43,526 research outputs found

    Organisation and control of ascorbate biosynthesis pathway in plants

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    Ascorbate, also known as vitamin C, plays fundamental roles in human health. However, we are unable to synthesise ascorbate due to a series of accumulated mutations in the last enzyme of the pathway. Therefore, fruits and vegetables become the dietary source of ascorbate, hence being called a vitamin. In plants, ascorbate plays a plethora of roles provinding both biotic and abiotic stress resistance in plants. Although it is known that VTC2 (GDP-L-Galactose Phosphorylase) is the bottleneck of the pathway, little information is available on the basis of how it happens. In this thesis, I confirmed it by several two-by-two combinations as well as expressing the whole pathway. Furthermore, I have shown that this translation fusions are functional and locate in cytosol and nuclei, with the exception of GME and GLDH. Since ascorbate is essential in the response to stress in plants, and the enzymes involved in its biosynthesis locate in the same subcellular region, it was tempting to suggest that they may associate like in other pathways. Our protein-protein association assays suggest that they associate, further supported by the fact that the first and the last cytosolic enzymes immunoprecipitate together, although it deserves further investigation. Since VTC2 was found to be limiting ascorbate biosynthesis, we sought to understand the basis behind this fact. We found that the level of VTC2 expression is very low compared to the expression of the other components of the pathway. However, it was high enough to complement vtc2 phenotype therefore suggesting that keeping its protein amount little expressed in the first control point of the pathway. In addition, we observed that VTC2 is degraded rapidly just after entering the night period, which was further elucidated to be controlled by 26S proteasome

    A Control Case Study: Dietary Pattern at Alas Ethnic Community with Hypertension in Lawe Bulan District, Southeast Aceh Regency

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    Hypertension ranks the third of ten serious disease in Aceh Tenggara district. Kutambaru Health Center ranks the highest in hypertension with 3.010 cases in 2013. The condition is probably related to food consumption of the “Alas communities” that tends to have the habit of life such as drinking coffee, smoking, eating fat and salty food. The objective of the research was to find out and to analyze a case control study:dietary pattern at Alas Community with Hypertension in Lawe Bulan District, Southeast Aceh Regency.The research was observational with case control study. The population was all Alas people who got medication and medical faculty at Kutambaru Health Center, Lawe Bulan District. The samples were 118 patients who visited the health center; 59 of them belonged to the case group and were affected by hypertension and the other 59 of them belonged to the control group and were not affected by hypertension. The data were analyzed by using univariate and bivariate analyses with chi square test at the significance level of α=0.05. The result of the research showed that eating pattern (food frequency, energy intake, protein intake and fat intake) had related on the incidence of hypertension (p=0.000<0.05). It is recommended that health care providers should provide counseling about eating pattern which does not take the risk of being affected by hypertension, and the “Alas community” should consume variety food in their menu like fruit and vegetables it can decrease blood pressure. They should reduce the habit of smoking and drinking liquor

    Evaluation of economic loss caused by Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) in agricultural land of district Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan

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    The Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) is a vertebrate pest of agricultural lands and forest. The study was aimed to report the damage to local crops by the Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) in the Muzaffarabad District. A survey was conducted to identify the porcupine-affected areas and assess the crop damage to the local farmers in district Muzaffarabad Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) from May 2017 to October 2017. Around 19 villages were surveyed, and a sum of 191 semi-structured questionnaires was distributed among farmers. Crop damage was found highest in village Dhanni where a porcupine destroyed 175 Kg/Kanal of the crops. Regarding the total magnitude of crop loss, village Danna and Koomi kot were the most affected areas. More than half (51.8%) of the respondents in the study area suffered the economic loss within the range of 101-200,and(29.8, and (29.8%) of the people suffered losses in the range of 201-300 annually. Among all crops, maize (Zea mays) was found to be the most damaged crop ranging between 1-300 Kg annually. In the study area, porcupine also inflicted a lot of damages to some important vegetables, including spinach (Spinacia oleracea), potato (Solanum tuberosum) and onion (Allium cepa). It was estimated that, on average, 511Kg of vegetables are destroyed by porcupine every year in the agricultural land of Muzaffarabad. It was concluded that the Indian crested porcupine has a devastating effect on agriculture which is an important source of income and food for the local community. Developing an effective pest control strategy with the help of the local government and the Wildlife department could help the farmers to overcome this problem

    Huerta comunitaria en la vereda Cafifies municipio de Pore-Casanare

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    Encontramos en los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible 2030, impulsado por la Organización de las Naciones Unidas, colocar fin al hambre, generar una producción y consumo responsable. Los proyectos de Huertas Comunitarias, son una forma de hacer realidad varios de estos objetivos. En la vereda Cafifies, municipio de Pore, Casanare, encontramos que 77 familias radicadas en 66 predios, tienen inconvenientes en la adquisición y consumo de frutas y hortalizas. Diferentes aspectos de distancia, clima, ingresos económicos, cultura gastronómica, acceso, intervienen para el consumo de frutas, verduras como fuente de una alimentación saludable. La puesta en marcha de una huerta comunitaria es una forma de colocar fin a esta problemática. Se realiza una propuesta de valor, un Desing Thinking, un diseño de estrategias de marketing y un estudio de recursos operativos y financieros, para la puesta en marcha del mismo. Este tipo de proyectos comunitarios se sustentan en base de la solidaridad, asociatividad y el trabajo en equipo.We find in the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, promoted by the United Nations Organization, to end hunger, generate responsible production and consumption. Community Garden projects are a way of making several of these goals a reality. In the village of Cafifies, municipality of Pore, Casanare, we found that 77 families who live in 66 properties have problems in the acquisition and consumption of fruits and vegetables. Different aspects of distance, climate, economic income, gastronomic culture, access, intervene for the consumption of fruits and vegetables as a source of healthy food. The implementation of a community garden is a way to end this problem. For its implementation, a value proposal, a Design Thinking, a design of marketing strategies and a study of operational and financial resources were carried out. These types of community projects are based on solidarity, associativity and teamwork

    The Gradual Disappearance Of Financial Literacy In Today\u27s World. What Is Financial Literacy And Why Is It So Important? My Own Story Of Acquisition

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    There is a growing concern in this country that the middle class is disappearing and not in the way one would hope. Instead of families moving into a higher socio-economic class and being able to provide richer life experiences for themselves and their children, vast numbers are shifting to a lower socio-economic status level. The gap between the affluent and those barely eking out an existence is increasing at an alarming rate. This trend will directly affect who can successfully attend college and who will be available and capable to perform the blue-collar jobs that are vital to the continuation of our economy. Many of these jobs are becoming increasingly complex and sophisticated. While they may not require a college degree, they do require additional post-secondary training and expertise. Longer reaching concerns are that a dwindling middle class equates to a smaller tax base and contributes to a larger segment of the population that needs financial assistance. The productive management of money is part of a concept known as financial literacy. People that have money take this knowledge for granted. Somewhere along the line, whether it was at home, in school, or from personal experiences, successful people learned the value of earning money and using it thoughtfully and intentionally in order to achieve a future goal. No one disputes the fact that personal choices and discretion are parts of the picture. Imagine, however, that the environment in which you grew up did not contain earning possibilities. Perhaps you had to work without pay caring for your siblings, leaving no time to go out and earn your own money. Maybe your family was in the situation where everything that each family member earned was required to try to make ends meet. The result can be a feeling of ignorance and powerlessness around financial literacy and a lack of understanding the difference it could make in your life. This dissertation examines these issues. As a Scholarly Personal Narrative, it will also relate the story of my own journey of acquiring financial literacy and how that knowledge has affected my life. It concludes with a proposal that I created for teaching the concepts of financial literacy to underserved members of our society living at the lower socio-economic level. This education is important because understanding financial literacy can build self-confidence, empowerment, and purpose. This knowledge can also set an example that parents can pass on to their children and future generations. I believe this is one possible route toward breaking the cycle of poverty

    The value of local food partnerships: Covid and beyond

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    The Covid-19 pandemic, and – more recently – soaring food prices have focused attention on how local areas meet the challenges of a fractured food system. This report examines the impacts andachievements of Local Food Partnerships (LFPs) and how LFPs embed and amplify their work to deliver both local and national food priorities. LFPs have been uniquely placed to provide systems leadership and practical solutions through the strategic direction and support of the UK-wide Sustainable Food Places (SFP) programme, established a decade prior to the pandemic. LFPs have been able to pivot to respond with agility to an extended period of national crisis and have moved forward to offer a coherent framework for the transition of local food system. The four dimensions of ‘effectiveness’,‘efficiency’, ‘engagement’, and ‘equity’ highlight the value of LFPs to fill the leadership gap on local food issues

    The role of plant-derived natural antioxidants in reduction of oxidative stress.

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    Free radicals are a group of damaging molecules produced during the normal metabolism of cells in the human body. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation, cigarette smoking, and other environmental pollutants enhances free radicals in the human body. The destructive effects of free radicals may also cause harm to membranes, enzymes, and DNA, leading to several human diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis, malaria, coronavirus disease (COVID-19), rheumatoid arthritis, and neurodegenerative illnesses. This process occurs when there is an imbalance between free radicals and antioxidant defenses. Since antioxidants scavenge free radicals and repair damaged cells, increasing the consumption of fruits and vegetables containing high antioxidant values is recommended to slow down oxidative stress in the body. Additionally, natural products demonstrated a wide range of biological impacts such as anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, anti-atherosclerosis, and anti-cancer properties. Hence, in this review article, our goal is to explore the role of natural therapeutic antioxidant effects to reduce oxidative stress in the diseases. [Abstract copyright: © 2022 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

    Nitrite and insulin lower the oxygen cost of ATP synthesis in skeletal muscle cells by pleiotropic stimulation of glycolysis

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    Dietary nitrate lowers the oxygen cost of submaximal exercise, but precise mechanistic insight into how this occurs is lacking. Research suggests that dietary nitrate may render oxidative ATP synthesis more efficient, but evidence is inconclusive at present. This thesis aimed to establish how nitrite (a reduced form of nitrate) affects the bioenergetics of cultured skeletal muscle cells. Comparison between the acute effects of nitrite and insulin, a hormonal regulator of muscle function that increases mitochondrial efficiency, was explored to assess possible mechanistic overlap. Calculation of real-time intracellular ATP synthesis rates from simultaneous oxygen consumption and medium acidification measurements revealed the effects of sodium nitrite and insulin on intact rat (L6) myoblasts and myotubes. These extracellular flux data were also used to determine how mitochondrial and glycolytic ATP supply is used to fuel ATP-demanding processes. The data presented in this thesis revealed that both nitrite and insulin acutely stimulate glycolytic ATP synthesis. This stimulation occurs without significant mitochondrial ATP supply changes, thus increasing the glycolytic index of myocytes. Consequently, nitrite and insulin lower the oxygen cost of cellular ATP supply. Notably, insulin lowers oxygen consumption linked to mitochondrial proton leak, thus increasing mitochondrial efficiency. Nitrite does not improve coupling efficiency in myoblasts or myotubes. Further investigations revealed that stimulation of glycolytic ATP supply is not secondary to increased glucose availability. In myotubes, glycolytic stimulation persists in the presence of a mitochondrial uncoupler, suggesting that glycolysis is increased directly. In myoblasts, stimulation is annulled by uncoupler, suggesting that glycolysis increases indirectly, via increased ATP consumption. The molecular targets of nitrite and insulin remain unclear, but the data exclude stimulation of protein synthesis. Together, the data demonstrate that nitrite and insulin lower the oxygen cost of ATP synthesis in skeletal muscle cells by pleiotropic stimulation of glycolysis. The data inform the ongoing debate regarding the mechanism by which dietary nitrate lowers the oxygen cost of exercise, suggesting a push toward a more glycolytic phenotype. Such mechanistic insight is crucial for achieving the full translational potential of dietary nitrate
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