71 research outputs found

    Morphology is not always useful for diagnosis, and that’s ok: Species hypotheses should not be bound to a class of data. Reply to Brown and Gibbons (S Afr J Sci. 2022;118(9/10), Art. #12590)

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    This paper serves as a reply to the Commentary by Brown and Gibbons (S Afr J Sci. 2022;118(9/10), Art. #12590) on our recently published paper on systematics of the moon jellyfish genus Aurelia (Lawley et al. PeerJ 2021;9, e11954)). We emphasise that we are not advocating for the routine use of molecular data alone in taxonomic diagnoses, rather that it is a valid approach in cases where, after detailed analyses, morphological features are shown to be unreliable

    DNA barcoding of moon jellyfish (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa, Ulmaridae, Aurelia): two cryptic species from the Azores (ne atlantic, macaronesia), and evaluation of the non-íIndigenous species (NIS)

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    Moon jellies are some of the most popular, widely distributed, and best-studied marine jellyfish. By the end of the past century only two or three Aurelia species were recognized, but with the rise of DNA barcoding studies, around thirty Aurelia species are presently accepted. Most of the species are morphologically indistinguishable and have restricted biogeography. We reveal, with COI, 16S, and ITS1-5.8S sequence data, two (pseudo-)cryptic species of Aurelia, potentially endemic to the Azores ecoregion, herein provisionally classified as A. "cf. pseudosolida" and A. "misteriosa". These species are closely related to the Mediterranean lineages of A. pseudosolida and A. persea, respectively. In the Azores, the shape of the campanula and oral arms readily distinguishes the two species: the former with folded oral arms and globose campanula, and the latter with flattened campanula and thick and long oral arms. Previous reports of A. solida and A. aurita in the Azores should generally correspond to A. "misteriosa" and A. cf. pseudosolida, respectively. The phylogenetic (re-)examination of the available DNA barcodes of Aurelia only evidenced human-mediated dispersal for A. coerulea, A. relicta, and A. aurita. Aurelia solida cannot be yet considered NIS in the Mediterranean. More jellyfish DNA (meta)barcoding should reveal further cryptic diversity, biological invasions, and phylogeographic inferences.Programa Operacional Açores 2020”, within the project “Águas-VivAz”–ref.: ACORES-01-0145- FEDER-000119info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Reproductive biology of Lychnorhiza lucerna (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae): Individual traits related to sexual reproduction

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    We studied individual traits related with sexual reproduction of Lychnorhiza lucerna and review how sexual maturation has been studied for scyphomedusae, focusing on the particular case of non-brooding species. L. lucerna is a gonochoric species and sexual dimorphism was found in the colour of the gonads. There were no brooding structures or any other distinguishable feature that enable macroscopic determination of sex. Gametogenesis in L. lucerna resembled the descriptions available for other rhizostomes and semaeostomes. Both processes are asynchronous since gametes at all stages of development occurred simultaneously. Oocytes arose from the gastrodermis and maintained contact with it via trophocytes throughout vitellogenesis. Spermatogenesis occurred within the spermatic follicles arising from nested primary spermatogonia in the mesoglea. Population features of sexual reproduction are defined by characterizing and quantifying individuals at different stages of sexual maturity. Regarding sexual maturation in Scyphozoa, sexually mature medusae can be detected by i) the presence of fully-developed gametes in the gonads indicating near future spawning, or ii) by the presence of spent spermatic follicles as evidence of ongoing or recent spawning events. Whereas the former allows getting a more detailed study of sexual reproduction patterns of any species, the later constitutes an option for non-brooders equivalent to the search of fertilized eggs or planulae for brooder species, as exemplified in this work.Fil: Schiariti, Agustin. Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones y Desarrollo Pesquero; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Mar del Plata. Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras. Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras; ArgentinaFil: Christiansen, Enesto. Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones y Desarrollo Pesquero; ArgentinaFil: Morandini, Andre Carrara. Universidade de Sao Paulo; BrasilFil: da Silveira, Fabio Lang. Universidade de Sao Paulo; BrasilFil: Giberto, Diego Agustin. Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones y Desarrollo Pesquero; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Mar del Plata. Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras. Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras; ArgentinaFil: Mianzan, Hermes Walter. Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones y Desarrollo Pesquero; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Mar del Plata. Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras. Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras; Argentin

    Evolution and development of scyphozoan jellyfish

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    © The Author(s), 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Biological Reviews 93 (2018): 1228-1250, doi:10.1111/brv.12393.Scyphozoan jellyfish, or scyphomedusae, are conspicuous members of many ocean ecosystems, and have large impacts on human health and industry. Most scyphomedusae are the final stage in a complex life cycle that also includes two intermediate stages: the larval planula and benthic polyp. In species with all three life‐cycle stages, the metamorphosis of a polyp into a juvenile scyphomedusa (ephyra) is termed strobilation, and polyps can produce one ephyra (termed monodisc strobilation) or many ephyrae (termed polydisc strobilation). In contrast to species with planula, polyp and medusa stages, a handful of scyphozoan species possess modified life cycles with reduced or absent stages. The evolutionary patterns associated with strobilation and life‐cycle type have not been thoroughly investigated, and many studies of ephyra development and strobilation induction are not yet synthesized. Herein, I place the development of scyphomedusae in an evolutionary context. I first review the current evolutionary hypotheses for Scyphozoa. Next, I review what is known about scyphomedusa development across a broad diversity of species, including the first signs of strobilation, the formation of strobila segments, and the morphogenesis of ephyrae. I then review cases where the canonical scyphozoan life cycle has been modified, and take advantage of phylogenetic hypotheses to place these observations in an evolutionary context. I show that the evolution of monodisc strobilation occurred at least twice, and that the loss of intermediate life‐cycle stages occurred several times independently; by contrast, the reduction of the medusa stage appears to have occurred within a single clade. I then briefly review the major natural cues of strobilation induction. Finally, I summarize what is currently known about the molecular mechanisms of strobilation induction and ephyra development. I conclude with suggestions for future directions in the field.Support for this work came from the National Science Foundation (NSF) Graduate Research Fellowship under grant number DGE - 1058262, and a Brown University DissertationDevelopment Grant from the Bushnell Research and Education Fund

    Inhabitants of Chesapeake Bay Part 1. Animals of Jelly

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    Davidson Seamount Taxonomic Guide

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    Davidson Seamount is one of the largest seamounts in U.S. waters and the first to be characterized as a “seamount.” In 2002 and 2006, the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS) led two multi-institutional expeditions to characterize the geology and natural history of Davidson Seamount. Results from these expeditions to Davidson Seamount are adding to the scientific knowledge of seamounts, including the discovery of new species. In November 2008, the MBNMS boundary was expanded to include the Davidson Seamount. In addition, a management plan for Davidson Seamount was created to develop resource protection, education, and research strategies for the area. The purpose of this taxonomic guide is to create an inventory of benthic and mid-water organisms observed at the Davidson Seamount to provide a baseline taxonomic characterization. At least 237 taxa were observed and are presented in this guide; including 15 new or undescribed species (8 sponges, 3 corals, 1 ctenophore, 1 nudibranch, 1 polychaete, 1 tunicate) recently or currently being described by taxonomic experts. This is the first taxonomic guide to Davidson Seamount, and is intended to be revised in the future as we learn more about the seamount and the organisms that live there. (PDF has 145 pages.

    Ingresija hidromeduse Neotima lucullana (della chiaje, 1822) u ekosustavu estuarija rijeke Neretve (jugoistočni Jadran, Hrvatska)

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    Hydromedusa Neotima lucullana is an endemic species of the Mediterranean Sea. In this study we document the first numerous and permanent occurrence of N. lucullana in the estuary of the Neretva River, an unusual habitat for this typical marine species. We provide COI barcode sequence of this species, which is also first genetic sequence ever published of N. lucullana. Weekly data on the occurrence and abundance of N. lucullana were obtained from reports and records of autonomous divers and local fishermen in the area from Opuzen to Metković from mid-June to the end of October 2021. The individuals were always located in the layer above the bottom with salinity between 35.2 and 38.2. The diameters of the jellyfish bells ranged from 15 mm to 72 mm, most of them between 40 mm and 58 mm. Differential development of the gonads was observed in all specimens larger than 25 mm. In mid-June, the specimens were common but solitary. A week later, the jellyfish were more frequent and in smaller aggregations. From late June to mid-September, the jellyfish were constantly observed in larger aggregations. Toward the autumn, the number of individuals gradually decreased, and by the last week of October, only single individuals were observed. Our results indicate significant changes in the ecosystem of the Neretva estuary and confirm the observed composition of zooplankton communities dominated by marine species in summer and autumn.Hidromeduza Neotima lucullana je endemska vrsta Sredozemnog mora. Ovim istraživanjem dokumentiramo prve zapise o brojnoj i dugotrajnoj pojavi meduze N. lucullana u estuariju rijeke Neretve, neobičnom staništu za ovu tipično morsku vrstu. U sklopu ovog istraživanja dobivena je sekvenca podjedinice i citokrom oksidaze (COI), što je ujedno i prva genetička sekvenca ikad objavljena vrste N. lucullana. Tjedni podaci o pojavi i brojnosti N. lucullana dobiveni su na osnovi izvještaja i zapisa autonomnih ronilaca i lokalnih ribara na području od Opuzena do Metkovića od sredine lipnja do kraja listopada 2021. Jedinke meduza su uvijek bile u sloju iznad dna unutar vrijednosti saliniteta između 35,2 i 38,2. Promjer zvona meduza kretao se od 15 mm do 72 mm, glavnina između 40 mm i 58 mm. Diferencijalni razvoj spolnih žlijezda uočen je kod svih primjeraka većih od 25 mm. Sredinom lipnja jedinke su bile uobičajene, ali prisutne pojedinačno. Tjedan dana kasnije, meduze su bile često viđene i u manjim skupinama. Od kraja lipnja do sredine rujna, meduze su bile prisutne u većim agregacijama. Broj jedinki postupno se smanjivao prema jeseni i samo pojedinačni primjerci bili su uočeni tijekom posljednjeg tjedna listopada. Naši rezultati ukazuju na znatne promjene ekosustava donjeg toka rijeke Neretve što potvrđuje zabilježen sastav zooplanktonskih zajednica u kojima dominiraju morske vrste tijekom ljeti i jeseni

    Biology and Distribution of the Macrocoelenterates of Mississippi Sound and Adjacent Waters

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    Studies conducted in Mississippi Sound from April 1971 through June 1973 elucidated the seasonal and areal distribution of seven species of macrocoelenterates: Aurelia aurita (L), Chrysaora quinquecirrhu (Desor 1848), Pelagia noctiluca Forskål 1775, Chiropsalmus quadrumantus (Miiller 1859), Rhopilema verrillii (Fewkes 1887), Stomolophus meleagris L. Agassiz 1862, and Physalia physalis (L). Physical parameters presumed relevant to the distribution of each of these animals are presented. Developmental histories of certain of these forms are described

    INFORMATION SYSTEM ON SCYPHOZOA, CUBOZOA AND STAUROZOA

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    This information system permits to discover the rich biodiversity of Scyphozoa, Cubozoa and Staurozoa The system is equipped with a multi-entry query interface, which permits to combine the name of a taxon together with some simple morphological features. The result is a list of records, with or without images. By clicking on records, the system will display a taxon page, listing images and a description, when available
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