10 research outputs found

    Gradate Catalog

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    Essays on behavioral responses to social insurance and taxation

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    This thesis contains three essays on behavioral responses to social insurance and taxation. The first chapter documents and analyzes an important and puzzling stylized fact about retirement behavior: the large concentration of job exits at specific ages. In Germany, almost 30% of workers retire precisely in the month when they reach one of three “statutory” retirement ages, although there is often no incentive or even a disincentive to retire at these thresholds. To study what can explain the concentration of retirements around statutory ages, I use novel administrative data covering the universe of German retirees, and I take advantage of unique variation in retirement incentives as well as in the location of statutory ages across individuals created by the German pension system. Measuring retirement bunching responses to 644 different discontinuities in pension benefit profiles, I first document that financial incentives alone fail to explain retirement patterns in the data. Second, I show that there is a direct effect of “presenting” a threshold as a statutory age, which is substantially larger than that of financial incentives. Further evidence on mechanisms suggests the framing of statutory ages as reference points for retirement as an explanation. A number of alternative channels including firm responses are also discussed but they do not seem to drive the results. The second chapter analyzes bunching responses around reference points and argues that bunching methods are naturally suited to quantify reference-dependent preferences. Using a standard labor supply model, the workhorse of the bunching literature, I first show that different types of reference dependence all have a key prediction in common: They imply sharp bunching of the outcome at the reference point. Observed bunching can be linked to underlying parameters, which motivates both structural and reduced-form estimation methods to implement an empirical bunching approach to reference dependence. Finally, I present two applications in the context of retirement decisions. First, I find significant bunching responses at a type of “pure” reference point, namely round retirement ages. Second, I complement the analysis from chapter 1 with structural estimation and find a quantitatively important role of reference dependence at statutory retirement ages. Counterfactual simulations highlight that shifting statutory ages via pension reforms can be an effective policy to increase actual retirement ages with a positive fiscal impact. The third chapter turns to a topic from the realm of taxation. Modern systems of firm taxation typically feature a combination of payroll, valued-added, and corporate income taxes. However, they often exist alongside special presumptive tax regimes targeted at small and medium enterprises (SME), such as a single turnover tax. This chapter uses novel administrative data from S˜ao Paulo (Brazil), including data on inter-firm trade, to shed light on the effects of such dual tax systems on firm growth, market competition, and production decisions. First, we show that the firm size distribution is distorted by the eligibility threshold for the presumptive tax system. Second, ineligible (larger) firms are adversely affected by reductions in the tax and compliance burden for SME. Third, we study the relationship between tax systems and production choices. The presumptive tax mainly replaces a payroll tax and a value-added tax by a turnover tax in our context. Accordingly, we find that firms in the presumptive tax regime use relatively more labor input and source more of their intermediate input from other firms in the same regime. This leads to partial segmentation of the trade network between firms in the two systems. We show that heterogeneity in firm production choices drives part of these correlations, but there is also a causal effect of tax regimes on input choices

    Data choice in capital gains realisation response studies - a review

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    This paper reviews the literature, from the United States, on capital gains realisation response studies. The studies reviewed use the econometric technique of regression analysis to estimate the responsiveness of capital gains realisations to tax rates and this is reported as an elasticity point estimate. The literature review reveals that the use of cross-sectional tax return data for only one tax year is the least preferred of three data types considered. In concluding, the paper considers the implications of the reviewed literature for a forthcoming Australian study on capital gains realisation response

    Studies on the market assessment of aquaculture research by a small producer country

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    This dissertation consists of several essays, each one dealing with a specific aspect of the estimation of induced benefits from aquaculture R&D. The first essay gives an overview of the development of capture and aquaculture production, as well as fish consumption. The second essay analyses the quality of international fish trade data. The third essay provides a network analysis of international fish trade. The fourth essay deals with the current strength and future direction of aquaculture R&D, as anticipated by aquaculture experts. The fifth essay analyses econometrically the demand for fish in Germany. The last essay, finally, presents a simulation model for estimating the potential benefits of aquaculture R&D. This simulation model makes use of many of the data and insights generated in the earlier essays. The economic evaluation of aquaculture R&D conducted in Germany provides a basis for decision making and public investments into aquaculture R&D

    An analysis of tax reform in Malaysia.

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    Railway Master Mechanic (v.35)

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    Childcare and early childhood learning: inquiry report

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    This report looks at where we are now with early childhood education and care in Australia, what we want in the future and how we might go about achieving that in a way that better supports children\u27s learning and development needs and the workforce participation of parents. Overview Early childhood education and care (ECEC) plays a vital role in the development of Australian children, their preparation for school and in enabling parents to participate in the workforce. Such outcomes are contingent on quality ECEC services being accessible and affordable for Australian families and their provision being flexible to match the variety of parents’ work arrangements. Since the introduction of ECEC funding on a wider scale in the 1980s and 1990s, governments have tweaked and patched assistance arrangements to improve the short term accessibility and affordability of ECEC services for families. In commissioning this inquiry, the Australian Government has acknowledged that it is now time to rethink Australia’s approach to ECEC. The Commission was requested to examine and identify future options for ECEC that address current concerns with accessibility, flexibility and affordability in a way that better supports: children’s learning and development needs, including their transition to school; and workforce participation of parents, especially women. In particular, the Government requested the Commission to report and make recommendations on the contribution that access to affordable, high quality ECEC can make and to evaluate current and future needs for ECEC, including for families in rural, regional and remote areas, families with shift work arrangements, and families with vulnerable or at risk children. The Commission was also asked to consider the impacts of regulatory changes in childcare over the past decade, other specific models for ECEC delivery (including those used overseas) and assess alternative mechanisms for Government to deliver support to families and providers. At the same time, the Government requested that any modifications to ECEC funding be based on funding arrangements that are sustainable for taxpayers and include options within current funding parameters

    Evidence on the High-Income Laffer Curve from Six Decades of Tax Reform

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    macroeconomics, laffer curve
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