24,040 research outputs found

    Study of Biochemical Changes and Elevated Levels of Enzymes in Salmonella typhi Infected Patients in Pakistani Population

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    Typhoid fever causes significant biochemical changes and hepatic complications. As many studies have indicated several biochemical parameters that are involved in developing the risk of typhoid fever. The current study was designed to evaluate these risk factors in general Pakistani population. Serum biochemistry and liver enzymes were studied to investigate the relationship of these risk factors to Typhoid fever. Total 100 subjects were studied, 50 healthy individuals and 50 typhoid patients. Blood samples were collected from Allied and National Hospital, Faisalabad, Pakistan. In this study, Nested PCR was used to test the samples. Elevated level of ALT (P<0.0001) and AST (P<0.0001) were observed in typhoid patients. Typhoid patients had significantly higher concentrations of Triglyceride (P=0.0044), Globulin (P=0.0004) and Total protein (P=0.0978) while LDL (P=0.0197), Albumin (P<0.0001), Glucose (P=0.0006), HDL-cholesterol (P<0.0001) and Cholesterol (P=0.04) were significantly lower than those of healthy individuals. This study appears to be ample evidence based on the physiological and biochemical parameters in typhoid patients to explain influence of typhoid morbidity. Extensive research in this field would enable us to make modern drugs to treat typhoid fever patients

    Comparative Effectiveness Study of Chloramphenicol and Ceftriaxone in the Treatment of Typhoid Fever in Children Admitted to Putri Hijau Kesdam I/Bb Hospital Medan

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    BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever is a disease caused by Salmonella typhi bacteria, especially attacking the digestive tract. Chloramphenicol is the main drug of choice for the treatment of typhoid fever. But along with the advancement of the medical field, other medicines were developed. Ceftriaxone is an effective drug for the treatment of typhoid fever in the short term. But the price of ceftriaxone is more expensive. AIM: The aim of this study was comparative effectiveness study of Chloramphenicol and Ceftriaxone in the treatment of typhoid fever in children admitted to Putri Hijau Kesdam I/BB Hospital Medan METHODS: This study was conducted cross-sectionally about the treatment of typhoid fever in children who were hospitalized at TK II PutriHijau Hospital Kesdam I/BB Medan. the patient used cloramfenikol antibiotics in 13 patients and used ceftriaxone in 17 patients. Patient age ranges from 0-19 years. Antibiotic analysis is the best effectiveness using the ACER method. RESULTS: He results of the patient characteristics show that the children of patients who suffer from typhoid fever, the highest age is 12-16 years (50%), by gender male 60% and female 40%. Patients hospitalized using chloramfenicol averaged 6.53 days (7 days) while ceftriaxon averaged 4.17 days. The average number of direct medical costs in pediatric patients suffering from typhoid fever using cloramfenikol was 3,212,776/patient while ceftriaxon 1,967,045/patient. Cost effectiveness analysis using ACER method obtained results for cloramenicenicol at 492.002/day and ceftriaxon 471,713/day CONCLUSION: Ceftriaxone has a better treatment effectiveness compared to chloramphenicol in typhoid fever patients in children

    Hubungan Personal Hygiene Dengan Kejadian Demam Tifoid Di Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas Tumaratas

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    : The typhoid fever is a kind of disease that caused by Salmonella typhi and related with poor practice of personal hygiene. The highest occurrence of typhoid fever in 2014 was in the Tumaratas public health center subdistrict west of Langowan with 157 case. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among personal hygiene with the occurrence of typhoid fever in the working area of Tumaratas public health center subdistrit west of Langowan. Quantutative method with case-control. The population case of this study are all of Typhoid Fever patients on January-September 2014, based on medical record. Population control not patients of typhoid fever (hypertensive patients) on January-September 2014, based on medical record. The sampels of this study are 21 cases and 21 controls. The research instruments are questionnaires. The data of research processed with Chi Square test at a level of 95% (őĪ=0,05). The resulth show are relationship with the habits of washing hands before eating (p=0,029), the habits of washing raw food to be eaten immediately (p=0,029) and the habits of eating outside the house (p=0,031) with the occurrence of typhoid fever. Meanwhile, there is no correlation between hand washing after defecation (p=0,160). Conclusion: good personal hygiene can afeect the incidence of typhoid fever. Suggestion through of this research are inccrease awareness of good personal hygiene needs to be impoved

    Hubungan Karakteristik Penderita dengan Kejadian Demam Tifoid pada Pasien Rawat Inap di RSUD Salewangan Maros

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    Introduction. Typhoid fever is an acute infectious disease of the small intestine. In Asia gained 17 million people with typhoid fever, and was found in every year there are 0.6 million deaths, or as much as 75-80% morbidity or mortality from the disease. Patients with typhoid fever in Indonesia is pretty much in the estimate 800/100.000 population per year, were found almost throughout the year, but especially in the summer. Objective. To determine the relationship of patient characteristics with the incidence of typhoid fever in hospitalized patients at the General Hospital in Salewangan Maros. Methods This type of research is survey research used an analytic approach to Cross Sectional Study. Sampling is being done with the technique of ‚Äútotal Sampling‚ÄĚ noting that it going to take that all in-patients in hospitals Salewangan Maros in the period January-december 2010 with a number of 362 patients. Result. The results showed that age, sex, educational the status, and have a relationship with the incidence of typhoid fever with p value 0.000> 0.05 whereas employment the status no association with the incidence of typhoid fever with p value 0.707> 0.05 level. Conclusion. morbidity and mortality of typhoid fever can affect any age group, it should be done early prevention by immunization or vaccination where it can prevent the entry of germs and breed. Giving this information may include pamphlets, brochures, and banners, need to instill healthy behaviors that are not easilycontaminated by salmonella bacteria thypi

    The Rationality of Antibiotic Use on Patients of Typhoid Fever

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    Typhoid fever is an infectious disease caused by Salmonella typhi bacteria. The administration of antibiotics in typhoid fever is needed as a causative therapy to eradicate the bacteria based on the principles of rational therapy to avoid antibiotic resistance. However, there are still a considerable amount of cases of unnecessary antibiotic administration. This study aims to examine the rationality of antibiotic use on patients of typhoid fever. This research is a non-intervention study with descriptive analytic methods. Data were retrieved retrospectively by identifying the medical records of patients treated in the X Hospital Salatiga from January to August 2016 with a purposive sampling method based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria of 67 cases. The data was analyzed by using Gyssen criteria based on the standard of typhoid fever service of WHO 2011. The result showed that the percentage of female typhoid fever patients was higher than the male with the most prolonged 3-day hospitality. The most commonly used antibiotics are ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and cefixime with the result of the rationality analysis of category 0 (55.22 %), category IIIA (1.49%), category IIIB ( 8.96% ), category IVA (17.91%), and category IVC (4.48%). It can be concluded that  the rationality of antibiotics used in patients with typhoid fever at X Hospital Salatiga based on Gyssen criteria showed a good result

    PLoS One

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    BackgroundThe bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi causes typhoid fever, which is typically associated with fever and abdominal pain. An outbreak of typhoid fever in Malawi-Mozambique in 2009 was notable for a high proportion of neurologic illness.ObjectiveDescribe neurologic features complicating typhoid fever during an outbreak in Malawi-MozambiqueMethodsPersons meeting a clinical case definition were identified through surveillance, with laboratory confirmation of typhoid by antibody testing or blood/stool culture. We gathered demographic and clinical information, examined patients, and evaluated a subset of patients 11 months after onset. A sample of persons with and without neurologic signs was tested for vitamin B6 and B12 levels and urinary thiocyanate.ResultsBetween March \u2013 November 2009, 303 cases of typhoid fever were identified. Forty (13%) persons had objective neurologic findings, including 14 confirmed by culture/serology; 27 (68%) were hospitalized, and 5 (13%) died. Seventeen (43%) had a constellation of upper motor neuron findings, including hyperreflexia, spasticity, or sustained ankle clonus. Other neurologic features included ataxia (22, 55%), parkinsonism (8, 20%), and tremors (4, 10%). Brain MRI of 3 (ages 5, 7, and 18 years) demonstrated cerebral atrophy but no other abnormalities. Of 13 patients re-evaluated 11 months later, 11 recovered completely, and 2 had persistent hyperreflexia and ataxia. Vitamin B6 levels were markedly low in typhoid fever patients both with and without neurologic signs.ConclusionsNeurologic signs may complicate typhoid fever, and the diagnosis should be considered in persons with acute febrile neurologic illness in endemic areas.201223226492PMC3513310677

    Hubungan Titer Widal Dengan Jumlah dan Indeks Trombosit Penderita Demam Tifoid di Puskesmas Wilayah Lombok Barat

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    The diagnosis of typhoid fever can be made by hematological examination and the Widal method. Hematologic change that often occurs in typhoid fever is thrombocytopenia. Platelet function can be observed by examining the platelet index, namely the Mean Platelet Volume (MPV), and Platelet Distribution Width (PDW). The titer on the serological examination of the Widal test is a significant diagnostic for infections caused by the bacterium Salmonella typhi. Objectives: To determine the relationship between the Widal titer and the number and index of platelets in patients with typhoid fever at the West Lombok Health Center. Methods: The research methodology used is an analytic observational method with a cross-sectional approach. This study was conducted from February 2021 to April 2021. The population in this study was all patients who underwent laboratory examinations diagnosed as positive for typhoid fever in the Gunungsari Health Center, West Lombok Regency, with a sample of 24 respondents. Data analysis using Spearman correlation. Results: Statistical test results obtained P‚Č•0.05, namely the titer value against platelets p=0.429, the titer against the MPV platelet index p=1,000, PDW p=0.291. Conclusion: there is no relationship between widal titer to the number of platelets and the platelet index in patients with typhoid fever.Keywords: ¬†typhoid fever, platelets, platelet ¬†index, widal tite

    Typhus Fever: An Overlooked Diagnosis

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    A case of typhus fever is presented. On admission, the clinical diagnosis was typhoid fever. Forty-eight hours after admission, the presence of subconjunctival haemorrhage, malena, and jaundice raised the possibility of a different aetiology, the two most likely differentials being dengue and typhus. Finally, a co-infection of typhoid and typhus was discovered. This uncommon clinical scenario should be taken into account in the management of patients with high fever on admission being treated as a case of typhoid fever

    Diagnosis of malaria and typhoid fevers using basic tools: a comparative analysis of a retrospective data with a prospective evaluation in an endemic setting

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    Malaria and typhoid fever are among important and endemic diseases in the tropical countries such as Nigeria. Diagnosis of most cases of malaria/typhoid co-infections are based on clinical suspicion alone or unreliable diagnostic tools leading to poor or misdiagnosis. A retrospective analysis was conducted on the positivity rate for malaria parasite and typhoid fever among patients who attended the Bayero University, Kano (BUK) Health Clinic from January to December 2013. A prospective study was also carried out on 200 febrile patients and 80 apparently healthy subjects (controls) with the view to determine the diagnostic profiles of malaria and /or typhoid fever co-infection using standard protocols (microscopy, rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for malaria parasite (MP), Widal test, stool and blood cultures for typhoid fever). Both test and control subjects were evaluated for the presence or otherwise of the malaria and /or typhoid aetiologic agents. Results obtained from the retrospective study for the period January to December 2013 indicated that, of the 2362 tests conducted, 318 (13.5%) were positive for MP using RDT and 722 (30.6%) were positive for typhoid fever using Widal test. Co-infection rate obtained was 89 (3.8%). Of the 200 subjects evaluated for the prospective study however, 42 (21%) and 34 (17%) were positive for MP using microscopic technique and RDT respectively. Microscopy was established to be more sensitive than RDT. Eighty nine (45%) were Widal positive. The culture method for typhoid fever diagnosis was negative. Co-infection rate stood at 17 (8.5%). No association however was found between the two disease conditions (p=0.6032). Significant proportion of the patients 86 (43%) were neither positive for malaria nor for typhoid fevers. Three isolates of non-typhoid salmonella specie and three other bacterial isolates were recovered from the stool and blood samples of the patients respectively. Baseline titre value for Widal test at BUK community was established as 160 and above for O antibodies to S. typhi, hence the criterion employed in the prospective evaluation. Laboratory evidence of malaria and typhoid co-infection rate at a titre of ‚Č•160 was 8.5% using microscopy and 7% using RDT. The use of RDT is simple and easy, but has less sensitivity, thus may leave some patients with malaria un-detected. Based on the results of these findings, vis a vis the proportion of individuals negative for both malaria and typhoid fevers, clinicians should revisit causes of febrile illnesses other than malaria or typhoid and hence the need to include other tests for the detection of other causes.Keywords: Malaria diagnosis, Typhoid fever, RDT, Widal test, Co-infections, Nigeri
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