599,201 research outputs found

    Dual-labelled (13C/15N) green manure to differentiate between plant uptake of organic and inorganic N

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    Experimental data is still lacking for determining whether plant uptake of organic nitrogen in agricultural soils contributes substantially to the total N uptake. Pulseinjection studies with dual-labelled amino acids have confirmed that non-mycorrhizal crops possess the capacity to take up organic N but failed to quantify the uptake relative to total N uptake

    Water calcium concentration modifies whole-body calcium uptake in sea bream larvae during short-term adaptation to altered salinities

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    Whole-body calcium uptake was studied in gilthead sea bream larvae (9–83Β·mg) in response to changing environmental salinity and [Ca2+]. Calcium uptake increased with increased fish size and salinity. Fish exposed to calcium-enriched, diluted seawater showed increased calcium uptake compared with fish in diluted seawater alone. Calcium uptake was unchanged in Na+- enriched, diluted seawater. Overall, [Ca2+], and not salinity/osmolarity per se, appears to be the main factor contributing to calcium uptake. By contrast, drinking was reduced by a decrease in salinity/osmolarity but was little affected by external [Ca2+]. Calculations of the maximum contribution from drinking-associated calcium uptake showed that it became almost insignificant (less than 10%) through a strong decrease in drinking rate at low salinities (0–8‰). Diluted seawater enriched in calcium to the concentration present in full-strength seawater (i.e. constant calcium, decreasing salinity) restored intestinal calcium uptake to normal. Extra-intestinal calcium uptake also benefited from calcium addition but to a lesser extent

    Matrix stiffness affects endocytic uptake of MK2-inhibitor peptides.

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    In this study, the role of substrate stiffness on the endocytic uptake of a cell-penetrating peptide was investigated. The cell-penetrating peptide, an inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase activated protein kinase II (MK2), enters a primary mesothelial cell line predominantly through caveolae. Using tissue culture polystyrene and polyacrylamide gels of varying stiffness for cell culture, and flow cytometry quantification and enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISA) for uptake assays, we showed that the amount of uptake of the peptide is increased on soft substrates. Further, peptide uptake per cell increased at lower cell density. The improved uptake seen on soft substrates in vitro better correlates with in vivo functional studies where 10-100 Β΅M concentrations of the MK2 inhibitor cell penetrating peptide demonstrated functional activity in several disease models. Additional characterization showed actin polymerization did not affect uptake, while microtubule polymerization had a profound effect on uptake. This work demonstrates that cell culture substrate stiffness can play a role in endocytic uptake, and may be an important consideration to improve correlations between in vitro and in vivo drug efficacy

    Comparison of human hepatoma HepaRG cells with human and rat hepatocytes in uptake transport assays in order to predict drug induced hepatotoxicity

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    Human hepatocytes are the gold standard for toxicological studies but they have several drawbacks, like scarce availability, high inter-individual variability, a short lifetime, which limits their applicability. The aim of our investigations was to determine, whether HepaRG cells could replace human hepatocytes in uptake experiments for toxicity studies. HepaRG is a hepatoma cell line with most hepatic functions, including a considerable expression of uptake transporters in contrast to other hepatic immortalized cell lines. We compared the effect of cholestatic drugs (bosentan, cyclosporinA, troglitazone,) and bromosulfophthalein on the uptake of taurocholate and estrone-3-sulfate in human and rat hepatocytes and HepaRG cells. The substrate uptake was significantly slower in HepaRG cells than in human hepatocytes, still, in the presence of drugs we observed a concentration dependent decrease in uptake. In all cell types, the culture time had a significant impact not only on the uptake process but on the inhibitory effect of drugs too. The most significant drug effect was measured at 4 h after seeding. Our report is among the first concerning interactions of the uptake transporters in the HepaRG, at the functional level. Results of the present study clearly show that concerning the inhibition of taurocholate uptake by cholestatic drugs, HepaRG cells are closer to human hepatocytes than rat hepatocytes. In conclusion, we demonstrated that HepaRG cells provide a suitable tool for hepatic uptake studies

    Factors affecting ammonium uptake in streams - an inter-biome perspective

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    The Lotic Intersite Nitrogen experiment (LINX) was a coordinated study of the relationships between North American biomes and factors governing ammonium uptake in streams. Our objective was to relate inter-biome variability of ammonium uptake to physical, chemical and biological processes. 2. Data were collected from 11 streams ranging from arctic to tropical and from desert to rainforest. Measurements at each site included physical, hydraulic and chemical characteristics, biological parameters, whole-stream metabolism and ammonium uptake. Ammonium uptake was measured by injection of \u275~-ammonium and downstream measurements of 15N-ammonium concentration. 3. We found no general, statistically significant relationships that explained the variability in ammonium uptake among sites. However, this approach does not account for the multiple mechanisms of ammonium uptake in streams. When we estimated biological demand for inorganic nitrogen based on our measurements of in-stream metabolism, we found good correspondence between calculated nitrogen demand and measured assimilative nitrogen uptake. 4. Nitrogen uptake varied little among sites, reflecting metabolic compensation in streams in a variety of distinctly different biomes (autotrophic production is high where allochthonous inputs are relatively low and vice versa). 5. Both autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolism require nitrogen and these biotic processes dominate inorganic nitrogen retention in streams. Factors that affect the relative balance of autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolism indirectly control inorganic nitrogen uptake
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