150,058 research outputs found

    Efficacy of common laboratory disinfectants and heat on killing trypanosomatid parasites

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    The disinfectants TriGene, bleach, ethanol and liquid hand soap, and water and temperature were tested for their ability to kill bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei, epimastigotes of Trypanosoma rangeli and promastigotes of Leishmania major. A 5-min exposure to 0.2% TriGene, 0.1% liquid hand soap and 0.05% bleach (0.05% NaOCl) killed all three trypanosomatids. Ethanol and water destroyed the parasites within 5 min at concentrations of 15-17.5% and 80-90%, respectively. All three organisms were also killed when treated for 5 min at 50 degrees C. The results indicate that the disinfectants, water and temperature treatment (i.e. autoclaving) are suitable laboratory hygiene measures against trypanosomatid parasites

    Public health risk of Giardia and Cryptosporidium posed by reintroduction of beavers into Scotland

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    Following publication of ‘Scottish Beaver Trial Independent Public Health Monitoring 2009-2014 Report and Recommendations’ (Mackie, 2014), two pieces of complementary work were undertaken in parallel to assess the potential contribution of reintroduced beavers in Scotland to the public health burden of disease attributed to Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. parasites. The first, a risk assessment, addressing the question ‘What is the likelihood that re-introduced beavers will have a significant impact on the contamination of drinking water supplies with Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia?’ (Appendix 1), was conducted by Scottish Government’s Centre of Expertise on Animal Disease Outbreaks (EPIC). This reviewed evidence from data and publications across the world, as well as evidence from the beaver trial and SNH’s Tayside beaver reports, and used this to assess the likely additional contribution of beavers to the risk associated with exposure to these parasites in Scotland. The second, ‘What is the likelihood that beavers will be an important source of contamination of drinking water supplies with Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia intestinalis?’ (Appendix 2), was prepared by Health Protection Scotland (HPS), Scottish Parasite Diagnostic Reference Laboratory (SPDL) and Drinking Water Quality Regulator for Scotland (DWQR). This reviewed the diagnostics, surveillance and epidemiology of these infections in people in Scotland

    The impact of a vertically transmitted microsporidian, Nosema granulosis on the fitness of its Gammarus duebeni host under stressful environmental conditions

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    Although purely vertically transmitted parasites are predicted to cause low pathogenicity in their hosts, the effects of such parasites on host fitness under stressful environmental conditions have not previously been assessed. Here, we investigate the effects of Nosema granulosis, a vertically transmitted, microsporidian parasite of the brackish water amphipod Gammarus duebeni, on host growth and survival under conditions of host–host competition and limited food. The parasite had no effect on host survival, but caused a reduction in juvenile growth. Stressful environmental conditions also led to a reduction in G. duebeni growth. However, we found no evidence to support the prediction that parasitized hosts would suffer a greater reduction in fitness than uninfected hosts under adverse environmental conditions. We interpret our results in the context of selection for successful vertical parasite transmission

    Biochemical studies of Circumoncobothrium (Shinde 1968) tapeworm in freshwater fish Mastacembelus armatus

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    Parasitic biochemistry has great practical importance through chemotherapy and vaccine production and in understanding of the complex association involved in the host parasite relationship However; information in parasite biochemistry is patchy. The present study deals with the biochemistry (Protein, glycogen, lipid) of parasites circumoncobothrium in fresh water fish Mastacembelus armatus, Collected from fresh water fish. circumoncobothrium parasites are the most pathogenic cestode parasites

    Parasites Associated with Sachet Drinking Water (Pure Water) in Awka, South-Eastern, Nigeria

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    A study to ascertain the parasites associated with sachet drinking water, (popularly called “Pure Water” in Nigeria), in Awka, capital of Anambra State, southeast Nigeria was conducted. This was in order to determine the safety and suitability of such water for human consumption. Sachet water is a major source of drinking water for low and middle class Nigerians. The increase in demand of this water has led to the proliferation of industries in this sector, because of the economic benefits derivable from the sale. Samples of differently packaged sachet drinking water were purchased from producers, distributors, marketers and hawkers. Samples were observed macroscopically and pH tested. Using a sterile syringe, 10mls of water was taken from each sample and centrifuged at 2,500rpm per minute. Sediments observed were placed on a glass slide and observed microscopically using x10 and x40 objective lens for a possible parasite ova or cyst. The surface of each sachet of the packaged drinking water was also washed thoroughly and the resulting water was centrifuged and observed microscopically. All the tested water samples met the W.H.O. recommended standard, of being colorless, tasteless, odourless with average pH of 6.93. No parasites were found in the water in the sachets but some parasites were found on the surfaces of the sachets. The surface of the sachets of the packaged water purchased from hawkers had the highest number of parasites {15 (41.7%)}. Identified parasites include cysts of Ascaris lumbricoides (5.6%), Entamoeba histolytica (4.6%), hookworm (2.8), Trichuris trichuria (2.8%) and Giardia lamblia cysts (1.9%). Hawkers possibly play a very significant role (χ2 = 20.21, df =2,

    Impoundment Effects on Water Quality as Reflected in Parasitism of Reservoir Basses

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    Our aquatic environments are rapidly becoming useless as natural resources through pollution from various sources. It is therefore necessary for us to further understand the various means which relate to this process. The interrelationships between the physico-chemical and biological water qualities undergo marked changes during the ageing of a reservoir. Eutrophication of these impoundments render them rela-tively useless as natural resources. It thus becomes apparent that we must gain further knowledge of these processes if we are to devise methods for proper reservoir management

    Evaluation of a novel digital environment for learning medical parasitology.

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    open access articleEukaryotic parasites represent a serious human health threat requiring health professionals with parasitology skills to counteract this threat. However, recent surveys highlight an erosion of teaching of parasitology in medical and veterinary schools, despite reports of increasing instances of food and water borne parasitic infections. To address this we developed a web-based resource, DMU e-ParasitologyÂź, to facilitate the teaching and learning of parasitology, comprising four sections: theoretical; virtual laboratory; virtual microscopy; virtual clinical case studies. Testing the package was performed using a questionnaire given to ninety-five Pharmacy students in 2017/18 to assess effectiveness of the package as a teaching and learning tool. 89.5% of students reported appropriate acquisition of knowledge of the pathology, prevention and treatment of some parasitic diseases. 82.1% also welcomed the clinical specialism of the package as it helped them to acquire basic diagnostic skills, through learning infective features/morphology of the parasites

    Limnological, Ichthyological, and Parasitological Investigations on Arkansas Reservoris in Relation to Water Quality

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    Lake Fort Smith, a 525 acre (212 ha) reservoir, was impounded in 1936 as a water supply for the city of Fort Smith. The reservoir is located on Clear Creek (Frog Bayou), a tributary of the Arkansas River, in the Boston Mountains 28 miles (45 km) northeast of the city of Fort Smith in Crawford County, Arkansas. A map and morphometric characteristics of Lake Fort Smith are given in Fig. 1 and Table I (Hoffman, 1951; Nelson, 1952). In 1956 Lake Shepherd Springs, a 750 acre (304 ha) impoundment, was created one mile upstream of Lake Fort Smith (Rorie, 1961). Both lakes have a shale substrate and are subject to periods of high turbidity. The 2 two lakes have a water shed of 65 square mile area (168 km ) of mountainous oak-hickory forest. Lake Shepherd Springs has not acted as a settling basin for sediments; thus, the upper portion of Lake Fort Smith has numerous shallow areas with a mud bottom supporting various submergent and emergent aquatic plants. The lower portion of the lake has a rocky, shale substrate with only limited emergent vegetation