519,611 research outputs found

    Between Hype and Understatement: Reassessing Cyber Risks as a Security Strategy

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    Most of the actions that fall under the trilogy of cyber crime, terrorism,and war exploit pre-existing weaknesses in the underlying technology.Because these vulnerabilities that exist in the network are not themselvesillegal, they tend to be overlooked in the debate on cyber security. A UKreport on the cost of cyber crime illustrates this approach. Its authors chose to exclude from their analysis the costs in anticipation of cyber crime, such as insurance costs and the costs of purchasing anti-virus software on the basis that "these are likely to be factored into normal day-to-day expenditures for the Government, businesses, and individuals. This article contends if these costs had been quantified and integrated into the cost of cyber crime, then the analysis would have revealed that what matters is not so much cyber crime, but the fertile terrain of vulnerabilities that unleash a range of possibilities to whomever wishes to exploit them. By downplaying the vulnerabilities, the threats represented by cyber war, cyber terrorism, and cyber crime are conversely inflated. Therefore, reassessing risk as a strategy for security in cyberspace must include acknowledgment of understated vulnerabilities, as well as a better distributed knowledge about the nature and character of the overhyped threats of cyber crime, cyber terrorism, and cyber war

    The practices of apartheid as a war crime: a critical analysis

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    The human suffering caused by the political ideology of apartheid in South Africa during the Apartheid era (1948-1994) prompted worldwide condemnation and a variety of diplomatic and legal responses. Amongst these responses was the attempt to have apartheid recognised both as a crime against humanity in the 1973 Apartheid Convention as well as a war crime in Article 85(4)(c) of Additional Protocol I. This article examines the origins, nature and current status of the practices of apartheid as a war crime and its possible application to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict

    After Guantanamo: War, Crime, and Detention

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    Neither the law of war nor the criminal law, alone or in combination, provides an adequate legal structure for responding to the most serious threats posed by Al Qaeda and similar groups. After identifying the limits of the criminal law and the law of war for these purposes, this article outlines a comprehensive proposal for counterterrorism prosecution and detention policy. Appended to the article is the draft Counterterrorism Detention, Treatment and Release Act. The legislation proposed: 1) defines the category of persons to be subject to detention; 2) delineates procedures for identifying individuals falling within that category; 3) provides a system for the appeal and periodic review of detention determinations; 4) prescribes standards of detention; and, 5) specifies criteria for and conditions of release. It contains provisions for application of the Act in the territorial U.S. and abroad, in theaters of hostilities, and otherwise. The draft legislation provides the requisite legal foundation and procedural framework for protection of national security while upholding constitutional principles, complying with the law of war, and safeguarding against erroneous detention. It is applicable equally to the disposition of the detainees currently at Guantanamo as to other instances of counterterrorism detention, elsewhere or in the future. The legislation proposed thus provides a mechanism for resolving the quandaries of Guantanamo in a principled manner, without the creation of ad hoc rules for special cases

    After Guantanamo: War, Crime, and Detention

    Get PDF
    Neither the law of war nor the criminal law, alone or in combination, provides an adequate legal structure for responding to the most serious threats posed by Al Qaeda and similar groups. After identifying the limits of the criminal law and the law of war for these purposes, this article outlines a comprehensive proposal for counterterrorism prosecution and detention policy. Appended to the article is the draft Counterterrorism Detention, Treatment and Release Act. The legislation proposed: 1) defines the category of persons to be subject to detention; 2) delineates procedures for identifying individuals falling within that category; 3) provides a system for the appeal and periodic review of detention determinations; 4) prescribes standards of detention; and, 5) specifies criteria for and conditions of release. It contains provisions for application of the Act in the territorial U.S. and abroad, in theaters of hostilities, and otherwise. The draft legislation provides the requisite legal foundation and procedural framework for protection of national security while upholding constitutional principles, complying with the law of war, and safeguarding against erroneous detention. It is applicable equally to the disposition of the detainees currently at Guantanamo as to other instances of counterterrorism detention, elsewhere or in the future. The legislation proposed thus provides a mechanism for resolving the quandaries of Guantanamo in a principled manner, without the creation of ad hoc rules for special cases

    Crime Networks with Bargaining and Build Frictions

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    How does the timing, targets and types of anti-crime policies affect a network when criminal retailers search sequentially for wholesalers and crime opportunities? Given the illicit nature of crime, I analyze a non-competitive market where players bargain over the surplus. In such a market, some anti-crime policies distort revenue sharing, reduce matching frictions and increase market activity or crime. As an application, the model provides a new perspective on why the U.S. cocaine market saw rising consumption after the introduction of the “War on Drugs.”crime, networks, search, matching

    Cascades of Violence

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    War and crime are cascade phenomena. War cascades across space and time to more war; crime to more crime; crime cascades to war; and war to crime. As a result, war and crime become complex phenomena. That does not mean we cannot understand how to prevent crime and war simultaneously. This book shows, for example, how a cascade analysis leads to an understanding of how refugee camps are nodes of both targeted attack and targeted recruitment into violence. Hence, humanitarian prevention also must target such nodes of risk. This book shows how nonviolence and nondomination can also be made to cascade, shunting cascades of violence into reverse. Complexity theory implies a conclusion that the pursuit of strategies for preventing crime and war is less important than understanding meta strategies. These are meta strategies for how to sequence and escalate many redundant prevention strategies. These themes were explored across seven South Asian societies during eight years of fieldwork

    War Propoganda: A Serious Crime Against Humanity

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    Failed-State Operational Environment Concepts

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    To help the Army redefine operations in failed states, I propose a new politico-military model. This operational environment model would be composed of a four-cell matrix that would include war and crime, war, crime and peace. Three of the cells - war, crime and peace - would pertain to traditional Clausewitzian issues; the fourth - war and crime - would pertain to an emergent neo-Clausewitzian one. To extrapolate the model, we begin with the condition of war. This environment is one of military issues that occur between nation-states. It defines the rationale behind US Army operations, as stated in the June 1993 FM 100-5, that after war breaks out, seeks to achieve decisive victory against military forces of belligerent nation-states or their coalitions

    Private Security in Guatemala:The Pathway to Its Proliferation

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    It has become commonplace to explain the proliferation of private security services as causally determined by crime rates and institutional weakness. By contrast, this paper ar-gues that another explanatory factor needs to be emphasized, especially for post-war so-cieties: continuity and change of social control mechanisms. The paper first presents the current situation with commercial and noncommercial private security services in Guate-mala (private security companies, as well as neighborhood security committees). Against this background, it reconstructs mechanisms and critical junctures by which the Guatema-lan state sourced out policing functions to the private sector during the war, and traces the reinforcement of these mechanisms in the post-war society. It argues that the proliferation of private security services is an outcome of the overlapping of different political processes and sequences. The continuity of social control mechanisms thereby emerges as a stronger explanatory factor for this proliferation, rather than the common justification of high crime rates.public security, private security companies, path dependency, post-war societies, Central America, Guatemala

    Chasing the dragon – an overview of heroin trafficking

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    There are many problems encountered during the attempt to tackle the heroin trade on a global level. Afghanistan is largely responsible for the production of heroin, providing a global distribution amount of 75%. The trafficking of heroin has continued using the traditional Balkan and Northern routes, however due to the increase in intelligence and border force controls, alternative routes are being established. This demonstrates a key issue being faced by law enforcement agencies. The development in strategies and techniques being used for undetected smuggling are growing, causing a lapse in the effectiveness of detection techniques currently being used. The failure in the success of tackling heroin production and trade towards Europe is being increasingly recognised, which has resulted in a shift in focus onto the organised crime groups involved in the heroin trade within mainland Europe and the United Kingdom. An estimated 5,300 organised crime groups are believed to be active within the United Kingdom with an annual cost of in the region of between £20-40 billion. The complexity and level of intelligence within organised crime has evolved rapidly, and this, along with the increasing levels of corruption within heroin trading countries, give reason for the continual loss of the war against heroin. Concluding that until corruption and the highest hierarchical levels within organised crime groups are overthrown, positive results against the heroin trade will remain unseen, demonstrating that these key areas require further attention by governmental agencies and policies if the war is to be won
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