24,180 research outputs found

    The new Felsenkeller 5 MV underground accelerator

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    The field of nuclear astrophysics is devoted to the study of the creation of the chemical elements. By nature, it is deeply intertwined with the physics of the Sun. The nuclear reactions of the proton-proton cycle of hydrogen burning, including the 3He({\alpha},{\gamma})7Be reaction, provide the necessary nuclear energy to prevent the gravitational collapse of the Sun and give rise to the by now well-studied pp, 7Be, and 8B solar neutrinos. The not yet measured flux of 13N, 15O, and 17F neutrinos from the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen cycle is affected in rate by the 14N(p,{\gamma})15O reaction and in emission profile by the 12C(p,{\gamma})13N reaction. The nucleosynthetic output of the subsequent phase in stellar evolution, helium burning, is controlled by the 12C({\alpha},{\gamma})16O reaction. In order to properly interpret the existing and upcoming solar neutrino data, precise nuclear physics information is needed. For nuclear reactions between light, stable nuclei, the best available technique are experiments with small ion accelerators in underground, low-background settings. The pioneering work in this regard has been done by the LUNA collaboration at Gran Sasso/Italy, using a 0.4 MV accelerator. The present contribution reports on a higher-energy, 5.0 MV, underground accelerator in the Felsenkeller underground site in Dresden/Germany. Results from {\gamma}-ray, neutron, and muon background measurements in the Felsenkeller underground site in Dresden, Germany, show that the background conditions are satisfactory for nuclear astrophysics purposes. The accelerator is in the commissioning phase and will provide intense, up to 50{\mu}A, beams of 1H+, 4He+ , and 12C+ ions, enabling research on astrophysically relevant nuclear reactions with unprecedented sensitivity.Comment: Submitted to the Proceedings of the 5th International Solar Neutrino Conference, Dresden/Germany, 11-14 June 2018, to appear on World Scientific -- updated version (Figure 2 and relevant discussion updated, co-author A. Domula added

    Quest for a Nuclear Georeactor

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    Knowledge about the interior of our planet is mainly based on the interpretation of seismic data from earthquakes and nuclear explosions, and of composition of meteorites. Additional observations have led to a wide range of hypotheses on the heat flow from the interior to the crust, the abundance of certain noble gases in gasses vented from volcanoes and the possibility of a nuclear georeactor at the centre of the Earth. This paper focuses on a proposal for an underground laboratory to further develop antineutrinos as a tool to map the distribution of radiogenic heat sources, such as the natural radionuclides and the hypothetical nuclear georeactor.Comment: Invited talk presented at the International Symposium on Radiation Physics, Cape Town, 2003. Manuscript is submitted to Radiation Physics and Chemistr

    The Opera Experiment

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    The physics motivations and the detector design of the long baseline OPERA experiment are discussed; OPERA is a hybrid detector made of several types of electronic subdetectors, 2 magnets and lead/nuclear emulsions ``brick'' walls. It is located in the Gran Sasso underground lab, 732 km from CERN, on the CNGS neutrino beam. A summary of the performances and of the physics plans are presented.The physics motivations and the detector design of the long baseline OPERA experiment are discussed: OPERA is a hybrid detector made of several types of electronic subdetectors, 2 magnets and lead/nuclear emulsions ``brick'' walls. It is located in the Gran Sasso underground lab, 732 km from CERN, on the CNGS neutrino beam. A summary of the performances and of the physics plans are presented.The physics motivations and the detector design of the long baseline OPERA experiment are discussed: OPERA is a hybrid detector made of several types of electronic subdetectors, 2 magnets and lead/nuclear emulsions ``brick'' walls. It is located in the Gran Sasso underground lab, 732 km from CERN, on the CNGS neutrino beam. A summary of the performances and of the physics plans are presented

    The EDELWEISS Experiment : Status and Outlook

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    The EDELWEISS Dark Matter search uses low-temperature Ge detectors with heat and ionisation read- out to identify nuclear recoils induced by elastic collisions with WIMPs from the galactic halo. Results from the operation of 70 g and 320 g Ge detectors in the low-background environment of the Modane Underground Laboratory (LSM) are presented.Comment: International Conference on Dark Matter in Astro and Particle Physics (Dark 2000), Heidelberg, Germany, 10-16 Jul 2000, v3 minor revision
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