16,397 research outputs found

    Efficiency measurement based on novel performance measures in total productive maintenance (TPM) using a fuzzy integrated COPRAS and DEA method

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    Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) has been widely recognized as a strategic tool and lean manufacturing practice for improving manufacturing performance and sustainability, and therefore it has been successfully implemented in many organizations. The evaluation of TPM efficiency can assist companies in improving their operations across a variety of dimensions. This paper aims to propose a comprehensive and systematic framework for the evaluation of TPM performance. The proposed total productive maintenance performance measurement system (TPM PMS) is divided into four phases (e.g., design, evaluate, implement, and review): i) the design of new performance measures, ii) the evaluation of the new performance measures, iii) the implementation of the new performance measures to evaluate TPM performance, and iv) the reviewing of the TPM PMS. In the design phase, different types of performance measures impacting TPM are defined and analyzed by decision-makers. In the evaluation phase, novel performance measures are evaluated using the Fuzzy COmplex Proportional Assessment (FCOPRAS) method. In the implementation phase, a modified fuzzy data envelopment analysis (FDEA) is used to determine efficient and inefficient TPM performance with novel performance measures. In the review phase, TPM performance is periodically monitored, and the proposed TPM PMS is reviewed for successful implementation of TPM. A real-world case study from an international manufacturing company operating in the automotive industry is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed TPM PMS. The main findings from the real-world case study showed that the proposed TPM PMS allows measuring TPM performance with different indicators especially soft ones, e.g., human-related, and supports decision makers by comparing the TPM performances of production lines and so prioritizing the most important preventive/predictive decisions and actions according to production lines, especially the ineffective ones in TPM program implementation. Therefore, this system can be considered a powerful monitoring tool and reliable evidence to make the implementation process of TPM more efficient in the real-world production environment

    A Design Science Research Approach to Smart and Collaborative Urban Supply Networks

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    Urban supply networks are facing increasing demands and challenges and thus constitute a relevant field for research and practical development. Supply chain management holds enormous potential and relevance for society and everyday life as the flow of goods and information are important economic functions. Being a heterogeneous field, the literature base of supply chain management research is difficult to manage and navigate. Disruptive digital technologies and the implementation of cross-network information analysis and sharing drive the need for new organisational and technological approaches. Practical issues are manifold and include mega trends such as digital transformation, urbanisation, and environmental awareness. A promising approach to solving these problems is the realisation of smart and collaborative supply networks. The growth of artificial intelligence applications in recent years has led to a wide range of applications in a variety of domains. However, the potential of artificial intelligence utilisation in supply chain management has not yet been fully exploited. Similarly, value creation increasingly takes place in networked value creation cycles that have become continuously more collaborative, complex, and dynamic as interactions in business processes involving information technologies have become more intense. Following a design science research approach this cumulative thesis comprises the development and discussion of four artefacts for the analysis and advancement of smart and collaborative urban supply networks. This thesis aims to highlight the potential of artificial intelligence-based supply networks, to advance data-driven inter-organisational collaboration, and to improve last mile supply network sustainability. Based on thorough machine learning and systematic literature reviews, reference and system dynamics modelling, simulation, and qualitative empirical research, the artefacts provide a valuable contribution to research and practice

    Perceptions of surveillance: exploring feelings held by Black community leaders in Boston toward camera enforcement of roadway infractions

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    Roadway camera enforcement programs have been found to effectively reduce vehicle travel speeds, as well as decrease the number and severity of collisions. Despite a wealth of evaluative research confirming this enforcement approach's aptitude at promoting safer roadway behavior, fewer than 50 % of US states currently host camera-based programs. Public opposition is frequently cited as the cause for the slow proliferation of this enforcement strategy. However, with public demand for police reform having an increasing presence on the national political stage, how might feelings toward camera technology currently stand among groups most marginalized by existing enforcement systems, and how might those feelings vary by type of enforcement application? Through a series of focus groups, this work centers Black voices on matters of surveillance and roadway enforcement by discussing sentiment toward camera programs with Black community leaders. This discussion is contextually situated in Boston, Massachusetts, where legislation that would allow for camera enforcement of roadway infractions is actively being deliberated in the State Senate. Findings culminate in a list of right-sizing and procedural recommendations for policy makers hoping to gain support for camera enforcement, improve roadway safety, and advance racial equity in our systems of policing and governance

    Corporate Social Responsibility: the institutionalization of ESG

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    Understanding the impact of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) on firm performance as it relates to industries reliant on technological innovation is a complex and perpetually evolving challenge. To thoroughly investigate this topic, this dissertation will adopt an economics-based structure to address three primary hypotheses. This structure allows for each hypothesis to essentially be a standalone empirical paper, unified by an overall analysis of the nature of impact that ESG has on firm performance. The first hypothesis explores the evolution of CSR to the modern quantified iteration of ESG has led to the institutionalization and standardization of the CSR concept. The second hypothesis fills gaps in existing literature testing the relationship between firm performance and ESG by finding that the relationship is significantly positive in long-term, strategic metrics (ROA and ROIC) and that there is no correlation in short-term metrics (ROE and ROS). Finally, the third hypothesis states that if a firm has a long-term strategic ESG plan, as proxied by the publication of CSR reports, then it is more resilience to damage from controversies. This is supported by the finding that pro-ESG firms consistently fared better than their counterparts in both financial and ESG performance, even in the event of a controversy. However, firms with consistent reporting are also held to a higher standard than their nonreporting peers, suggesting a higher risk and higher reward dynamic. These findings support the theory of good management, in that long-term strategic planning is both immediately economically beneficial and serves as a means of risk management and social impact mitigation. Overall, this contributes to the literature by fillings gaps in the nature of impact that ESG has on firm performance, particularly from a management perspective

    The ageing Caribbean: 20 years of the Madrid Plan of Action

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    This report assess the situation of older persons and reviews the actions taken in Caribbean countries and territories, particularly over the past five years, to implement the Madrid International Plan of Action on Ageing and related regional agreements. It contributes to the global and regional reviews of the Plan of Action, 20 years on from its adoption in 2002, and includes recommendations to further address population ageing and the rights of older persons in the Caribbean.Abstract .-- Introduction .-- I. Ageing, economic security and public policy .-- II. Ageing, health and care .-- III. Enabling and supportive environments .-- IV. Conclusions and key recommendations

    Investigating the Impacts of Urban Built Environment on Travel Energy Consumption: A Case Study of Ningbo, China

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    The built environment of cities has increasingly affected the travel mode of residents and led to changes in energy consumption, which is crucial to maintaining urban sustainability. Ningbo is a typical representative of urbanization on the east coast of China, and its energy consumption is in a period of rapid growth. Therefore, using the survey data of 22,112 traffic trip samples from nine streets in Ningbo, this paper establishes a regression analysis model, systematically analyzes the relationship between the built environment and domestic energy consumption from multiple dimensions, and reveals the impact mechanism of the built environment on domestic energy consumption. We find that (1) social and economic conditions are the main factors affecting traffic energy consumption. (2) The population density has a significant negative correlation effect on the energy consumption of transportation trips. When the population density increases by 1%, the energy consumption of total transportation trips, commuting trips, high-energy-consumption trips, and low-energy-consumption trips decreases by 0.094%, 0.115%, 0.273%, and 0.124%, respectively. (3) When the degree of mixed use of land increases by one percentage point, the energy consumption of total transportation trips, commuting trips, high-energy-consumption trips, and low-energy-consumption trips decreases by 0.415%, 0.421%, 2.574%, and 1.197%, respectively. (4) The density of road intersections has a significant negative correlation effect on the energy consumption of traffic trips. (5) The impact of the built environment on the energy consumption of transportation trips is greater than that of residential buildings

    Sustainable eSiC reinforced composite materials – synthetization and characterization

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    Sustainable and light weight composite materials have received extensive attention in the application of aerospace, automotive, agriculture and marine. Synthetic SiC is expensive and harmful to the human being. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop eSiC reinforced aluminium matrix sustainable composite material using waste rice husk with the process route of powder metallurgy. Simple and cost-effective pyrolysis process was used for the extraction of low�density eSiC from agricultural waste rice husk which contains a significant amount of silica. This silica was then converted in to environmentally friendly SiC (known as eSiC) material and used as a reinforcing agent to the lightweight composite development. From the results, these materials showed good metallurgical bonding with better mechanical properties. It is also observed that compared to metallic cast iron, this new composite material is better in terms of cost, material usage, eco-friendly (no harm to the environment and people), hence, sustainable. This concept demonstrates that this new sustainable and lightweight material can be used for aerospace, automotive and other structural applications, especially for disk brake, liner, and shaft. This eSiC can also be used as a coating material for composite coating development

    On the competitive facility location problem with a Bayesian spatial interaction model

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    The competitive facility location problem arises when businesses plan to enter a new market or expand their presence. We introduce a Bayesian spatial interaction model which provides probabilistic estimates on location-specific revenues and then formulate a mathematical framework to simultaneously identify the location and design of new facilities that maximise revenue. To solve the allocation optimisation problem, we develop a hierarchical search algorithm and associated sampling techniques that explore geographic regions of varying spatial resolution. We demonstrate the approach by producing optimal facility locations and corresponding designs for two large-scale applications in the supermarket and pub sectors of Greater London

    People make Places

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    For centuries Glasgow, as a bucolic fishing village and ecclesiastical centre on the banks of the River Clyde, held little of strategic significance. When success and later threats came to the city, it was as a consequence of explosive growth during the industrial era that left a significant civic presence accompanied by social and environmental challenges. Wartime damage to the fabric of the city and the subsequent implementation of modernist planning left Glasgow with a series of existential threats to the lives and the health of its people that have taken time to understand and come to terms with. In a few remarkable decades of late 20th century regeneration, Glasgow began to be put back together. The trauma of the second half of the 20th century is fading but not yet a distant memory. Existential threats from the climate emergency can provoke the reaction “what, again?” However, the resilience built over the last 50 years has instilled a belief that a constructive, pro-active and creative approach to face this challenge along with the recognition that such action can be transformational for safeguarding and improving people’s lives and the quality of their places. A process described as a just transition that has become central to Glasgow’s approach. Of Scotland’s four big cities, three are surrounded by landscape and sea only Glasgow is surrounded by itself. Even with a small territory, Glasgow is still the largest of Scotland’s big cities and by some margin. When the wider metropolitan area is considered, Glasgow is – like Birmingham, Manchester and Liverpool – no mean city. People make Places begins with a review of the concept and complexities of place, discusses why these matter and reviews the growing body of evidence that place quality can deliver economic, social and environmental value. The following chapters focus on the history and evolution of modern Glasgow in four eras of 19th and early 20th century industrialisation, de- industrialisation and modernism in mid 20th century, late 20th century regeneration and a 21st century recovery towards transition and renaissance, and document the process, synthesis and the results of a major engagement programme and to explore systematic approaches to place and consensus building around the principal issues. The second half of the work reflects on a stocktaking of place in contemporary Glasgow, looking at the city through the lenses of an international, metropolitan and everyday city, concluding with a review of the places of Glasgow and what may be learned from them revealing some valuable insights presented in a series of Place Stories included. The concluding chapter sets out the findings of the investigation and analysis reviewing place goals, challenges and opportunities for Glasgow over the decades to 2030 and 2040 and ends with some recommendations about what Glasgow might do better to combine place thinking and climate awareness and setting out practical steps to mobilise Glasgow’s ‘place ecosystem’
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