203,838 research outputs found

    IFOAM Training Manual: Training Manual for Organic Agriculture in the Humid Tropics

    Get PDF
    The first IFOAM Training Manual for Organic Agriculture in the Tropics (the Basic Manual) was published in 2004. The Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL) together with partners of the organic movement in the Tropics were commissioned by IFOAM to complete two new training manuals that build on the Basic Manual. The new IFOAM training manuals address the two basic climatic zones of the Tropics, the Arid and Semi-Arid Tropics, and the Humid Tropics. For both new manuals, already existing material was collected, screened and condensed into comprehensive training manuals. Additionally, a large number of farmers, trainers and scientists were asked for their experience. Partner institutions from the Tropics actively collaborated in the development of the manuals. The partners of the manual for the Arid and Semi-Arid Tropics are from Asia (India), Africa (Senegal and Tunisia) and Latin America (Chile). The training manuals contain case studies of organic farming systems, describe successful organic marketing initiatives and offer guidelines for the main crops of the Tropics. With the informative text, transparencies and didactical recommendations the training manuals offer a resource basis for trainers with the idea of encouraging individual adaptation and further development of the material according to need. The training manuals are available on separate CDs in English, French and Spanish. The training manuals were commissioned by IFOAM and funded through its program IFOAM-GROWING ORGANIC II (I-GO II). The Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL) and the Swiss Import Promotion Programme (SIPPO) provided co-funding

    Humidtropics: Gender strategy

    Get PDF

    The subtropical global plume in the Pacific Exploratory Mission-Tropics A (PEM-Tropics A), PEM-Tropics B, and the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP): How tropical emissions affect the remote Pacific

    Get PDF
    [1] An extended southern subtropical plume of CO meanders>15,000 km around the world, gradually spreading around 20 S. This southern pollution plume is most noticeable in the burning season, southern spring; a similar subtropical plume appears in the northern spring. We use tracer maps to guide the use of trajectories to trace observations of the plume to their origins. The MM5 mesoscale model provides high-resolution, near-global synoptic reconstructions of the weather. Two situations are analyzed: NASA’s airborne Pacific Exploratory Mission-Tropics A (PEM-Tropics A) period, September–October 1996 and the PEM-Tropics B period, March–April 1999. Similar features are noted for a much earlier mission in 1977, which apparently captured the first, but never-recognized, samples of the global pollution of the Southern Hemisphere. For PEM-Tropics A, near-source pieces of the plume are clearly seen in the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) absorbing aerosol product and are well simulated. Downwind, the aircraft sampling of several strands deriving from a single plume seems representative and well simulated. A general mechanism of the plume emerges: The southern plume arises in surface accumulation regions in Africa and Sout

    Balanced dynamics in the Tropics

    Get PDF
    For the shallow-water equations on an equatorial beta plane, the properties of low-frequency Rossby waves and (mixed) Rossby-gravity waves are investigated. It is shown that in the low-frequency limit the horizontal divergence of these solutions is zero and their geopotential satisfies = f, where f = y is the Coriolis parameter and is the stream function of the non-divergent velocity field. This type of balance is rather different from the geostrophic balance satisfied by Kelvin waves. It can be used to formulate a balanced potential vorticity equation in the single variable that, while filtering out Kelvin waves and inertia-gravity waves, exactly reproduces Rossby waves and Rossby-gravity waves in the low-frequency limit
    • …