64,515 research outputs found

    Shallow Ultraviolet Transits of WD 1145+017

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    WD 1145+017 is a unique white dwarf system that has a heavily polluted atmosphere, an infrared excess from a dust disk, numerous broad absorption lines from circumstellar gas, and changing transit features, likely from fragments of an actively disintegrating asteroid. Here, we present results from a large photometric and spectroscopic campaign with Hubble, Keck , VLT, Spitzer, and many other smaller telescopes from 2015 to 2018. Somewhat surprisingly, but consistent with previous observations in the u' band, the UV transit depths are always shallower than those in the optical. We develop a model that can quantitatively explain the observed "bluing" and the main findings are: I. the transiting objects, circumstellar gas, and white dwarf are all aligned along our line of sight; II. the transiting object is blocking a larger fraction of the circumstellar gas than of the white dwarf itself. Because most circumstellar lines are concentrated in the UV, the UV flux appears to be less blocked compared to the optical during a transit, leading to a shallower UV transit. This scenario is further supported by the strong anti-correlation between optical transit depth and circumstellar line strength. We have yet to detect any wavelength-dependent transits caused by the transiting material around WD 1145+017.Comment: 16 pages, 11 figures, 6 tables, ApJ, in pres

    The Redshift One LDSS-3 Emission line Survey (ROLES) II: Survey method and z~1 mass-dependent star-formation rate density

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    Motivated by suggestions of 'cosmic downsizing', in which the dominant contribution to the cosmic star formation rate density (SFRD) proceeds from higher to lower mass galaxies with increasing cosmic time, we describe the design and implementation of the Redshift One LDSS3 Emission line Survey (ROLES). ROLES is a K-selected (22.5 < K_AB < 24.0) survey for dwarf galaxies [8.5<log(M*/Msun)< 9.5] at 0.89 < z < 1.15 drawn from two extremely deep fields (GOODS-S and MS1054-FIRES). Using the [OII]3727 emission line, we obtain redshifts and star-formation rates (SFRs) for star-forming galaxies down to a limit of ~0.3 Msun/yr. We present the [OII] luminosity function measured in ROLES and find a faint end slope of alpha_faint ~ -1.5, similar to that measured at z~0.1 in the SDSS. By combining ROLES with higher mass surveys, we measure the SFRD as a function of stellar mass using [OII] (with and without various empirical corrections), and using SED-fitting to obtain the SFR from the rest-frame UV luminosity for galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts. Our best estimate of the corrected [OII]-SFRD and UV SFRD both independently show that the SFRD evolves equally for galaxies of all masses between z~1 and z~0.1. The exact evolution in normalisation depends on the indicator used, with the [OII]-based estimate showing a change of a factor of ~2.6 and the UV-based a factor of ~6. We discuss possible reasons for the discrepancy in normalisation between the indicators, but note that the magnitude of this uncertainty is comparable to the discrepancy between indicators seen in other z~1 works. Our result that the shape of the SFRD as a function of stellar mass (and hence the mass range of galaxies dominating the SFRD) does not evolve between z~1 and z~0.1 is robust to the choice of indicator. [abridged]Comment: Resubmitted to MNRAS following first referee report. 20 pages, 16 figures. High resolution version available at http://astro.uwaterloo.ca/~dgilbank/papers/roles2.pd

    Deep R-band counts of z~3 Lyman break galaxy candidates with the LBT

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    Aims. We present a deep multiwavelength imaging survey (UGR) in 3 different fields, Q0933, Q1623, and COSMOS, for a total area of ~1500arcmin^2. The data were obtained with the Large Binocular Camera on the Large Binocular Telescope. Methods. To select our Lyman break galaxy (LBG) candidates, we adopted the well established and widely used color-selection criterion (U-G vs. G-R). One of the main advantages of our survey is that it has a wider dynamic color range for U-dropout selection than in previous studies. This allows us to fully exploit the depth of our R-band images, obtaining a robust sample with few interlopers. In addition, for 2 of our fields we have spectroscopic redshift information that is needed to better estimate the completeness of our sample and interloper fraction. Results. Our limiting magnitudes reach 27.0(AB) in the R band (5\sigma) and 28.6(AB) in the U band (1\sigma). This dataset was used to derive LBG candidates at z~3. We obtained a catalog with a total of 12264 sources down to the 50% completeness magnitude limit in the R band for each field. We find a surface density of ~3 LBG candidates arcmin^2 down to R=25.5, where completeness is >=95% for all 3 fields. This number is higher than the original studies, but consistent with more recent samples.Comment: in press by A&A, full LBG candidates' catalog will be available in electronic form at the CD

    The evolution of the galaxy luminosity function in the rest frame blue band up to z=3.5

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    We present an estimate of the cosmological evolution of the field galaxy luminosity function (LF) in the rest frame 4400 Angstrom B -band up to redshift z=3.5. To this purpose, we use a composite sample of 1541 I--selected galaxies selected down to I_(AB)=27.2 and 138 galaxies selected down to K_(AB)=25 from ground-based and HST multicolor surveys, most notably the new deep JHK images in the Hubble Deep Field South (HDF-S) taken with the ISAAC instrument at the ESO-VLT telescope. About 21% of the sample has spectroscopic redshifts, and the remaining fraction well calibrated photometric redshifts. The resulting blue LF shows little density evolution at the faint end with respect to the local values, while at the bright end (M_B(AB)<-20) a brightening increasing with redshift is apparent with respect to the local LF. Hierarchical CDM models overpredict the number of faint galaxies by about a factor 3 at z=1. At the bright end the predicted LFs are in reasonable agreement only at low and intermediate redshifts (z=1), but fail to reproduce the pronounced brightening observed in the high redshift (z=2-3) LF. This brightening could mark the epoch where a major star formation activity is present in the galaxy evolution.Comment: 14 pages, 2 figures, Astrophysical Journal Letters, in pres

    The Faintest X-ray Sources from z=0-8

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    We use the new 4 Ms exposure of the CDF-S field obtained with the Chandra X-ray satellite to investigate the properties of the faintest X-ray sources over a wide range of redshifts. We use an optimized averaging procedure to investigate the weighted mean X-ray fluxes of optically selected sources in the CDF-S over the redshift range z=0-8 and down to 0.5-2 keV fluxes as low as 5e-19 erg/cm^2/s. None of the samples of sources at high redshifts (z>5) show any significant flux, and at z=6.5 we place an upper limit on the X-ray luminosity of 4e41 erg/s in the rest-frame 3.75-15 keV band for the sample of Bouwens et al. (2006). This is consistent with any X-ray production in the galaxies being solely due to star formation. At lower redshifts we find significant weighted mean X-ray fluxes in many samples of sources over the redshift range z=0-4. We use these to argue that (1) the relation between star formation and X-ray production remains invariant over this redshift range, (2) X-ray sources below the direct detection threshold in the CDF-S are primarily star-forming, and (3) there is full consistency between UV and X-ray estimations of the star formation history.Comment: 13 pages, ApJ, in press. This accepted version includes a new figure on the star formation history determined from the X-ray dat

    Spitzer view on the evolution of star-forming galaxies from z=0 to z~3

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    We use a 24 micron selected sample containing more than 8,000 sources to study the evolution of star-forming galaxies in the redshift range from z=0 to z~3. We obtain photometric redshifts for most of the sources in our survey using a method based on empirically-built templates spanning from ultraviolet to mid-infrared wavelengths. The accuracy of these redshifts is better than 10% for 80% of the sample. The derived redshift distribution of the sources detected by our survey peaks at around z=0.6-1.0 (the location of the peak being affected by cosmic variance), and decays monotonically from z~1 to z~3. We have fitted infrared luminosity functions in several redshift bins in the range 0<z<~3. Our results constrain the density and/or luminosity evolution of infrared-bright star-forming galaxies. The typical infrared luminosity (L*) decreases by an order of magnitude from z~2 to the present. The cosmic star formation rate (SFR) density goes as (1+z)^{4.0\pm0.2} from z=0 to z=0.8. From z=0.8 to z~1.2, the SFR density continues rising with a smaller slope. At 1.2<z<3, the cosmic SFR density remains roughly constant. The SFR density is dominated at low redshift (z<0.5) by galaxies which are not very luminous in the infrared (L_TIR<1.e11 L_sun, where L_TIR is the total infrared luminosity, integrated from 8 to 1000 micron). The contribution from luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (L_TIR>1.e11 L_sun) to the total SFR density increases steadily from z~0 up to z~2.5, forming at least half of the newly-born stars by z~1.5. Ultraluminous infrared galaxies (L_TIR>1.e12 L_sun) play a rapidly increasing role for z>~1.3.Comment: 28 pages, 17 figures, accepted for publication in Ap

    A Flux-Limited Sample of z~1 Ly-alpha Emitting Galaxies in the CDFS

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    We describe a method for obtaining a flux-limited sample of Ly-alpha emitters from GALEX grism data. We show that the multiple GALEX grism images can be converted into a three-dimensional (two spatial axes and one wavelength axis) data cube. The wavelength slices may then be treated as narrowband images and searched for emission-line galaxies. For the GALEX NUV grism data, the method provides a Ly-alpha flux-limited sample over the redshift range z=0.67-1.16. We test the method on the Chandra Deep Field South field, where we find 28 Ly-alpha emitters with faint continuum magnitudes (NUV>22) that are not present in the GALEX pipeline sample. We measure the completeness by adding artificial emitters and measuring the fraction recovered. We find that we have an 80% completeness above a Ly-alpha flux of 10^-15 erg/cm^2/s. We use the UV spectra and the available X-ray data and optical spectra to estimate the fraction of active galactic nuclei in the selection. We report the first detection of a giant Ly-alpha blob at z<1, though we find that these objects are much less common at z=1 than at z=3. Finally, we compute limits on the z~1 Ly-alpha luminosity function and confirm that there is a dramatic evolution in the luminosity function over the redshift range z=0-1.Comment: 18 pages, in press at The Astrophysical Journa

    Wind-wind collision in the eta Carinae binary system - III. The HeII 4686 line profile

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    We modeled the HeII 4686 line profiles observed in the eta Carinae binary system close to the 2003.5 spectroscopic event, assuming that they were formed in the shocked gas that flows at both sides of the contact surface formed by wind-wind collision. We used a constant flow velocity and added turbulence in the form of a gaussian velocity distribution. We allowed emission from both the primary and secondary shocks but introduced infinite opacity at the contact surface, implying that only the side of the contact cone visible to the observer contributed to the line profile. Using the orbital parameters of the binary system derived from the 7 mm light curve during the last spectroscopic event (Paper II) we were able to reproduce the line profiles obtained with the HST at different epochs, as well as the line mean velocities obtained with ground based telescopes. A very important feature of our model is that the line profile depends on the inclination of the orbital plane; we found that to explain the latitude dependent mean velocity of the line, scattered into the line of sight by the Homunculus, the orbit inclination should be close to 90 degrees, meaning that it does not lie in the Homunculus equatorial plane, as usually assumed. This inclination, together with the relative position of the stars during the spectroscopic events, allowed us to explain most of the observational features, like the variation of the Purple Haze with the orbital phase, and to conciliate the X-ray absorption with the postulated shell effect used to explain the optical and UV light curves.Comment: to appear in the MNRA