture and the painting’s portrayal of Judaism. The thesis takes a phenomenological and hermeneutical approach to The Finding providing careful description and interpretation of what appears in the painting. It situates the painting within a newly configured genre of disputation paintings depicting the Temple scene from the Gospel of Luke (2:47 – 52). It asks two questions. Why does The Finding look the way it does? And how did Holman Hunt know how to create the picture? Under the rubric of the first question, it explores and challenges customary accounts of the painting, explicitly challenging the over reliance upon F.G. Stephens’s pamphlet. Additionally, it examines Pre-Raphaelite and Victorian religious contexts and bringing hitherto unacknowledged artistic contexts to the fore. The second question examines less apparent influences through an analysis of the originary Lukan narrative in conjunction with the under-examined genre of Temple “disputation” paintings, and a legacy of scholarly and religious disputation. This demonstrates a discourse of disputation informing The Finding over and above the biblical narrative. In showing that this discourse strongly correlates with the painting’s objectifying and spectacular properties, this thesis provides a new way to understand The Finding’s orientalism which is further revealed in its typological critical reworking of two Christian medieval and renaissance paintings. As a demonstration of the discourse, the thesis includes an examination of Jewish artists who addressed the theme of disputation overtly or obliquely thereby engaging with and challenging the assumptions upon which the disputation rests

    Galeguismo, humanismo e desenvolvemento: o pensamento militante de Xaime Isla Couto

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    Esta tese doutoral realiza a primeira presentación sistemática do pensamento do intelectual galeguista Xaime Isla Couto (Santiago de Compostela, 1915- Vigo, 2012) para enmarcalo no ámbito da Historia do Pensamento Galego. A hipótese da investigación establece que Xaime Isla constitúe un dos principais representantes no século XX do personalismo comunitario e do humanismo cristián na tradición galeguista da Historia do Pensamento Galego no seo dun proxecto intelectual de elaboración das bases dunha reflexión crítica verbo do nacionalismo e o galeguismo e verbo do modelo hexemónico de desenvolvemento capitalista. Consonte ao esquema dual establecido polo profesor Xosé L. Barreiro Barreiro no seu libro "Pensar en Galicia. Identidade na diferencia", o pensamento de Xaime Isla profundou na cuestión de Galicia como problema así como nos problemas de Galicia. Xa que logo, ao longo da súa obra combina un labor de fundamentación teórica dun marco crítico para a análise de Galicia e o seus problemas ao tempo que realiza propostas de reforma e transformación en todos os niveis da vida política, social e cultural galegas

    A Transcendent View of Things: The Persistence of Metaphysics in Modern German Lyric Poetry, 1771–1908

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    This dissertation explores the lyric poetry of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Eduard Mörike, and Rainer Maria Rilke, and it contends that these modern poets retain, albeit uneasily, a view of things as symbols of the transcendent divine. It thus disputes the secularization theory of post-Enlightenment aesthetics. This study specifically challenges the view of symbolism as mere metaphor—an image constructed of arbitrary signs (Nietzsche)—by showing how the epiphanies of modern lyric poetry remain grounded in the metaphysics of analogia, even where (as in Mörike) the writer seems to have left such entanglements behind. The modern poet’s desire to unveil a significant reality beyond subjective impression reveals that symbolic vision necessarily unfolds within the difference between the visible world and the transcendent divine. If signification entails likeness, yet lyric poetry always signifies in and through difference, then a constitutive analogy—that is, the simultaneity of likeness and even greater difference—emerges from within the dynamism of the lyric image itself. Part 1 begins by describing the symbolic image in Goethe’s lyric poetry to recover his view of things as expressing the “holy open mystery” of the cosmos. I show how his symbolism overcomes Enlightenment naturalism by depicting the antecedent order of analogia. Drawing primarily on Neoplatonic metaphysics, the Goethean symbol reveals the partial yet indisputable relatedness of things to the transcendent. Turning to Mörike, part 2 charts his transition to an equivocal understanding of symbol that would sever the image from its numinous source of significance by confining the image to the scope of the poet’s own gaze. Yet Mörike’s poetry also evinces a counter-veiling tendency to de-subjectivize the image, thus yielding a vision of things as they are prior to epistemic concerns, sentiment, and subjective preference. Part 3 contends that Rilke’s thing-poetry evinces a similar tendency to neutralize modernity’s biases against metaphysics. For his poetry recovers an apophatic understanding of symbolism as grounded in analogia that draws on Dionysian theology. His poems thus focus our attention on the thing’s unfathomable capacity for initiating a vision of the divine, of which the thing itself is a partial and fleeting manifestation.Doctor of Philosoph
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