32,809 research outputs found

    Building body identities - exploring the world of female bodybuilders

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    This thesis explores how female bodybuilders seek to develop and maintain a viable sense of self despite being stigmatized by the gendered foundations of what Erving Goffman (1983) refers to as the 'interaction order'; the unavoidable presentational context in which identities are forged during the course of social life. Placed in the context of an overview of the historical treatment of women's bodies, and a concern with the development of bodybuilding as a specific form of body modification, the research draws upon a unique two year ethnographic study based in the South of England, complemented by interviews with twenty-six female bodybuilders, all of whom live in the U.K. By mapping these extraordinary women's lives, the research illuminates the pivotal spaces and essential lived experiences that make up the female bodybuilder. Whilst the women appear to be embarking on an 'empowering' radical body project for themselves, the consequences of their activity remains culturally ambivalent. This research exposes the 'Janus-faced' nature of female bodybuilding, exploring the ways in which the women negotiate, accommodate and resist pressures to engage in more orthodox and feminine activities and appearances

    Exploring environmental concerns on digital platforms through big data: the effect of online consumers’ environmental discourse on online review ratings

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    By deploying big data analytical techniques to retrieve and analyze a large volume of more than 2.7 million reviews, this work sheds light on how environmental concerns expressed by tourists on digital platforms, in the guise of online reviews, influence their satisfaction with tourism and hospitality services. More specifically, we conduct a multi-platform study of Tripadvisor.com and Booking.com online reviews (ORs) pertaining to hotel services across eight leading tourism destination cities in America and Europe over the period 2017‚Äď2018. By adopting multivariate regression analyses, we show that OR ratings are positively influenced by both the presence and depth of environmental discourse on these platforms. Theoretical and managerial contributions, and implications for digital platforms, big data analytics (BDA), electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) and environmental research within the tourism and hospitality domain are examined, with a view to capturing, empirically, the effect of environmental discourse presence and depth on customer satisfaction proxied through online ratings

    The Idiosyncrasy of Involuntary Musical Imagery Repetition (IMIR) Experiences: The Role of Tempo and Lyrics

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    Involuntary musical imagery repetition (IMIR), colloquially known as ‚Äúearworms,‚ÄĚ is a form of musical imagery that arises involuntarily and repeatedly in the mind. A growing number of studies, based on retrospective reports, suggest that IMIR experiences are associated with certain musical features, such as fast tempo and the presence of lyrics, and with individual differences in music training and engagement. However, research to date has not directly assessed the effect of such musical features on IMIR and findings about individual differences in music training and engagement are mixed. Using a cross-sectional design (Study 1, n = 263), we examined IMIR content in terms of tempo (fast, slow) and presence of lyrics (instrumental, vocal), and IMIR characteristics (frequency, duration of episode and section) in relation to 1) the musical content (tempo and lyrics) individuals most commonly expose themselves to (music-listening habits), and 2) music training and engagement. We also used an experimental design (Study 2, n = 80) to test the effects of tempo (fast or slow) and the presence of lyrics (instrumental or vocal) on IMIR retrieval and duration. Results from Study 1 showed that the content of music that individuals are typically exposed to with regard to tempo and lyrics predicted and resembled their IMIR content, and that music engagement, but not music training, predicted IMIR frequency. Music training was, however, shown to predict the duration of IMIR episodes. In the experiment (Study 2), tempo did not predict IMIR retrieval, but the presence of lyrics influenced IMIR duration. Taken together, our findings suggest that IMIR is an idiosyncratic experience primed by the music-listening habits and music engagement of the individual

    The labour supply and retirement of older workers: an empirical analysis

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    This thesis examines the labour supply of older workers, their movement into retirement, and any movement out of retirement and back into work. In particular the labour force participation, labour supply and wage elasticity and other income elasticity of work hours are estimated for older workers and compared to younger workers. The thesis goes on to look at the movement into retirement for older workers as a whole by examining cohorts by gender, wave and age. The thesis also presents a descriptive and quantitative ‚ÄĘ examination of the changes in income and happiness that occur as an individual retires. Finally the thesis examines the reasons why an individual may return to work from v . retirement. The results of the findings suggest: that younger workers are significantly more responsive to wage and household income changes than older worker

    The alignment of the open innovation process and the project lifecycle

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    Purpose This research study aims to develop an alignment model based on a literature review that explains the association between the construction project lifecycle and the innovation process, while considering the integration of all stakeholders in the process in an open innovation context. Design/methodology/approach The authors conduct an extensive review of the open innovation and the construction project management literature to establish an alignment model through the investigation and analysis of the current scholarly contributions. This research study is based on a theoretical framework; thus, it has not utilized any primary data. Moreover, data collected for this research study was obtained from reliable literary sources. Findings The study presents an alignment model that has uncovered a strong correlation between project activities, stakeholder integration and innovation. The authors revealed critical factors that require an enhanced inter- and intra-collaboration between the various stakeholders and team members to achieve an effective innovation process in a project context. Originality/value This study provides a previously unexplored alignment between the project lifecycle and the innovation process. It signifies several critical factors that influence the effectiveness of innovations in a construction project context. Furthermore, it identifies different zones and knowledge transfer gates that necessitate proper leadership, stakeholder integration and team dynamics throughout the project lifecycle

    Las cafeterías de especialidad de Lima y sus relaciones transaccionales en respuesta a la pandemia de Covid-19

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    El crecimiento del sector gastron√≥mico a inicios de este siglo gener√≥ un contexto de dinamismo que muestra claramente la importancia del an√°lisis de las relaciones transaccionales entre las distintas firmas. Un caso particular de esto es el de las cafeter√≠as de especialidad, que se caracterizan por el √©nfasis en la calidad de las bebidas preparadas y la experiencia que se brinda al consumidor. Estos est√°ndares de calidad tienen como consecuencia una mayor importancia en el mantenimiento de relaciones transaccionales que garanticen el cumplimiento de las condiciones de la transacci√≥n. Por otra parte, el presente contexto de pandemia y las distintas regulaciones a los establecimientos gastron√≥micos provocan que las firmas de cara al consumidor requieran adaptar sus relaciones, en respuesta a los nuevos costos que surgen para fijar los par√°metros de las transacciones y para llegar a los consumidores. Tras una revisi√≥n de la literatura sobre la Teor√≠a de Costos de Transacci√≥n, se plantea, entonces, que los establecimientos han visto cambios en sus relaciones transaccionales. Espec√≠ficamente, se espera que se haya optado por relaciones menos costosas para el abastecimiento de caf√© como respuesta a los mayores costos de entablar relaciones m√°s estrechas con los productores; y relaciones m√°s cercanas con los proveedores de servicios de entrega como respuesta a la mayor frecuencia del uso de estos servicios, resultante de las restricciones al servicio en sala. Para poner a prueba estas hip√≥tesis, se propone dise√Īar una encuesta, cuya aplicaci√≥n en conjunto con entrevistas semiestructuradas descubrir√° informaci√≥n sobre las relaciones transaccionales de las cafeter√≠as de especialidad de Lima.The growth of the gastronomic sector at the start of the current century caused a context of great activity which clearly shows the importance of analyzing the transactional relations between firms. Regarding this, a particular case is that of specialty coffee shops, characterized by their emphasis in the quality of the brewed product as well as consumer experience. These quality standards give rise to a greater importance in building transactional relations that guarantee compliance with the terms of the agreement to transact. On the other hand, the current context of health crisis and the diverse set of regulations that seek to respond to it are events that consumer-facing firms have had to adapt to; this includes adapting their transactional relations to reach consumers and settle agreements. With Transaction Cost Economics as the basis for the analysis, it is justified to propose that firms have had to change their transactional relations. Specifically, establishments would opt for less costly transactions to acquire their supply of coffee, as the cost of closer of more formal relations rises; they would also form closer relations with delivery services, because of the higher frequency of these transactions in response to the diminished in-store capacity. To test these hypotheses, the proposal is to design a survey whose deployment, together with semi-structured interviews, will reveal information regarding the transactional relations of the specialty coffee shops in Lima

    Ionic Liquids on Oxide Surfaces

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    Ionic liquids supported on oxide surfaces are being investigated for numerous applications including catalysis, batteries, capacitors, transistors, lubricants, solar cells, corrosion inhibitors, nanoparticle synthesis and biomedical applications. The study of ionic liquids with oxide surfaces presents challenges both experimentally and computationally. The interaction between ionic liquids and oxide surfaces can be rather complex, with defects in the oxide surface playing a key role in the adsorption behaviour and resulting electronic properties. The choice of the cation/anion pair is also important and can influence molecular ordering and electronic properties at the interface. These controllable interfacial behaviours make ionic liquid/oxide systems desirable for a number of different technological applications as well as being utilised for nanoparticle synthesis. This topical review aims to bring together recent experimental and theoretical work on the interaction of ionic liquids with oxide surfaces, including TiO2, ZnO, Al2O3, SnO2 and transition metal oxides. It focusses on the behaviour of ionic liquids at model single crystal surfaces, the interaction between ionic liquids and nanoparticulate oxides, and their performance in prototype devices

    Effect of the AlAs capping layer thickness on the structure of InAs/GaAs QD

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    Recently, very thin AlAs capping layers (CLs) have been proposed as a useful tool to increase the performance of InAs/GaAs quantum dot (QDs) devices. However, the structure of QDs after AlAs deposition remains poorly understood and the mechanisms to explain it are often contradictory. In this work, the structural and compositional changes of InAs QDs using different AlAs CL thicknesses have been studied by state-of-the-art STEM-related techniques. First, the heights and In contents of InAs QDs progressively increase with the CL thickness, demonstrating that the AlAs capping produces a strong shielding effect against the decomposition of QDs. However, QD populations for CL thicknesses above 5 ML split into a bimodal distribution in which smaller lenticular QDs cohabit with bigger truncated pyramids. Second, the actual Al contents around the QDs are well below the nominal design, but increasing for thicker CLs. Its distribution is initially non-uniform, tending to accumulate on the flanks of the QDs to the detriment of the apex. Only for thicknesses above 2 ML the Al contents around the QDs start to be similar to those in the regions between the QDs, behaving as a continuous film without irregularities from 5 ML onwards. © 2021 The Author(s)The work has been co-financed by the Spanish National Research Agency (AEI projects MAT2016-77491-C2-2-R and PID2019-106088RB-C33), Regional Government of Andalusia (project FEDER-UCA18-108319) and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)

    Preparación de fibras submicrométricas de base carbonosa para aplicaciones energéticas y medioambientales

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    En esta Tesis Doctoral se estudia la valorizaci√≥n de la lignina como precursor de fibras de carb√≥n. Para ello, las fibras se han preparado por electrospinning de disoluciones de lignina-etanol y lignina-etanol-H3PO4. Para ello se ha optimizado el proceso de preparaci√≥n de fibras de carb√≥n prestando atenci√≥n especial a la etapa de estabilizaci√≥n de las fibras de lignina, ya que esta es la etapa controlante del proceso de preparaci√≥n. De esta forma se han preparado fibras de carb√≥n con distintas propiedades f√≠sico-qu√≠micas para su uso en aplicaciones funcionales como en procesos de adsorci√≥n en fase l√≠quida, procesos catal√≠ticos en fase gaseosa, y procesos de conversi√≥n y almacenamiento de energ√≠a. Gracias a la funcionalizaci√≥n de las fibras de lignina con P se producen unos entrecruzamientos en la estructura de la lignina debido a la formaci√≥n de grupos √©teres fosfatos y polifosfatos, los que mejoran las condiciones de estabilizaci√≥n acortando el proceso en 20 o 50 veces con respecto a las fibras de lignina sin funcionalizar. Adem√°s, debido a la funcionalizaci√≥n con P se han obtenido fibras de carb√≥n estructuradas con elevada resistencia a la oxidaci√≥n, con un car√°cter √°cido y con elevadas superficies espec√≠ficas (hasta 2000 m2/g). Las fibras de carb√≥n sin P y funcionalizadas con P se han utilizado como adsorbentes para la adsorci√≥n de fenol en fase l√≠quida, presentando elevadas capacidades de adsorci√≥n y cin√©ticas de adsorci√≥n muy r√°pidas, debido al car√°cter microporoso que estas tiene y que la porosidad est√° muy accesible desde la superficie de la fibra de carb√≥n. Adem√°s, se ha planteado un modelo matem√°tico para simular el comportamiento en columna de adsorci√≥n, obteniendo resultados muy satisfactorios. Tambi√©n se ha estudiado la regeneraci√≥n de los adsorbentes carbonosos. Al funcionalizar precursores carbonosos con P, se obtienen materiales carbonosos con grupos de P muy estable t√©rmicamente. De esta forma, se ha estudiado la estabilidad t√©rmica de los grupos de f√≥sforo preparando fibras de carb√≥n con temperaturas de carbonizaci√≥n entre 500 y 1600 ¬ļC. Para ello, se ha realizado la descomposici√≥n de isopropanol, una mol√©cula modelo que se utiliza para caracterizar los sitios √°cidos-b√°sicos de la superficie. Las fibras de carb√≥n funcionalizadas con P presentan car√°cter √°cido, deshidratando el isopropanol para la producci√≥n de etileno. Estos catalizadores carbonosos presentan √°cidez comparable a la de un catalizador comercial √°cido. Se han preparado electrocatalizadores carbonosos con muy buena dispersi√≥n de part√≠culas de platino por toda la matriz carbonosa. Esta buena dispersi√≥n y homogeneidad se debe a que se han preparado fibras de lignina con metales en un solo paso. Estos electrocatalizadores presentan buen comportamiento para la electroxidaci√≥n de metanol y etanol. Se propone el uso de fibras de carb√≥n como electrodos carbonosos en supercondensadores sin la adici√≥n de promotor de la conductividad y aglomerante. Se han preparado fibras de carb√≥n lineales y con un cierto grado de interconexi√≥n a temperaturas de carbonizaci√≥n de 900 ¬ļC, presentando buenas conductividades el√©ctricas y elevados valores de capacidad. Adem√°s, la carga y descarga del supercondensador se realiza en varios segundos
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