23,360 research outputs found


    Get PDF
    In addition to providing multiplier economic benefits, the tourism sector also has the potential to cause some latent and massive negative social impacts. For this reason, it is important to map out the orientation of the local community. This study analyzes the polarization of the local community's perceptions of sociocultural dynamics in the ecotourism development area. The local community that became the focus of the research consisted of five groups of respondents: traditional leaders, religious leaders, educational leaders, community leaders, and tourism actors. This research was conducted in the Bopunjur Ecotourism Area, Bogor Regency, West Java, precisely in seven ecotourism destinations, namely Ciawi, Caringin, Cibogo, Cipayung, Megamendung, Cisarua, and Tugu. This study used mixed methods, qualitative and quantitative approach. Data collection on social and cultural dynamics was done by distributing questionnaires to the respondents. The research instrument was a questionnaire designed closed-ended with guidance on one score-one indicator scoring system. The results showed that positive social situations, namely conducive situations, associations, cooperative situations, and productive collaborations were still more dominant than negative social situations: war, conflict, and dissociation. The polarization of the local community on sociocultural dynamics has a positive direction with a polarization scale that is aligned with each other so that there is an excellent opportunity to build productive collaboration among stakeholders in this are

    Annotated Checklist of the Aradidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) or Flat Bugs of Iowa

    Get PDF
    A review of the species of Aradidae or flat bugs found in Iowa is presented. New state records for Aradus aequalis Say, A. crenatus Say, A. implanus, and Mezira lobata (Say) are included

    Indigenous WńĀhine Talking Critically in the Museum Space

    Get PDF
    As greater numbers of community groups experience social disconnect, museums need to find better methods of engagement in order to remain relevant. We know that museums are no longer neutral spaces; in fact, they have a role to play in activism, which means they can shift their mission to support local communities celebrate and protect their Indigenous heritage (Drubay and Singhal 2020; Message 2018; Shelton 2013). What follows is a meditation by researchers in Aotearoa New Zealand who engage with Pacific-Indigenous concepts and museum practice in unique ways. Our big idea is to see ‚ÄúOceania through Indigenous eyes‚ÄĚ (Lagi-Maama 2019: 291) and, in particular, the eyes of NńĀlani Wilson-Hokowhitu with mo‚ÄėokŇę‚Äėauhau to Kalapana, Hawai‚Äėi, and Moloka‚Äėi Nui a Hina; Maree Mills with whakapapa to Tongariro, TaupŇć, and NgńĀti TŇęwharetoa; and Rachel Yates, who hails from Vaisala, SńĀmoa. As a collective, their curatorial talano kaŇćrero/mo‚Äėolelo/stories connect to current debates in the museum world where local problems need local solutions. In this instance, Wilson-Hokowhitu and Mills share the ideas that shaped their mahi at Waikato Museum Te Whare Taonga o Waikato in Hamilton, and Yates has just finished a COVID-19 project as Curator of Pacific Cultures at the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa in Wellington.</jats:p

    Shellfish Stocks and Fisheries Review 2022: an assessment of selected stocks

    Get PDF
    This review presents information on the status of selected shellfish stocks in Ireland. In addition, data on the fleet and landings of shellfish species (excluding Nephrops and mussels) are presented. The intention of this annual review is to present stock assessment and management advice for shellfisheries that may be subject to new management proposals or where scientific advice is required in relation to assessing the environmental impact of shellfish fisheries especially in areas designated under European Directives. The review reflects the recent work of the Marine Institute (MI) in the biological assessment of shellfish fisheries and their interaction with the environment. The information and advice presented here for shellfish is complementary to that presented in the MI Stock Book on demersal and pelagic fisheries. Separate treatment of shellfish is warranted as their biology and distribution, the assessment methods that can be applied to them and the system under which they are managed, all differ substantially to demersal and pelagic stocks. Shellfish stocks are not generally assessed by The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) and although they come under the competency of the Common Fisheries Policy they are generally not regulated by EU TAC and in the main, other than crab and scallop, are distributed inside the national 12 nm fisheries limit. Management of these fisheries is within the competency of the Department of Agriculture, Food and Marine (DAFM). A co-operative management framework introduced by the Governing Department and BIM in 2005 (Anon 2005), and under which a number of fishery management plans were developed, was, in 2014, replaced by the National and Regional Inshore Fisheries Forums (NIFF, RIFFs). These bodies are consultative forums, the members of which are representative of the inshore fisheries sector and other stakeholder groups. The National forum (NIFF) provides a structure with which each of the regional forums can interact with each other and with the Marine Agencies, DAFM and the Minister. Management of oyster fisheries is the responsibility of The Department of Environment, Climate and Communications, implemented through Inland Fisheries Ireland (IFI). In many cases, however, management responsibility for oysters is devolved through Fishery Orders or Aquaculture licences to local co-operatives. The main customers for this review are DAFM, RIFFs, NIFF and other Departments and Authorities listed above.EMFAF; Government of Irelan

    Assessment Protocol to Evaluate the Degree of Conservation of Habitats of Community Interest: A Case Study for the 5220* HCI in the Westernmost Localities of Europe

    Get PDF
    The westernmost European nucleus of the 5220* Habitat of Community Interest (HCI) is located in the province of M√°laga (Andalusia). In this area, the 5220* HCI is characterized by the presence of scrublands of Gymnosporia senegalensis subsp. europaea. This is a relict species in Europe, with inhabits only in the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula. The westernmost Iberian nuclei of the 5220* HCI are constituted by three isolated nuclei (M√°laga‚ÄďRinc√≥n de la Victoria; Torremolinos; and Pizarra). These nuclei have been only partially mapped. The objectives were: to map the 5220* HCI characterized by G. senegalensis subsp. europaea in detail; to evaluate its degree of conservation (DC); and to identify the chronosequences of the evolution of this habitat from 1957 to 2021, and its fragmentation. Our results have contributed to generating a 1:10,000 scale cartography of the habitat. In general, the DC obtained was from good to excellent. With an excellent DC value, one inland locality (Pizarra) was highlighted. However, the highest reduction in the value of DC was observed in the localities of Torremolinos and M√°laga‚ÄďRinc√≥n de la Victoria which, in addition, have reduced the area of occupancy (AOO) and are fragmented. It is important to note that some areas of M√°laga‚ÄďRinc√≥n de la Victoria reached excellent values of DC, indicating the need to carry out protection.This paper was supported by the project CEIJ-006- ‚ÄúEvaluaci√≥n del estado de conservaci√≥n del litoral mediterr√°neo terrestre en el sureste ib√©rico (M√°laga-Granada, Espa√Īa) mediante el uso de flora relevante, al√≥ctonas invasoras y h√°bitats 92/43UE. Propuesta de gesti√≥n‚ÄĚ of the Campus of International Global Excellence of the Sea. A. Picornell was supported by a postdoctoral grant financed by the Consejer√≠a de Transformaci√≥n Econ√≥mica, Industria, Conocimiento y Universidades (Junta de Andaluc√≠a, POSTDOC_21_00056). This publication has been also funded by the University of Malaga (‚ÄúI Plan Propio de Investigaci√≥n, Transferencia y Divulgaci√≥n Cient√≠fica de la Universidad de M√°laga‚ÄĚ). Partial funding for open access charge: Universidad de M√°lag

    Why the delay in recognizing terrestrial obligate cave species in the tropics?

    No full text
    ‚ÄúNothing could possibly live there!‚ÄĚ They believed. Indeed, until recently, few specialized cave- adapted animals were known from volcanic, tropical, or oceanic island caves, and plausible theories had been put forward to explain their absence. But assume nothing in science! One must illuminate, explore, and survey habitats before declaring them barren. Our understanding of cave biology changed dramatically about 50 years ago following the serendipitous discovery of cave-adapted terrestrial arthropods in Brazil and on the young oceanic islands of the GalaŐĀpagos and Hawai‚Äėi. These discoveries and subsequent studies on the evolutionary ecology of cave animals have revealed a remarkable hidden fauna and created new sub- disciplines within biospeleology. Biological surveys of caves in other regions have continued to expand our understanding of the evolution, adaptation, and ecology of the subterranean biome. We now predict that, rather than being relicts trapped in caves by changing climate, many animals actively colonized caves and adapted to exploit food resources wherever there were suitable subterranean voids. The physical environment in caves can be determined with great precision because the habitat is buffered by rock. Furthermore, the bizarre adaptations displayed by obligatory cave animals are similar across many taxonomic groups. These two characteristics make caves nearly ideal natural laboratories for studying evolution and ecology. However, to the untrained researcher, caves can appear hostile and dangerous, and in fact, fieldwork in caves requires a unique marriage of athletic ability and science. In other words, cave research is exciting! In this contribution, I describe the exploration, discovery, and research in tropical caves and describe the factors that delayed the recognition of a significant tropical cave fauna

    Feeding Diversity of Finfish in Different Wild Habitat

    Get PDF
    Sonmiani Bay has unique faunal diversity and distribution especially finfish as mangroves provides an imperative ecosystem which offer the shelter and protection to the associated organisms and care of their juveniles in bay limits. This study aimed to evaluate the diversity pattern according to physical and physiological responses and feeding habits (carnivorous and herbivorous) of finfish species in accordance with current habitat conditions in the Sonmiani Bay. A total of 4499, individuals of comprising 155 finfish species that represent 50 families were captured by these four (beach seines, purse seines, gill nets, and cast nets) nets during a twelve-month survey in a year. The distribution pattern of finfishes captured classified into four groups (tidal visitors, permanent residents, partial residents, and seasonal visitors) according to their patterns of distribution. Understanding of the true feeding behavior of organisms needs a more reliable and functional approach. The feeding ecology is not only functional for food and feeding behavior of fish as usually described by various tools and techniques of analytical research to take up more reliable details to explain the feeding biology in fish but also the indicator of habitat quality and status

    Contribuição ao conhecimento dos Asilidae neotropicais (Diptera)

    Get PDF
    Pode-se afirmar, de um modo geral, que e bastante prec√°rio o conhecimento de nossa fauna dipterol√≥gica, principalmente naqueles grupos aos quais n√£o se atribue import√Ęncia m√©dica, veterin√°ria ou agr√≠cola. S√£o raros os trabalhos nacionais que tratem da sistem√°tica de uma subfam√≠lia ou de uma tribo de d√≠pteros de interesse puramente zool√≥gico. As publica√ß√Ķes monogr√°ficas de autores estrangeiros quase sempre incluem escasso material brasileiro, n√£o se conseguindo, por isso mesmo, encontrar neles elementos seguros para a identificagao da maioria dos nossos d√≠pteros. E precisamente o que acontece com a fam√≠lia Asilidae, cujas esp√©cies, para serem identificadas, requerem do sistematista a estafante tarefa de consulta √†s diagnoses que se encontram esparsas em numerosos peri√≥dicos, muitas vezes de dif√≠cil aquisi√ß√£o ou escritas em linguagem amb√≠gua, obscura ou insuficiente. Com o estudo que realizamos sobre as esp√©cies brasileiras de asil√≠deos que apresentam um espor√£o no √°pice da t√≠bia anterior, car√°cter bastante vis√≠vel que facilmente distingue estas esp√©cies, pretendemos ter afastado, neste grupo de d√≠pteros, tais dificuldades

    Norsk rå kumelk, en kilde til zoonotiske patogener?

    Get PDF
    The worldwide emerging trend of eating ‚Äúnatural‚ÄĚ foods, that has not been processed, also applies for beverages. According to Norwegian legislation, all milk must be pasteurized before commercial sale but drinking milk that has not been heat-treated, is gaining increasing popularity. Scientist are warning against this trend and highlights the risk of contracting disease from milkborne microorganisms. To examine potential risks associated with drinking unpasteurized milk in Norway, milk- and environmental samples were collected from dairy farms located in south-east of Norway. The samples were analyzed for the presence of specific zoonotic pathogens; Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter spp., and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Cattle are known to be healthy carriers of these pathogens, and Campylobacter spp. and STEC have a low infectious dose, meaning that infection can be established by ingesting a low number of bacterial cells. L. monocytogenes causes one of the most severe foodborne zoonotic diseases, listeriosis, that has a high fatality rate. All three pathogens have caused milk borne disease outbreaks all over the world, also in Norway. During this work, we observed that the prevalence of the three examined bacteria were high in the environment at the examined farms. In addition, 7% of the milk filters were contaminated by STEC, 13% by L. monocytogenes and 4% by Campylobacter spp. Four of the STEC isolates detected were eaepositive, which is associated with the capability to cause severe human disease. One of the eae-positive STEC isolates were collected from a milk filter, which strongly indicate that Norwegian raw milk may contain potential pathogenic STEC. To further assess the possibilities of getting ill by STEC after consuming raw milk, we examined the growth of the four eae-positive STEC isolates in raw milk at different temperatures. All four isolates seemed to have ability to multiply in raw milk at 8¬įC, and one isolate had significant growth after 72 hours. Incubation at 6¬įC seemed to reduce the number of bacteria during the first 24 hours before cell death stopped. These findings highlight the importance of stable refrigerator temperatures, preferable < 4¬įC, for storage of raw milk. The L. monocytogenes isolates collected during this study show genetic similarities to isolates collected from urban and rural environmental locations, but different clones were predominant in agricultural environments compared to clinical and food environments. However, the results indicate that the same clone can persist in a farm over time, and that milk can be contaminated by L. monocytogenes clones present in farm environment. Despite testing small volumes (25 mL) of milk, we were able to isolate both STEC and Campylobacter spp. directly from raw milk. A proportion of 3% of the bulk tank milk and teat milk samples were contaminated by Campylobacter spp. and one STEC was isolated from bulk tank milk. L monocytogenes was not detected in bulk tank milk, nor in teat milk samples. The agricultural evolvement during the past decades have led to larger production units and new food safety challenges. Dairy cattle production in Norway is in a current transition from tie-stall housing with conventional pipeline milking systems, to modern loose housing systems with robotic milking. The occurrence of the three pathogens in this project were higher in samples collected from farms with loose housing compared to those with tiestall housing. Pasteurization of cow‚Äôs milk is a risk reducing procedure to protect consumers from microbial pathogens and in most EU countries, commercial distribution of unpasteurized milk is legally restricted. Together, the results presented in this thesis show that the animal housing may influence the level of pathogenic bacteria in the raw milk and that ingestion of Norwegian raw cow‚Äôs milk may expose consumers to pathogenic bacteria which can cause severe disease, especially in children, elderly and in persons with underlying diseases. The results also highlight the importance of storing raw milk at low temperatures between milking and consumption.√Ö spise mat som er mindre prosessert og mer ¬ęnaturlig¬Ľ er en p√•g√•ende trend i Norge og i andre deler av verden. Interessen for √• drikke melk som ikke er varmebehandlet, s√•kalt r√• melk, er ogs√• √łkende. I Norge er det p√•budt √• pasteurisere melk f√łr kommersielt salg for √• beskytte forbrukeren mot sykdomsfremkallende mikroorganismer. Fagfolk advarer mot √• drikke r√• melk, og p√•peker risikoen for √• bli syk av patogene bakterier som kan finnes i melken. I denne avhandlingen unders√łker vi den potensielle risikoen det medf√łrer √• drikke upasteurisert melk fra Norge. I tillegg til √• samle inn tankmelk- og spenepr√łver fra melkeg√•rder i s√łr√łst Norge, samlet vi ogs√• milj√łpr√łver fra de samme g√•rdene for √• kartlegge forekomst og for √• identifisere potensielle mattrygghetsrisikoer i melkeproduksjonen. Alle pr√łvene ble analysert for de zoonotiske sykdomsfremkallende bakteriene Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter spp., og Shiga toksin-produserende Escherichia coli (STEC). Kyr kan v√¶re friske smitteb√¶rere av disse bakteriene, som dermed kan etablere et reservoar p√• g√•rdene. Bakteriene kan overf√łres fra g√•rdsmilj√łet til melkekjeden og dermed utfordre mattryggheten. Disse bakteriene har for√•rsaket melkeb√•rne sykdomsutbrudd over hele verden, ogs√• i Norge. Campylobacter spp. og STEC har lav infeksi√łs dose, som vil si at man kan bli syk selv om man bare inntar et lavt antall bakterieceller. L. monocytogenes kan gi sykdommen listeriose, en av de mest alvorlige matb√•rne zoonotiske sykdommene vi har i den vestlige verden. Resultater fra denne oppgaven viser en h√ły forekomst av de tre patogenene i g√•rdsmilj√łet. I tillegg var 7% av melkefiltrene vi testet positive for STEC, 13% positive for L. monocytogenes og 4% positive for Campylobacter spp.. Fire av STEC isolatene bar genet for Intimin, eae, som er ansett som en viktig virulensfaktor som √łker sjansen for alvorlig sykdom. Ett av de eae-positive isolatene ble funnet i et melkefilter, noe som indikerer at norsk r√• melk kan inneholde patogene STEC. For √• videre vurdere risikoen for √• bli syk av STEC fra r√• melk unders√łkte vi hvordan de fire eae-positive isolatene vokste i r√• melk lagret ved forskjellige temperaturer. For alle isolatene √łkte antall bakterier etter lagring ved 8¬įC, og for et isolat var veksten signifikant. Etter lagring ved 6¬įC ble antallet bakterier redusert de f√łrste 24 timene, deretter stoppet reduksjonen i antall bakterier. Disse resultatene viser hvor viktig det er √• ha stabil lav lagringstemperatur for r√• melk, helst < 4¬įC. L. monocytogenes isolatene som ble samlet inn fra melkeg√•rdene viste genetiske likheter med isolater samlet inn fra urbane og rurale milj√łer rundt omkring i Norge. Derimot var kloner som dominerte i landbruksmilj√łet forskjellige fra kliniske isolater og isolater fra matproduksjonslokaler. Videre s√• man at en klone kan persistere p√• en g√•rd over tid og at melk kan kontamineres av L. monocytogenes kloner som er til stede i g√•rdsmilj√łet. Til tross for sm√• testvolum av tankmelken (25 mL) fant vi b√•de STEC og Campylobacter spp. i melkepr√łvene. 3% av tankmelkpr√łvene og spenepr√łvene var positive for Campylobacter spp. og ett STEC isolat ble funnet i tankmelk. L. monocytogenes ble ikke funnet direkte i melkepr√łvene. Landbruket i Norge er i stadig utvikling der besetningene blir st√łrre, men f√¶rre. Melkebesetningene er midt i en overgang der tradisjonell oppstalling med melking p√• b√•s byttes ut med l√łsdriftssystemer og melkeroboter. Forekomsten av de tre patogenene funnet i denne studien var h√łyere i besetningene med l√łsdrift sammenliknet med besetningene som hadde melkekyrne oppstallet p√• b√•s. Pasteurisering er et viktig forebyggende tiltak for √• beskytte konsumenter fra mikrobielle patogener, og i de fleste EU-land er kommersielt salg av r√• melk juridisk begrenset. Denne studien viser at oppstallingstype kan p√•virke niv√•ene av patogene bakterier i g√•rdsmilj√łet og i r√• melk. Inntak av r√• melk kan eksponere forbruker for patogene bakterier som kan gi alvorlig sykdom, spesielt hos barn, eldre og personer med underliggende sykdommer. Resultatene underbygger viktigheten av √• pasteurisere melk for √• sikre mattryggheten, og at det er avgj√łrende √• lagre r√• melk ved kontinuerlig lave temperaturer for √• forebygge vekst av zoonotiske patogener
    • ‚Ķ