9,569 research outputs found

    Citing your References in the MHRA Style

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    A guide for English Literature, Creative Writing and Drama students on how to use the MHRA referencing styl

    Observations of Uranus' satellites: Bibliography and literature search

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    A literature search has yielded more than 10,000 observations of the satellites of Uranus made from 1787 to 1985. The type (photographic, micrometer) and the number of observations are tabulated in 5 year increments and a complete bibliography is provided

    Chemical stratification in the atmosphere of Ap star HD 133792. Regularized solution of the vertical inversion problem

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    High spectral resolution studies of cool Ap stars reveal conspicuous anomalies of the shape and strength of many absorption lines. This is a signature of large atmospheric chemical gradients produced by the selective radiative levitation and gravitational settling of chemical species. Here we present a new approach to mapping the vertical chemical structures in stellar atmospheres. We have developed a regularized chemical inversion procedure that uses all information available in high-resolution stellar spectra. The new technique for the first time allowed us to recover chemical profiles without making a priori assumptions about the shape of chemical distributions. We have derived average abundances and applied the vertical inversion procedure to the high-resolution VLT UVES spectra of the weakly magnetic, cool Ap star HD 133792. Our analysis yielded improved estimates of the atmospheric parameters of HD 133792. We show that this star has negligible vsini and the mean magnetic field modulus =1.1+/-0.1 kG. We have derived average abundances for 43 ions and obtained vertical distributions of Ca, Si, Mg, Fe, Cr, and Sr. All these elements except Mg show high overabundance in the deep layers and solar or sub-solar composition in the upper atmosphere of HD 133792. In contrast, the Mg abundance increases with height. We find that transition from the metal-enhanced to metal-depleted zones typically occurs in a rather narrow range of depths in the atmosphere of HD 133792. Based on the derived photospheric abundances, we conclude that HD 133792 belongs to the rare group of evolved cool Ap stars, which possesses very large Fe-peak enhancement, but lacks a prominent overabundance of the rare-earth elements.Comment: Accepted by A&A; 12 pages, 9 figure

    U.S. Policy for Agricultural Adjustment

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    Domestic and international factors may combine to stimulate change in US agricultural policies and reductions in the costs of support. This would create additional pressures for economic adjustment in the sector. Current U.S. agricultural policies are not oriented to facilitating such adjustment. A trade adjustment program for agriculture, recently included as part of U.S. trade legislation, continues the traditional focus on income support. We discuss the reorientation of existing agricultural policies to facilitate economic adjustment resulting from the reform of domestic agricultural and trade policies. We focus on measures to address three key areas: 1. asset value reductions; 2. human capital issues; and 3. persistent poverty. Estimates of costs suggest that after an initial period, during which compensation for reductions in asset values would be made, the ongoing costs of an active adjustment policy for agriculture would be substantially lower than existing programs.adjustment assistance, international trade policy, U.S. agricultural policy, Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade,

    Automated spectroscopic abundances of A and F-type stars using echelle spectrographs I. Reduction of ELODIE spectra and method of abundance determination

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    This paper presents an automated method to determine detailed abundances for A and F-type stars. This method is applied on spectra taken with the ELODIE spectrograph. Since the standard reduction procedure of ELODIE is optimized to obtain accurate radial velocities but not abundances, we present a more appropriate reduction procedure based on IRAF. We describe an improvement of the method of Hill & Landstreet (1993) for obtaining Vsini, microturbulence and abundances by fitting a synthetic spectrum to the observed one. In particular, the method of minimization is presented and tested with Vega and the Sun. We show that it is possible, in the case of the Sun, to recover the abundances of 27 elements well within 0.1 dex of the commonly accepted values.Comment: 12 pages, 10 figures, accepted for publication in A&

    Bottom-Up versus Top-Down Induction of Sleep by Zolpidem Acting on Histaminergic and Neocortex Neurons

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    Zolpidem, a GABAA receptor-positive modulator, is the gold-standard drug for treating insomnia. Zolpidem prolongs IPSCs to decrease sleep latency and increase sleep time, effects that depend on α2 and/or α3 subunit-containing receptors. Compared with natural NREM sleep, zolpidem also decreases the EEG power, an effect that depends on α1 subunit-containing receptors, and which may make zolpidem-induced sleep less optimal. In this paper, we investigate whether zolpidem needs to potentiate only particular GABAergic pathways to induce sleep without reducing EEG power. Mice with a knock-in F77I mutation in the GABAA receptor γ2 subunit gene are zolpidem-insensitive. Using these mice, GABAA receptors in the frontal motor neocortex and hypothalamic (tuberomammillary nucleus) histaminergic-neurons of γ2I77 mice were made selectively sensitive to zolpidem by genetically swapping the γ2I77 subunits with γ2F77 subunits. When histamine neurons were made selectively zolpidem-sensitive, systemic administration of zolpidem shortened sleep latency and increased sleep time. But in contrast to the effect of zolpidem on wild-type mice, the power in the EEG spectra of NREM sleep was not decreased, suggesting that these EEG power-reducing effects of zolpidem do not depend on reduced histamine release. Selective potentiation of GABAA receptors in the frontal cortex by systemic zolpidem administration also reduced sleep latency, but less so than for histamine neurons. These results could help with the design of new sedatives that induce a more natural sleep

    Bioinspired low-frequency material characterisation

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    New-coded signals, transmitted by high-sensitivity broadband transducers in the 40–200 kHz range, allow subwavelength material discrimination and thickness determination of polypropylene, polyvinylchloride, and brass samples. Frequency domain spectra enable simultaneous measurement of material properties including longitudinal sound velocity and the attenuation constant as well as thickness measurements. Laboratory test measurements agree well with model results, with sound velocity prediction errors of less than 1%, and thickness discrimination of at least wavelength/15. The resolution of these measurements has only been matched in the past through methods that utilise higher frequencies. The ability to obtain the same resolution using low frequencies has many advantages, particularly when dealing with highly attenuating materials. This approach differs significantly from past biomimetic approaches where actual or simulated animal signals have been used and consequently has the potential for application in a range of fields where both improved penetration and high resolution are required, such as nondestructive testing and evaluation, geophysics, and medical physics

    Quantitative analysis of single muscle fibre action potentials recorded at known distances

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    In vivo records of single fibre action potentials (SFAPs) have always been obtained at unknown distance from the active muscle fibre.\ud \ud A new experimental method has been developed enabling the derivation of the recording distance in animal experiments. A single fibre is stimulated with an intracellular micropipette electrode. The same electrode is used thereafter for labelling with an auto-fluorescent dye, Lucifer Yellow. In this method there is no use of chemical fixation. The tissue structure is kept as well as possible. In cross-sections the fluorescent fibre is seen and its position is quantitized with respect to the tip of one or more recording wire electrodes.\ud \ud Morphometric data, such as the recording distance and the fibre cross-sectional area, are used for the interpretation of parameters of the SFAPs (peak-peak amplitude, time between the first positive and negative peaks). The present results show that within 300 μm recording distance is not as dominant for the SFAP shape as expected.\ud \ud The method offers also a direct check of the relation between the muscle fibre; diameter and the conduction velocity of the action potential. In the present small set of data there is no simple linear relationship