1,963,533 research outputs found

    Pore Water Pressure in Sand Bed under Oscillating Water Pressure

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    In this paper the theoretical method to analyse the pore water pressures in the sand bed under the oscillating water pressure is developed. In the former researchs the validity of the theoretical treatment for the one-dimensional problem has been verified. However, the one-dimensional treatment is not sufficient to obtain the precise informations concerning the many practical problems. From this point of view, in this study, we derive the fundamental equations for the general three-dimensional sand layer under the oscillating water pressure. The validity of this theoretical method is verified by experiments for the twodimensional problems

    Numerical simulation analysis on water jet pressure distribution at various nozzle aperture

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    The low velocity water jet is required by small scale Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV) to control its position, either to remain statics in its position or to perform a slow and steady locomotion. However, the water jet performance is influenced by the size of nozzle aperture. By studying the pressure distribution around the nozzle area, the water jet velocity could be determined and characterized. In this studies, the ejection pressure was fixed at 23.37 Pa according to the constant actuation. Studies were conducted using ANSYS Fluent software. The results show that the water jet velocity and dynamic pressure are higher for larger nozzle aperture size at constant pressure. The total pressure and dynamic pressure had the lowest pressure drop at certain nozzle aperture size but became constant when the nozzle size was wider. This finding is useful in designing the UUV that powered by contractile water jet thruster

    Impact on a water filled cylinder

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    The computational and experimental results of impact loading a water filled cylinder with a high speed piston are presented. Computational simulation of the impact process is performed by means of DIANA, a commercial finite element software package. In this simulation, water is modeled as a solid with very small shear modulus compared to the bulk modulus of water. The efficiency of the simulated impact is evaluated by the time dependent water pressure in the vicinity of the cylinder. Also, the shock pressure resulting from impact is detected by using a pressure transducer located in the middle of the water tube. Comparison of the computational and experimental results shows that the impact process on a water filled cylinder is well modeled. It is shown that the best way to increase the pressure peaks of the pressure profile curve is to increase the piston’s impact velocity

    Weightlessness simulation system and process

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    A weightlessness simulator has a chamber and a suit in the chamber. O-rings and valves hermetically seal the chamber. A vacuum pump connected to the chamber establishes a pressure in the chamber less than atmospheric pressure. A water supply tank and water supply line supply a body of water to the chamber as a result of partial vacuum created in the chamber. In use, an astronaut enters the pressure suit through a port, which remains open to ambient atmosphere, thus supplying air to the astronaut during use. The pressure less than atmospheric pressure in the chamber is chosen so that the pressure differential from the inside to the outside of the suit corresponds to the pressure differential with the suit in outer space

    Oscillatory subglacial drainage in the absence of surface melt

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    The presence of strong diurnal cycling in basal water pressure records obtained during the melt season is well established for many glaciers. The behaviour of the drainage system outside the melt season is less well understood. Here we present borehole observations from a surge-type valley glacier in the St Elias Mountains, Yukon Territory, Canada. Our data indicate the onset of strongly correlated multi-day oscillations in water pressure in multiple boreholes straddling a main drainage axis, starting several weeks after the disappearance of a dominant diurnal mode in August 2011 and persisting until at least January 2012, when multiple data loggers suffered power failure. Jökulhlaups provide a template for understanding spontaneous water pressure oscillations not driven by external supply variability. Using a subglacial drainage model, we show that water pressure oscillations can also be driven on a much smaller scale by the interaction between conduit growth and distributed water storage in smaller water pockets, basal crevasses and moulins, and that oscillations can be triggered when water supply drops below a critical value. We suggest this in combination with a steady background supply of water from ground water or englacial drainage as a possible explanation for the observed wintertime pressure oscillations

    Leak localization in water distribution networks using pressure and data-driven classifier approach

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    Leaks in water distribution networks (WDNs) are one of the main reasons for water loss during fluid transportation. Considering the worldwide problem of water scarcity, added to the challenges that a growing population brings, minimizing water losses through leak detection and localization, timely and efficiently using advanced techniques is an urgent humanitarian need. There are numerous methods being used to localize water leaks in WDNs through constructing hydraulic models or analyzing flow/pressure deviations between the observed data and the estimated values. However, from the application perspective, it is very practical to implement an approach which does not rely too much on measurements and complex models with reasonable computation demand. Under this context, this paper presents a novel method for leak localization which uses a data-driven approach based on limit pressure measurements in WDNs with two stages included: (1) Two different machine learning classifiers based on linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and neural networks (NNET) are developed to determine the probabilities of each node having a leak inside a WDN; (2) Bayesian temporal reasoning is applied afterwards to rescale the probabilities of each possible leak location at each time step after a leak is detected, with the aim of improving the localization accuracy. As an initial illustration, the hypothetical benchmark Hanoi district metered area (DMA) is used as the case study to test the performance of the proposed approach. Using the fitting accuracy and average topological distance (ATD) as performance indicators, the preliminary results reaches more than 80% accuracy in the best cases.Peer ReviewedPostprint (published version

    Strategic planning optimisation of "Napoli Est" water distribution system

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    The District Meter Areas (DMA) design is an innovative methodology of water networks management, based on the pressure patterns control and on the water flows monitoring, in order to reduce water losses and to optimize the water systems management. A District Meter Area is an area supplied from few water inputs, into which discharges can be easily measured to determine leaks. So, the DMA design represents an alternative to the traditional approach based on heavy looped distribution network. In the present paper the DMA design of the “Napoli Est” water distribution system (approximately 65.000÷70.000 customers), performed with the support of the Water Agency ARIN S.p.A., is discussed. After analysis of authorized consumption, by means of a monitoring campaign of water flows over the area, the system water balance was performed, showing significant water losses, as a consequence of high pressure patterns. This situation was confirmed by the high number of maintenance operations performed in the area during the year 2005. In order to characterize the piezometric heads on the network, ARIN S.p.A. supplied to the installation of six pressure transducers in the most vulnerable areas. The water level in the supply reservoir was also measured in order to estimate its influence on the network pressure heads. Hydraulic simulations were carried out with the EPANET software version 2.0 applied to a network layout resulted from the system “skeletonization”, achieved by eliminating out of order pipes, integrating pipelines of same diameter and roughness, replacing dead-end branches and small networks supplied by a single junction with an equivalent discharge. After the skeletonizated network was calibrated, several hypothesis of designing and implementing DMA to reduce physical losses were performed, providing adequate operating pressure of the system. Many numerical simulations were performed to guarantee adequate head pressure especially for peak hours demand, break of transmission mains and fire hydrant service. A chlorine residuals analysis was also effected, by simulating the transport and decay of chlorine through the network. District Meter Areas, therefore, were designed, and the corresponding hydraulic and water quality investigations and simulations were carried out. Six District Meter Areas were planned, assembling 14 intercepting valves and 9 pressure reducing valves to prevent the downstream pressure head from exceeding the set value, achieving a remarkable water saving, approximately equal to 34% of the physical losses, corresponding to 16% of system input volume

    Water impact loads

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    Computer program to generate time history of load factor and pressure on conical body of revolution during impact with water is discussed. Program calculates depth of penetration, velocity, force, load factor, maximum pressure at water line, and average pressure. Program is written in FORTRAN 4 Level H for IBM 360/85/195 Release 20.1 computer
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