10,361 research outputs found

    Former contre les discriminations (ethno)culturelles

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    En France comme ailleurs, l’École est rappelée à sa mission d’éducation au vivre ensemble et à la démocratie. Dans ce contexte, la lutte contre la discrimination – ici ethnoculturelle – s’est peu à peu constituée comme objet de formation. Pourtant, si une palette d’outils et de nouveaux contenus voient le jour, ceux-ci restent éparpillés et peu lisibles. Inégalement appropriée par les acteurs, cette dimension de la formation est aussi trop peu arrimée à la recherche. Ce dossier entend contribuer à structurer la réflexion dans ce domaine à partir d’une double entrée. D’une part, il tire parti de la recherche sur les phénomènes de discrimination et sur les processus associés (ségrégation, biais d’évaluation ou d’orientation, etc.) afin d’identifier des objets et des leviers de formation. D’autre part, il analyse de manière réflexive des dispositifs de formation dédiés afin d’en dégager les écueils et les potentialités. Les recherches présentées recouvrent quatre contextes : suisse francophone, belge francophone, québécois, français. La comparaison révèle la forte indexicalité de ces questions, tant dans la manière de désigner les groupes discriminés et de construire les problèmes que dans la place occupée par cet objet à l’agenda des politiques éducatives et de formation. In fine, le dossier invite à prendre à bras le corps le débat sur les discriminations ethnoculturelles et à en faire un objet de réflexivité collective, en tenant spécifiquement compte des contextes locaux. In France as elsewhere, schools are reminded of their mission to educate people for coexistence and democracy. In this context, the fight against ethnocultural discrimination has gradually become an object of teacher training. However, while new training content and a range of tools are emerging, they remain scattered and opaque. Unevenly adopted by stakeholders, this dimension of teacher training is also insufficiently linked to research. This issue aims to contribute to structuring the reflection in this area from two complementary perspectives. On the one hand, it takes advantage of research on discrimination and its accompanying school processes (segregation, evaluation or orientation bias, etc.) to identify training objects and levers. On the other hand, it reflexively scrutinises dedicated training methods in order to identify their pitfalls and potentialities. The research presented covers four contexts: French-speaking Switzerland, French-speaking Belgium, Quebec, and France. The comparison reveals the strong indexicality of these questions, both in the way in which discriminated groups are identified and problems are constructed, and in the place this subject occupies on the agenda of education and training policies. To sum up, the dossier invites to tackle the debate on ethnocultural discrimination head-on and make it an object of collective reflexivity, taking specific account of local contexts

    It's not me, it's a deepfake. Un percorso d’orientamento tra i media manipolati attraverso l’intelligenza artificiale

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    Since the day of their birth in 2017 on Reddit, the rise of deepfake videos in the media landscape has generated new techno-phobias. They are algorithmic images, digital faces manipulated through artificial intelligence, the result of automatic processes involving GANs (Adversarial Generative Networks) and software such as DeepFaceLab or FakeApp. Their producers, the deepfake designers, have several times been accused of spreading misinformation, encouraging and facilitating the production process of audiovisual fake news, so undermining the already fragile ecosystem of digital information. In her pioneering book Deep Fakes and the infocalypse (2020) Nina Schick spoke of “infocalypse” in relation to the informational short-circuit that could be generated by the advent of deepfakes. Following Schick, Michael Grothaus has provocatively titled his essay dedicated to the birth and prospects of the practice Trust No One (2021). At the same time, deepfake videos are fostering the emergence of new forms of audiovisual storytelling within the sphere of auteur cinema, advertising, pornography and videoclips, giving birth to a new aesthetics and re-actualizing the ancient debate around mimesis. Adopting a multidisciplinary approach, and through a series of case studies from the porn, cinematic and videoclip fields this dissertation tries to present a taxonomy and a theoretical framework in which moving the future debate around deepfakes, the risks they pose and the chances they pave the way for

    Antenatal anxiety and depressive symptoms and physiological birth

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    A comment on the recently published letter by Grogan and Srinivasan: The effect of antenatal depressive and anxious symptoms on the rate of physiological births

    Weekly high-resolution multi-spectral and thermal uncrewed-aerial-system mapping of an alpine catchment during summer snowmelt, Niwot Ridge, Colorado

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    Alpine ecosystems are experiencing rapid change as a result of warming temperatures and changes in the quantity, timing and phase of precipitation. This in turn impacts patterns and processes of ecohydrologic connectivity, vegetation productivity and water provision to downstream regions. The fine-scale heterogeneous nature of these environments makes them challenging areas to measure with traditional instrumentation and spatiotemporally coarse satellite imagery. This paper describes the data collection, processing, accuracy assessment and availability of a series of approximately weekly-interval uncrewed-aerial-system (UAS) surveys flown over the Niwot Ridge Long Term Ecological Research site during the 2017 summer-snowmelt season. Visible, near-infrared and thermal-infrared imagery was collected. This unique series of 5–25 cm resolution multi-spectral and thermal orthomosaics provides a unique snapshot of seasonal transitions in a high alpine catchment. Weekly radiometrically calibrated normalised difference vegetation index maps can be used to track vegetation health at the pixel scale through time. Thermal imagery can be used to map the movement of snowmelt across and within the near sub-surface as well as identify locations where groundwater is discharging to the surface. A 10 cm resolution digital surface model and dense point cloud (146 points m−2) are also provided for topographic analysis of the snow-free surface. These datasets augment ongoing data collection within this heavily studied and important alpine site; they are made publicly available to facilitate wider use by the research community. Datasets and related metadata can be accessed through the Environmental Data Initiative Data Portal, https://doi.org/10.6073/pasta/dadd5c2e4a65c781c2371643f7ff9dc4 (Wigmore, 2022a), https://doi.org/10.6073/pasta/073a5a67ddba08ba3a24fe85c5154da7 (Wigmore, 2022c), https://doi.org/10.6073/pasta/a4f57c82ad274aa2640e0a79649290ca (Wigmore and Niwot Ridge LTER, 2021a), https://doi.org/10.6073/pasta/444a7923deebc4b660436e76ffa3130c (Wigmore and Niwot Ridge LTER, 2021b), https://doi.org/10.6073/pasta/1289b3b41a46284d2a1c42f1b08b3807 (Wigmore and Niwot Ridge LTER, 2022a), https://doi.org/10.6073/pasta/70518d55a8d6ec95f04f2d8a0920b7b8 (Wigmore and Niwot Ridge LTER, 2022b). A summary of the available datasets can be found in the data availability section below.</p

    Workflow of the macro created for OSN counting.

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    The different steps of the macro created from the Fiji/imageJ software are shown in the table above. The images (A1 to A6) below are there to help better understand the table. A3: Yellow arrows indicate particle separation. A4: Red arrows indicate the particles with a surface area 2 that are excluded for counting. *The manual inputs include 3 steps: 1.2, 2.1 and 3.1. At completion, ‘OSNs counting’ generates a data table containing the number of green labelled OSNs, the number of red labelled OSNs and the number of colocalized OSNs (A6).</p

    Uterine myoelectrical activity as biomarker of successful induction with Dinoprostone: Influence of parity

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    [EN] The prolonged latent phase of Induction of Labour (IOL) is associated with increased risks of maternal mortality and morbidity. Electrohysterography (EHG) has outperformed traditional clinical measures monitoring labour progress. Although parity is agreed to be of particular relevance to the success of IOL, no previous EHG¿related studies have been found in the literature. We thus aimed to identify EHG¿biomarkers to predict IOL success (active phase of labour in¿¿¿24¿h) and determine the influence of the myoelectrical response on the parity of this group. Statistically significant and sustained differences between the successful and failed groups were found from 150¿min in amplitude and non¿linear parameters, especially in Spectral Entropy and in their progression rates. In the nulliparous¿parous comparison, parous women showed statistically significantly higher amplitude progression rate. These biomarkers would therefore be useful for early detection of the risk of induction failure and would help to develop more robust and generalizable IOL success¿prediction systems.This work was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness and the European Regional Development Fund (MCIU/AEI/FEDER, UE RTI2018-094449-A-I00-AR and PID2021-124038OB-I00). Funding for open access charge: CRUE-Universitat Politècnica de ValènciaDiaz-Martinez, A.; Monfort-Ortiz, R.; Ye Lin, Y.; Garcia-Casado, J.; Nieto-Tous, M.; Nieto Del-Amor, F.; Diago-Almela, VJ.... (2023). Uterine myoelectrical activity as biomarker of successful induction with Dinoprostone: Influence of parity. Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering (Online). 43(1):142-156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbe.2022.12.00414215643

    SOME REMARKS ON THE EXECUTION PLACE xbt IN ANCIENT EGYPT

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    بعض الملاحظات عن مكان الاعدام (xbt) في مصر القديمة [AR] فى هذه المقالة ، تحاول الباحثة إلقاء الضوء على أحد أماكن العقاب في مصر القديمة ، ألا وهو مكان الإعدام الذى يسمى Xbt . ومن خلال الدراسة، نلاحظ أنه وعلي الرغم من تعدد أماكن العقاب وتنوعها فى مصر القديمة ، إلا أن التفاصيل قليلة فى وصف هذه الأماكن ، ولم ينتشر تصويرها سواء فى المناظر أو فى كتب العالم الآخر. وقد كان الإعدام بقطع الرأس موجود فى التصاوير منذ العصور المبكرة، وكان عقابا لأعداء الملك كما سجل على بعض الصلايات من العصور المبكرة وبصفة خاصة صلاية الملك نعرمر، ولكن عقوبة الإعدام كنتيجة لجريمة ارتكبها شخص ما، لم تثبت بصورة واضحة. والإعدام يعني فناء الشخص نهائيا ، والنجاة من العقاب بالإعدام كان غاية الشخص دائما حتى ولو كان مسيئا. ومكان الإعدام xbt لم يصور بشكل صريح وهو يعبر عن أداة الإعدام نفسها وليس المكان . ويبدو من خلال الدراسة انه يعبر عن مكان يتم فيه الإعدام بواسطة الأداة xbt . وقد ظهرت فى كتاب الموتي بردية آني ، الفصل 50 . حيث يصورالمتوفى مارا بسلام موجها ظهره لأاداة الإعدام ، التى يتم تمثيلها بقاعدة تشبه التل ، يخرج من أطرافها عمودان ، ومن فوقها سكينا كبيرا ، ينزل للأسفل لقطع الرأس ، وهناك قطرات من الدماء تسقط منها. ومن خلال هذا البحث ، نستطيع أن نلقي الضوء على بعض المحاولات التى من الممكن أن تضمن حتى للمذنب أن ينجو من مصير الفناء بنجاح. [EN] In this paper, I highlight one of the punishment places in ancient Egypt [xbt], i.e., the place of execution‚ which was mentioned early in the Pyramid Texts. This place is considered the oldest known punishment place in ancient Egypt. Many punishment places for the wrongdoers were mentioned in texts‚ but were not precisely described or clearly represented. It is well known that in the early period‚ decapitation existed. It was a traditional performance against the enemies of the king. It could be traced as early as king Narmer, as recorded on his palette exhibited in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. However, beheading as a consequence of a crime was not attested definitively. The enemies of the king were represented on the palette with their heads cut off, and each enemy had his head between his legs. Keeping the heads of the enemies with the bodies was an exceptional habit in ancient Egyptian representations. That notice made the author wonder why the ancient Egyptians were keen to preserve the heads of the guilty, although they were considered enemies and deserved total extinction. Thus, the author thought of the execution place [xbt]] in order to know more about this place and determine the destiny of the guilty‚ whether a total extinction or another chance to survive. The execution place was known from the Old Kingdom and continued through the Greco-Roman Period. It was in the shape of a shrine upon which a huge knife was descended downwards to cut off heads and two upright posts. The only representation of the place of execution appeared in Spell 50 of the Book of the Dead. The act of cutting off heads‚ the ancient Egyptians never expressed clearly in art‚ but the heads were cut off in many scenes. Even when the tool of execution was represented as in the Book of the Dead‚ only the tool, not the act, was shown. Moreover, the deceased was given his back to it‚ as if he meant only to warn the people from falling into this tortured place. In this study‚ the author gives some remarks on the place of execution‚ and how the deceased tried to avoid entering such place‚ as he prayed to pass safely by the execution place. The author noticed that the ancient Egyptians ignored the details of the punishment places. They only showed the beheaded bodies of the enemies or the sinners in different scenes in life and the books of the afterlife. They let us wonder‚ if there were a total extinction by beheading the wrongdoers or if there were some ways to escape that ugly fate. In this paper, the author searched for the ways that the ancient Egyptians used to avoid extinction and found out that (1) by some religious texts from different periods‚ (2) by some sacrifice, especially an animal to save the person‚ and (3) by the help of some deities (e.g., Thoth‚ Shesemu‚ Sekhmet‚ Mehit‚ Matyt‚ and Horus-Merty) he might survive and have another chance to escape that ugly fate

    SRP54 mutations induce Congenital Neutropenia via dominant-negative effects on XBP1 splicing

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    Heterozygous de novo missense variants of SRP54 were recently identified in patients presenting with Congenital Neutropenia (CN) or its syndromic form Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome (SDS). Ever since its discovery as a driver of CN and SDS, SRP54 has been increasingly studied in the context of disease and is nowadays considered the second most common cause of CN. Despite its hitherto unknown prevalence, the molecular mechanisms leading to the development of the disease are still largely unknown and patient treatments are far from specific. In this thesis, I aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms and processes contributing to the pathophysiology of SRP54 deficiencies. To follow this aim, I characterized and established a transgenic srp54 KO zebrafish as the first in vivo model of srp54-driven disease. Interestingly, srp54-/- zebrafish show early embryonic mortality and suffer from severe neutropenia and developmental defects affecting multiple organs. srp54+/- zebrafish on the other hand are viable and only display mild neutropenia and no overt other defects. However, when injecting srp54+/- fish with human mRNA of three mutated SRP54 variants (T115A, T117Δ and G226E) identified in patients, the neutropenia intensified, and pancreatic defects developed – a phenotype accurately mimicking the characteristics of SDS patients. Of note, the induced phenotypes showed mutation-specific differences, indicating that different SRP54 lesions exert unique dominant-negative effects on the functionality of the residual wildtype SRP54 protein. Consistent with these findings, overexpression of SRP54 missense variants in human promyelocytic HL60 cells as well as in healthy CD34+ cord blood cells impaired granulocytic maturation. Mechanistically, we found that SRP54 defects significantly reduce the efficiency of the unconventional splicing of the transcription factor X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), which is one of the major regulators of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Vice-versa, xbp1 morphant zebrafish recapitulate phenotypes observed in srp54 mutant fish, and the injection of spliced xbp1 but not unspliced xbp1 rescues the neutropenia in srp54+/- embryos. In order to identify additional mechanisms contributing to the pathophysiology of SRP54 deficient patients, we performed single cell RNA sequencing of srp54-mutated zebrafish. Sequencing analysis revealed several differentially expressed genes with most of them converging on the major signaling branches of the UPR, indicating the cell’s efforts to circumvent the impaired XBP1 activity aiming to alleviate unresolved ER-stress
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