4,330 research outputs found

    Wallacea, a Linguistic Area

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    Wallacea is home to languages of the Austronesian language family, and to languages from multiple Papuan, or non-Austronesian, language families. It has long been observed that the Austronesian languages of Wallacea display Papuan influences. Some linguists have attempted to define linguistic Wallacea (albeit under other names) in terms of this hybridity. The present article however shows that the zone of Papuan influence on Austronesian languages is much wider than Wallacea, encompassing areas east as well as west of New Guinea. Within this wider zone, called here Linguistic Melanesia, a more restricted Wallacean linguistic area can nevertheless be identified as a subcategory defined by a set of specific features not found elsewhere in Linguistic Melanesia. There is evidence that Linguistic Wallacea is the result of prehistoric interactions between Austronesian migrants and a pre-existing population of seafaring Papuan agriculturalists, who were already well established in Wallacea before the Austronesians arrived.La Wallacea comprend des langues de la famille austronésienne et des langues des multiples familles de langues papoues, ou non austronésiennes. On sait depuis longtemps que les langues austronésiennes de la Wallacea dénotent des influences papoues. Certains linguistes ont tenté de définir une Wallacea linguistique (sous d’autres désignations) en fonction de cette hybridité. Le présent article montre cependant que la zone d’influence papoue sur les langues austronésiennes est beaucoup plus étendue que la Wallacea, englobant des régions à l’est et à l’ouest de la Nouvelle-Guinée. Dans cette zone plus vaste, appelée ici Mélanésie linguistique, une aire linguistique wallacéenne plus restreinte peut néanmoins être considérée comme une sous-catégorie définie par un ensemble de traits spécifiques qu’on ne trouve pas ailleurs en Mélanésie linguistique. Il est prouvé que cette Wallacea linguistique résulte d’interactions aux temps préhistoriques entre les migrants austronésiens et une population pré-existante d’agriculteurs et de marins papous, déjà bien établis dans la Wallacea avant l’arrivée des Austronésiens

    Climate change and postglacial human dispersals in southeast Asia

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    Modern humans have been living in Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) for at least 50,000 years. Largely because of the influence of linguistic studies, however, which have a shallow time depth, the attention of archaeologists and geneticists has usually been focused on the last 6,000 years--in particular, on a proposed Neolithic dispersal from China and Taiwan. Here we use complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome sequencing to spotlight some earlier processes that clearly had a major role in the demographic history of the region but have hitherto been unrecognized. We show that haplogroup E, an important component of mtDNA diversity in the region, evolved in situ over the last 35,000 years and expanded dramatically throughout ISEA around the beginning of the Holocene, at the time when the ancient continent of Sundaland was being broken up into the present-day archipelago by rising sea levels. It reached Taiwan and Near Oceania more recently, within the last approximately 8,000 years. This suggests that global warming and sea-level rises at the end of the Ice Age, 15,000-7,000 years ago, were the main forces shaping modern human diversity in the region

    The value of the Wallacea Region: Considerations behind the changing scope of JPK Wallacea

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    The Editorial Board has issued this editorial note in the form of a review to inform contributors about changes to the scope of the Journal of Wallacea Forestry Research (JPK Wallacea) following the transfer of management from Balai Penerapan Instrumen Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan Makassar to Hasanuddin University's Forest Conservation Study Program in 2023. JPK Wallacea is no longer limiting its scope to forestry and is expanded to cover biodiversity in general by incorporating the term Wallaceae, which is a biogeographical area located between the continents of Asia and Australia. This area is well known for its unique biodiversity both on land and in water. The Wallacea region's biodiversity is famed for its distinctiveness yet, it is on the verge of extinction. Thus, the Editorial Board chose to focus on the scope of JPK Wallacea on scientific, technological, and policy conservation features. This scientific publication is expected to make a substantial contribution to the biodiversity conservation effort in the Wallacea region and its surroundings

    Ocean Current Energy Conversion System in Wallacea Region Using Variable Speed Control Approach

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    Ocean Current Energy Conversion System (OCECS) is a promising green energy resource in this globe. The Thermohaline circulation data indicates that the Wallacea region has the potential of ocean current energy resources. This paper is aimed to propose research and development of OCECSs to be implemented in the Wallacea region. Firstly, four types of green energy conversion systems extracted from ocean are reviewed. Their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Secondly, the potential of OCECS in the Wallacea region is described. Third, many types of turbines used for OCECS are reviewed and the turbine type for OCECS is selected to be implemented in the Wallacea region. Fourth, control strategy is proposed.From the work reported in this paper it is concluded that it is appropriate to implement OCECSs using axial flow water turbines in the Wallacea region, and that to maximize energy conversion variable speed control approach is selected together with control of mechanism to move the turbine vertically as well as to rotate the turbine in yaw direction

    Roon ve, DO/GIVE Coexpression, and Language Contact in Northwest New Guinea

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    Early ground axe technology in Wallacea: The first excavations on Obi Island

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    The first excavations on Obi Island, north-east Wallacea, reveal three phases of occupation beginning in the terminal Pleistocene. Ground shell artefacts appear at the end of the terminal Pleistocene, the earliest examples in Wallacea. In the subsequent early Holocene occupation phase, ground stone axe flakes appear, which are again the earliest examples in Wallacea. Ground axes were likely instrumental to subsistence in Obi's dense tropical forest. From ~8000 BP there was a hiatus lasting several millennia, perhaps because increased precipitation and forest density made the sites inhospitable. The site was reoccupied in the Metal Age, with this third phase including quadrangular ground stone artefacts, as well as pottery and pigs; reflecting Austronesian influences. Greater connectivity at this time is also indicated by an Oliva shell bead tradition that occurs in southern Wallacea and an exotic obsidian artefact. The emergence of ground axes on Obi is an independent example of a broader pattern of intensification at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition in Wallacea and New Guinea, evincing human innovation in response to rapid environmental change

    A molecular phylogeny of Southeast Asian Cyrtandra (Gesneriaceae) supports an emerging paradigm for Malesian plant biogeography

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    The islands of Southeast Asia comprise one of the most geologically and biogeographically complex areas in the world and are a centre of exceptional floristic diversity, harbouring 45,000 species of flowering plants. Cyrtandra, with over 800 species of herbs and shrubs, is the largest genus in the family Gesneriaceae and is one of the most emblematic and species-rich genera of the Malesian rainforest understorey. The high number of species and tendency to narrow endemism make Cyrtandra an ideal genus for examining biogeographic patterns. We sampled 128 Cyrtandra taxa from key localities across Southeast Asia to evaluate the geo-temporal patterns and evolutionary dynamics of this clade. One nuclear and four chloroplast regions were used for phylogenetic reconstruction, molecular dating, and ancestral range estimation. Results from the dating analysis suggest that the great diversity of Cyrtandra seen in the Malesian region results from a recent radiation, with most speciation taking place in the last five million years. Borneo was recovered as the most likely ancestral range of the genus, with the current distribution of species resulting from a west to east migration across Malesia that corresponds with island emergence and mountain building. Lastly, our investigation into the biogeographic history of the genus indicates high levels of floristic exchange between the islands on the Sunda shelf and the important role of the Philippines as a stepping stone to Wallacea and New Guinea. These patterns underlie much of the plant diversity in the region and form an emerging paradigm in Southeast Asian plant biogeography

    Mitogenomes reveal two major influxes of Papuan ancestry across Wallacea following the last glacial maximum and Austronesian contact

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    The tropical archipelago of Wallacea contains thousands of individual islands interspersed between mainland Asia and Near Oceania, and marks the location of a series of ancient oceanic voyages leading to the peopling of Sahul—i.e., the former continent that joined Australia and New Guinea at a time of lowered sea level—by 50,000 years ago. Despite the apparent deep antiquity of human presence in Wallacea, prior population history research in this region has been hampered by patchy archaeological and genetic records and is largely concentrated upon more recent history that follows the arrival of Austronesian seafarers ~3000–4000 years ago (3–4 ka). To shed light on the deeper history of Wallacea and its connections with New Guinea and Australia, we performed phylogeographic analyses on 656 whole mitogenomes from these three regions, including 186 new samples from eight Wallacean islands and three West Papuan populations. Our results point to a surprisingly dynamic population history in Wallacea, marked by two periods of extensive demographic change concentrated around the Last Glacial Maximum ~15 ka and post-Austronesian contact ~3 ka. These changes appear to have greatly diminished genetic signals informative about the original peopling of Sahul, and have important implications for our current understanding of the population history of the region.1. Introduction 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Sample Collection and Ethics 2.2. Mitochondrial Sequence Generation 2.3. Combined Wallacea–Sahul Dataset 2.4. Phylogenetic Parameter Estimation 2.5. Using Ancestral Node Dates from Geographically Exclusive Clades to Infer Demographic History 2.6. Migration Model Inference and Testing 2.7. Simulating and Estimating the Timing of Migration Events 3. Results 3.1. Summary of New Mitochondrial Haplogroups from Wallacea and West Papua 3.2. Phylogeographic Analyses 4. Discussion 4.1. Post-LGM Population Expansions and Movements 4.2. Redistribution of Papuan mtDNA Lineages Following Austronesian Contact 4.3. Comparison with Wallacean Archaeological and Linguistic Records 5. Conclusion

    Little known Tyto owls of Wallacea

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    During the preparation of The Guide to the Birds of Wallacea, and a review of the conservation and status of Wallacea's endemic birds, it became clear that reviews of little know species or species groups would perhaps aid those species' conservation by drawing attention to them. Secondly such accounts would also provide a useful resource to the growing number of field workers in this, until recently, sadly neglected region. This first account deals with three virtually unknown Tyto Owls endemic to Wallacea
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