41,918 research outputs found

    The effect of peer-to-peer (P2P) accommodations on the local economy: evidence from Madrid

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    This paper investigates the effect of P2P accommodations on the local economy of the city of Madrid. We find that the arrival of Airbnb has fostered food and beverage services. We exploit the exogenous variation created by the timing and the unequal distribution of Airbnb listings across the urban geography to identify its effects on the number and employment of food and beverage services. Using an instrumental variable strategy, we find positive effects on both the number of restaurants and their employees: an increase in ten Airbnb rooms in a given census tract translates to one more restaurant, and the same increase in a given neighbourhood generates nine new tourist-related employees. The results are robust to sample composition, spatial spillovers and alternative measures of tourist-related activities. This paper contributes to the literature on the economic impacts of the platform economy on urban areas by providing evidence of positive economic externalities from P2P accommodations

    Del modelo del Plan Badajoz a la Declaraci贸n de Gredos. Dos modelos de desarrollo rural = From the Badajoz Plan model to the Gredos Declaration. Two models of rural development

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    El problema de la despoblaci贸n derivado de la falta de oportunidades econ贸micas ha sido una constante en la Espa帽a rural desde mediados del siglo XX. En este sentido, el plan Badajoz (1952) fue considerado como el primer ensayo espa帽ol de planificaci贸n regional a trav茅s de la transformaci贸n de campos de secano a regad铆o y su posterior colonizaci贸n con la creaci贸n de pueblos que permitieran un desarrollo econ贸mico de la zona. Transcurridos 67 a帽os de la realizaci贸n del plan, la despoblaci贸n en Extremadura ha seguido persistiendo e incluso se ha agravado en la 煤ltima d茅cada pese al incremento poblacional en Espa帽a. Entre las diferentes alternativas existentes, la declaraci贸n de Gredos (2019) pretende nuevamente la involucraci贸n de las diferentes administraciones p煤blicas, tanto nacionales como supranacionales, al objeto de promover unas condiciones favorables que permitan el progreso social y econ贸mico de las diferentes regiones espa帽olas, evitando no solamente la despoblaci贸n de las zonas rurales, sino tambi茅n una distribuci贸n de la renta regional y personal m谩s equitativa que la actualmente existente entre el campo y la ciudad. Si bien en la actualidad, la estructura socioecon贸mica del pa铆s es sustancialmente distinta a la que origin贸 el plan Badajoz y por tanto las estrategias a seguir son radicalmente opuestas, los objetivos perseguidos siguen siendo los mismos, as铆 como la necesidad de coordinar unas pol铆ticas p煤blicas encaminadas al logro de dicho fin. El objetivo de esta investigaci贸n ser谩 comparar ambos planes, analizando los errores cometidos en el plan Badajoz y su posible traslaci贸n a las nuevas estrategias de desarrollo desde una perspectiva de la planificaci贸n estrat茅gica

    Balancing the urban stomach: public health, food selling and consumption in London, c. 1558-1640

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    Until recently, public health histories have been predominantly shaped by medical and scientific perspectives, to the neglect of their wider social, economic and political contexts. These medically-minded studies have tended to present broad, sweeping narratives of health policy's explicit successes or failures, often focusing on extraordinary periods of epidemic disease viewed from a national context. This approach is problematic, particularly in studies of public health practice prior to 1800. Before the rise of modern scientific medicine, public health policies were more often influenced by shared social, cultural, economic and religious values which favoured maintaining hierarchy, stability and concern for 'the common good'. These values have frequently been overlooked by modern researchers. This has yielded pessimistic assessments of contemporary sanitation, implying that local authorities did not care about or prioritise the health of populations. Overly medicalised perspectives have further restricted historians' investigation and use of source material, their interpretation of multifaceted and sometimes contested cultural practices such as fasting, and their examination of habitual - and not just extraordinary - health actions. These perspectives have encouraged a focus on reactive - rather than preventative - measures. This thesis contributes to a growing body of research that expands our restrictive understandings of pre-modern public health. It focuses on how public health practices were regulated, monitored and expanded in later Tudor and early Stuart London, with a particular focus on consumption and food-selling. Acknowledging the fundamental public health value of maintaining urban foodways, it investigates how contemporaries sought to manage consumption, food production waste, and vending practices in the early modern City's wards and parishes. It delineates the practical and political distinctions between food and medicine, broadly investigates the activities, reputations of and correlations between London's guild and itinerant food vendors and licensed and irregular medical practitioners, traces the directions in which different kinds of public health policy filtered up or down, and explores how policies were enacted at a national and local level. Finally, it compares and contrasts habitual and extraordinary public health regulations, with a particular focus on how perceptions of and actual food shortages, paired with the omnipresent threat of disease, impacted broader aspects of civic life

    Structural and Attitudinal Barriers to Bicycle Ownership and Cycle-Based Transport in Gauteng, South Africa

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    Policies that aim to facilitate and promote non-motorised transport (NMT), and in particular cycling, have been developed by many high-income countries facing increasingly congested roads and saturated public transport systems. Such policies are also emerging in many low- and middle-income settings where high rates of urbanisation have led to similar problems with motorised transport. The aim of the present study was to better understand the potential structural and attitudinal barriers to cycle-based transport in one such context: South Africa鈥檚 Gauteng Province, the industrial powerhouse of sub-Saharan Africa that has recently made a firm commitment to NMT. The study focussed on demographic and socioeconomic variation in bicycle and car ownership, and related this to: (1) the reported use of motorised and non-motorised transport (both private and public); and (2) perceived 鈥榩roblems鈥 with cycling. The analyses drew on interviews with key respondents from n鈥=鈥27,490 households conducted in 2013 as part of the third Quality of Life survey undertaken by the Gauteng City Regional Observatory. The survey contained items on three outcomes of interest: household vehicle ownership (bicycles and cars); modes of transport used for the 鈥渢rips鈥 most often made; and respondents鈥 鈥渟ingle biggest problem with鈥 cycling鈥. Respondent- and household-level demographic and socioeconomic determinants of these outcomes were examined using descriptive and multivariable statistical analyses, the latter after adjustment for measured potential confounders identified using a theoretical causal path diagram (in the form of a directed acyclic graph). Of the n鈥=鈥26,469 households providing complete data on all of the variables examined in the present study, only n鈥=鈥8722 (32.9%) owned a car and fewer still (n鈥=鈥2244; 8.4%) owned a bicycle. The ownership of these assets was commonest amongst wealthier, economically active households; and those that owned a car had over five times the odds of also owning a bicycle, even after adjustment for potential confounding (OR 5.17; 95% CI 4.58, 5.85). Moreover, of household respondents who reported making 鈥榯rips鈥 during the preceding month (n鈥=鈥18,209), over two-thirds of those whose households owned a car (70.1%) reported private car-based transport for such trips, while only 3.2% of those owning a bicycle reported cycling. Amongst the specific responses given to the item requesting the 鈥渟ingle biggest problem with鈥 cycling鈥 by far the commonest was 鈥淒on鈥檛 know how to cycle鈥 (32.2%), less than half as many citing 鈥淰ehicle accident risk鈥 (15.9%), and fewer still: 鈥淒estination is too far鈥 (13.9%); 鈥淐rime鈥 (10.3%); 鈥淭oo much effort鈥 (9.2%); or 鈥淟ack of good paths鈥 (4.6%). While the first of these reasons was commonest amongst poorer households, concerns about risk and effort were both most common amongst better educated, economically active and wealthier/better serviced households. In contrast, concerns over (cycle) paths were only common amongst those owning bicycles. The low prevalence of household bicycle ownership, and the disproportionate number of households owning bicycles that also owned cars, might explain the very small proportion of the 鈥榯he trips most often made鈥 that involved cycle-based transport (0.3%), and the preferential use of cars amongst households owning both bicycles and cars. Low levels of bicycle ownership might also explain why so many respondents cited 鈥淒on鈥檛 know how鈥 as the 鈥渟ingle biggest problem with鈥 cycling鈥; although risk and effort were also substantial concerns (presumably for many who did, and some who did not, know how to cycle); the lack of suitable cycle lanes being only primarily a concern for those who actually owned bicycles. Structural and attitudinal barriers to cycle-based transport limit the use of cycle-based transport in Gauteng, not only amongst the vast majority of household respondents who lack the means to cycle (and the means to learn how), but also amongst those dissuaded from learning to cycle, purchasing a bicycle and/or using a bicycle they own by: the risks and effort involved; the lack of suitable cycle paths; and/or because they also own a car and prefer to drive than cycle

    The Time Devil runs amok: How I improved my creative practice by adopting a multimodal approach for a specific audience.

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    This research illustrates how teacher-writers can improve their craft and pedagogy by writing for a specific audience, namely school children. It also illustrates why they might do so. It interrogates what was learnt from an innovative collaboration between a university teacher-education department, an inner-city secondary school and the United Kingdom鈥檚 National Maritime Museum (NMM). Multimodality (Barnard 2019) inspired the project: local spaces, institutional settings, historical objects, photographs, pictures, time-travelling films and narratives motivated the teacher-writer and participants to read and respond imaginatively to the world. The author found that the project caused him to 鈥渞emediate鈥 his own practice: to transfer 鈥渆xisting skills in order to tackle new genres鈥 (Barnard 2019: 121). This process enabled him to become a more effective writer and teacher. The research shows that the problem of multimodal overload 鈥 having too much choice regarding what to write about and the many forms writing can take 鈥 can be circumnavigated if participants are given both autonomy and constraints. It illustrates in some depth how the concept of reciprocity is vital to adopt if writers are to improve their craft

    Making School Streets Healthier: Learning from temporary and emergency closures

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    The Healthy Streets Everyday (HSE) programme began in 2019 to promote active, safe, and sustainable travel in London. In line with the Mayor鈥檚 Transport Strategy, this programme emphasises the Healthy Streets approach, which recognises that promoting health on London鈥檚 streets requires supporting the diverse ways streets are used, including active travel, by making them safer and more accessible to all. School Streets 鈥 the temporary closure of streets in front of schools to motor vehicle traffic at the beginning and end of the school day 鈥 have recently emerged as a key intervention in this approach. The connection between streets and broader public health is perhaps nowhere starker than at the school gates. With over 20% of peak- time traffic associated with the school run, traffic and congestion are concentrated at the cramped residential streets that often serve London鈥檚 schools. This puts children at greater risk from road danger and poor air quality. These challenging conditions have been exacerbated by Covid-19; specifically, the need for physical distancing and concern about the effects of a car-based recovery. In response, there has been significant growth in School Streets since the beginning of 2020, with more than 400 currently in place across London. The HSE programme played an important part in providing support to 16 of London鈥檚 boroughs as they implemented their School Streets programmes, often for the first time. As a crucial part of Transport for London鈥檚 Covid-19 Streetspace scheme many of these recent School Streets have been implemented as temporary or emergency interventions, employing light-touch and low-cost approaches such as mobile traffic camera enforcement or temporary barriers. This report sets out several key findings from the close observation of two School Streets: 1. Significant reductions in motor vehicle traffic both during the closure time and over the whole day. 2. Minimal change in pedestrian numbers and use of space, with some evidence of increased cycling. 3. Improvements in several Healthy Streets indicators. Following from these findings and considering more comprehensive academic research, this report also outlines four recommendations for designers and policymakers to consider when making School Streets more permanent or implementing new schemes: 1.Taking a whole school and whole route approach 2.Reducing traffic effectively through enforcement and exemptions 3.Completing a scheme by changing the public realm 4.Designing for and responding to scheme issues through in-depth monitoring and evaluatio

    The second wave of COVID-19 and beyond: Rural healthcare

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    There are increasing signs that SARS-CoV-2 has started to spread to rural areas in India. It impacts people鈥檚 health, lives, and public health infrastructure that is already strained from a lack of resources. The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic in rural India is a worrying trend; 50% of reported cases since the beginning of May 2021 are from rural districts. Long-standing systemic, functional, and health inequities have put people in rural communities at increased risk of contracting COVID-19 and suffering from the lack of essential healthcare services. Health disparities between rural and urban areas exist not only in terms of risk factors, such as poor diet and vaccine hesitancy, but also in terms of healthcare infrastructure, manpower, and testing facilities. We suggest some long-term and short-term measures to efficiently develop strategies to contain and control the pandemic in rural areas. Short-term measures include implementing health communication tailored in culturally sensitive ways, increasing vaccination by the usual immunisation pattern, increasing the number of testing facilities, and ensuring food security through the public distribution system (PDS). Long-term suggestions include strengthening the primary healthcare system, increasing funding in the health sector to 2.5% of the gross domestic product (GDP), introducing mid-level care providers, improving skills and training of ASHAs along with adequate financial incentives, and ensuring participation of multiple stakeholders in community health schemes

    The company she keeps : The social and interpersonal construction of girls same sex friendships

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    This thesis begins a critical analysis of girls' 'private' interpersonal and social relations as they are enacted within two school settings. It is the study of these marginal subordinated worlds productivity of forms of femininity which provides the main narrative of this project. I seek to understand these processes of (best) friendship construction through a feminist multi-disciplinary frame, drawing upon cultural studies, psychoanalysis and accounts of gender politics. I argue that the investments girls bring to their homosocial alliances and boundary drawing narry a psychological compulsion which is complexly connected to their own experiences within the mother/daughter bond as well as reflecting positively an immense social debt to the permissions girls have to be nurturant and ; negatively their own reproduction of oppressive exclusionary practices. Best friendship in particular gives girls therefore, the experience of 'monogamy' continuous of maternal/daughter identification, reminiscent of their positioning inside monopolistic forms of heterosexuality. But these subcultures also represent a subversive discontinuity to the public dominance of boys/teachers/adults in schools and to the ideologies and practices of heterosociality and heterosexuality. By taking seriously their transmission of the values of friendship in their chosen form of notes and diaries for example, I was able to access the means whereby they were able to resist their surveillance and control by those in power over them. I conclude by arguing that it is through a recognition of the valency of these indivisiblly positive and negative aspects to girls cultures that Equal Opportunities practitioners must begin if they are serious about their ambitions. Methods have to be made which enable girls to transfer their 'private' solidarities into the 'public' realm, which unquestionably demands contesting with them the causes and consequences of their implication in the divisions which also contaminate their lives and weaken them

    Strung pieces: on the aesthetics of television fiction series

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    As layered and long works, television fiction series have aesthetic properties that are built over time, bit by bit. This thesis develops a group of concepts that enable the study of these properties, It argues that a series is made of strung pieces, a system of related elements. The text begins by considering this sequential form within the fields of film and television. This opening chapter defines the object and methodology of research, arguing for a non-essentialist distinction between cinema and television and against the adequacy of textual and contextual analyses as approaches to the aesthetics of these shows. It proposes instead that these programmes should be described as televisual works that can be scrutinised through aesthetic analysis. The next chapters propose a sequence of interrelated concepts. The second chapter contends that series are composed of building blocks that can be either units into which series are divided or motifs that unify series and are dispersed across their pans. These blocks are patterned according to four kinds of relations or principles of composition. Repetition and variation are treated in tandem in the third chapter because of their close connection, given that variation emerges from established repetition. Exception and progression are also discussed together in the fourth chapter since they both require a long view of these serial works. The former, in order to be recognised as a deviation from the patterns of repetition and variation. The latter, In order to be understood in Its many dimensions as the series advances. Each of these concepts is further detailed with additional distinctions between types of units, motifs, repetitions, variations, and exceptions, using illustrative examples from numerous shows. In contrast, the section on progression uses a single series as case study, Carniv脿le (2003-05), because this is the overarching principle that encompasses all the others. The conclusion considers the findings of the research and suggests avenues for their application
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