2,545 research outputs found

    Elective percutaneous coronary intervention in the elderly patient

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    Elderly patients account for an increasing number and proportion of patients requiring management of coronary artery disease. Whilst medical therapy remains the cornerstone of management, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has been shown to improve symptoms of angina and quality of life in elderly patients. PCI is now a routine treatment for both acute and chronic coronary artery disease. In the last decade, a series of technological and therapeutic developments have reduced in-hospital complications following PCI. The transradial approach is associated with fewer vascular complications, reduced bed utilization and reduced time to ambulation. This has facilitated the introduction and expansion of outpatient PCI, which has been shown to be safe and effective in elderly patients. This article reviews the rationale for outpatient PCI in the elderly and the evidence for its effectiveness and safety

    Transradial versus transfemoral approach for percutaneous coronary intervention in cardiogenic shock: A radial-first centre experience and meta-analysis of published studies

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    SummaryBackgroundThe transradial approach for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with a better outcome in myocardial infarction (MI), but patients with cardiogenic shock (CS) were excluded from most trials.AimsTo compare outcomes of PCI for MI-related CS via the transradial versus transfemoral approach.MethodsA prospective cohort of 101 consecutive patients admitted for PCI for MI-related CS were treated via the transradial (n=74) or transfemoral (n=27) approach. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for prespecified variables and a propensity score for approach were used to compare mortality, death/MI/stroke and bleeding between the two groups. A complementary meta-analysis of six studies was also performed.ResultsPatients in the transradial group were younger (P=0.039), more often male (P=0.002) and had lower GRACE and CRUSADE scores (P=0.003 and 0.001, respectively) and rates of cardiac arrest before PCI (P=0.009) and mechanical ventilation (P=0.006). Rates of PCI success were similar. At a mean follow-up of 756 days, death occurred in 40 (54.1%) patients in the transradial group versus 22 (81.5%) in the transfemoral group (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28–0.84; P=0.012). The transradial approach was associated with reduced rates of death/MI/stroke (adjusted HR: 0.53, 95%CI: 0.31–0.91; P=0.02) and major bleeding (adjusted HR: 0.34, 95%CI: 0.13–0.87; P=0.02). The meta-analysis confirmed the benefit of transradial access in terms of mortality (relative risk [RR]: 0.63, 95%CI: 0.58–0.68) and major bleeding (RR: 0.43, 95%CI: 0.32–0.59).ConclusionThe transradial approach in the setting of PCI for ischaemic CS is associated with a dramatic reduction in mortality, ischaemic and bleeding events, and should be preferred to the transfemoral approach in radial expert centres

    Arterial access site in the catheterisation lab : Is radial the way to go?

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    Aim: With radial access increasing in popularity in the United States and the United Kingdom, this literature review explores whether radial access in coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention is superior to femoral access, focusing on access site complications and mortality. Methodology: Articles were acquired using: Pubmed. The keywords used were: bleeding, complications, femoral access, radial access, radial artery catheterization, angiography, radial versus femoral, access site, and mortality. The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) website The National Library of Medicine A retrospective audit, comparing radial access utilisation in Malta for the years 2011 and 2013 (1/1/2013 – 23/8/2013) was carried out using data from the cardiac catheterisation suite in Mater Dei Hospital. Results: Radial access was associated with fewer access site complications, decreased mortality, and quicker patient mobilisation post-procedure. The success of radial access was associated with a learning curve, and heavily operator dependent. Radial access utilisation in Malta for the years 2011 and 2013 (1/1/2013 – 23/8/2013) increased over three fold. Conclusion: The routine use of the radial approach in patients undergoing coronary intervention should be encouraged.peer-reviewe

    Bivalirudin versus unfractionated heparin: a meta-analysis of patients receiving percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndromes

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    OBJECTIVE: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) encompasses ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), with generally high thrombus burden and non-ST segment elevation ACS (NSTE-ACS), with lower thrombus burden. In the setting of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ACS, bivalirudin appears superior to unfractionated heparin (UFH), driven by reduced major bleeding. Recent trials suggest that the benefit of bivalirudin may be reduced with use of transradial access and evolution in antiplatelet therapy. Moreover, a differential role of bivalirudin in ACS cohorts is unknown. METHODS: A meta-analysis of randomised trials comparing bivalirudin and UFH in patients with ACS receiving PCI, with separate analyses in STEMI and NSTE-ACS groups. Overall estimates of treatment effect were calculated with random-effects model. RESULTS: In 5 trials of STEMI (10 358 patients), bivalirudin increased the risk of acute stent thrombosis (ST) (OR 3.62; CI 1.95 to 6.74; p<0.0001) compared with UFH. Bivalirudin reduced the risk of major bleeding only when compared with UFH plus planned glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPI) (OR 0.49; CI 0.36 to 0.67; p<0.00001). In 14 NSTE-ACS trials (25 238 patients), there was no difference between bivalirudin and UFH in death, myocardial infarction or ST. However, bivalirudin reduced the risk of major bleeding compared with UFH plus planned GPI (OR 0.52; CI 0.43 to 0.62; p<0.00001), or UFH plus provisional GPI (OR 0.68; CI 0.46 to 1.01; p=0.05). The reduction in major bleeding with bivalirudin was not related to vascular access site. CONCLUSIONS: Bivalirudin increases the risk of acute ST in STEMI, but may confer an advantage over UFH in NSTE-ACS while undergoing PCI, reducing major bleeding without an increase in ST

    Transradial versus transfemoral approach for percutaneous coronary intervention in cardiogenic shock: A radial-first centre experience and meta-analysis of published studies

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    SummaryBackgroundThe transradial approach for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with a better outcome in myocardial infarction (MI), but patients with cardiogenic shock (CS) were excluded from most trials.AimsTo compare outcomes of PCI for MI-related CS via the transradial versus transfemoral approach.MethodsA prospective cohort of 101 consecutive patients admitted for PCI for MI-related CS were treated via the transradial (n=74) or transfemoral (n=27) approach. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for prespecified variables and a propensity score for approach were used to compare mortality, death/MI/stroke and bleeding between the two groups. A complementary meta-analysis of six studies was also performed.ResultsPatients in the transradial group were younger (P=0.039), more often male (P=0.002) and had lower GRACE and CRUSADE scores (P=0.003 and 0.001, respectively) and rates of cardiac arrest before PCI (P=0.009) and mechanical ventilation (P=0.006). Rates of PCI success were similar. At a mean follow-up of 756 days, death occurred in 40 (54.1%) patients in the transradial group versus 22 (81.5%) in the transfemoral group (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28–0.84; P=0.012). The transradial approach was associated with reduced rates of death/MI/stroke (adjusted HR: 0.53, 95%CI: 0.31–0.91; P=0.02) and major bleeding (adjusted HR: 0.34, 95%CI: 0.13–0.87; P=0.02). The meta-analysis confirmed the benefit of transradial access in terms of mortality (relative risk [RR]: 0.63, 95%CI: 0.58–0.68) and major bleeding (RR: 0.43, 95%CI: 0.32–0.59).ConclusionThe transradial approach in the setting of PCI for ischaemic CS is associated with a dramatic reduction in mortality, ischaemic and bleeding events, and should be preferred to the transfemoral approach in radial expert centres

    Osseointegrated prostheses for rehabilitation following amputation : The pioneering Swedish model.

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    The direct attachment of osseointegrated (OI) prostheses to the skeleton avoids the inherent problems of socket suspension. It also provides physiological weight bearing, improved range of motion in the proximal joint, as well as osseoperceptive sensory feedback, enabling better control of the artificial limbs by amputees. The present article briefly reviews the pioneering efforts on extremity osseointegration surgeries in Sweden and the development of the OPRA (Osseointegrated Prostheses for the Rehabilitation of Amputees) program. The standard implant design of the OPRA system and surgical techniques are described as well as the special rehabilitation protocols based on surgical sites. The results of long-term follow-up for transradial, transhumeral, and thumb amputee operations are briefly reported including the prospective study of transfemoral amputees according to OPRA protocol. The importance of refinement on implant designs and surgical techniques based on the biomechanical analysis and early clinical trials is emphasized. Future aspects on osseointegration surgery are briefly described, including novel treatment options using implanted electrodes

    Treatment of coronary chronic total occlusion by transradial approach: Current trends and expert recommendations

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    The aim of this review is to highlight the technical details and the scientific data on percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) in chronic total occlusion (CTO) performed by transradial approach (TRA). Transfemoral approach (TFA) is commonly regarded as the standard for CTO PCI, but there is a growing number of CTO recanalization procedures performed by TRA. We discuss the relevant technical details to approach a CTO by transradial access, especially the compatibility of various CTO recanalization techniques with specific guiding catheter sizes. Randomized prospective trials in this field are lacking and only data from observational studies are available. We can conclude that transradial access for CTO PCI is feasible and could be very useful in selected patients. In our opinion, transradial access in CTO PCIs should be limited to operators and centers highly experienced in CTO recanaliza¬tion and in TRA

    The Safety and Feasibility of Transitioning From Transfemoral to Transradial Access Left Ventricular Endomyocardial Biopsy

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    BACKGROUND: Left ventricular endomyocardial biopsy (LVEMB) is commonly performed via the transfemoral route. Radial access may help reduce vascular access complications, but there are few data on the safety and feasibility of transradial LVEMB. OBJECTIVE: Describe the safety and feasibility of transitioning from transfemoral to transradial access LVEMB. METHODS: This is a single-center, prospective, observational cohort study. Fifty procedures in 49 patients were included, 25 (50%) via the femoral route and 25 (50%) via the radial route. RESULTS: The cohort had a mean age of 47 ± 13 years and the most common indication for LVEMB was myocarditis. From June 2015 until September 2016, all procedures (n = 21) were performed via the femoral approach; thenceforth, there was a gradual transition to the radial approach. More tissue samples were obtained when the procedure was performed via the femoral approach (P<.01). The minimum sampling target of 3 specimens was not met in 4 patients (16%) via the radial approach and in 1 patient (4%) via the femoral approach. Complications occurred in 3/25 transradial procedures (12%; 2 cardiac perforations and 1 forearm hematoma) and 3/25 transfemoral procedures (12%; 1 cardiac perforation, 1 femoral artery pseudoaneurysm, and 1 ventricular fibrillation). Cardiac perforations via the transradial approach occurred during the early transition period. There were no deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Transradial LVEMB is feasible, with a similar complication profile to femoral procedures, but associated with a smaller number of specimens. Transitioning from transfemoral to transradial procedures may initially be associated with a higher risk of complications and potentially a lower diagnostic yield

    Myoelectric forearm prostheses: State of the art from a user-centered perspective

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    User acceptance of myoelectric forearm prostheses is currently low. Awkward control, lack of feedback, and difficult training are cited as primary reasons. Recently, researchers have focused on exploiting the new possibilities offered by advancements in prosthetic technology. Alternatively, researchers could focus on prosthesis acceptance by developing functional requirements based on activities users are likely to perform. In this article, we describe the process of determining such requirements and then the application of these requirements to evaluating the state of the art in myoelectric forearm prosthesis research. As part of a needs assessment, a workshop was organized involving clinicians (representing end users), academics, and engineers. The resulting needs included an increased number of functions, lower reaction and execution times, and intuitiveness of both control and feedback systems. Reviewing the state of the art of research in the main prosthetic subsystems (electromyographic [EMG] sensing, control, and feedback) showed that modern research prototypes only partly fulfill the requirements. We found that focus should be on validating EMG-sensing results with patients, improving simultaneous control of wrist movements and grasps, deriving optimal parameters for force and position feedback, and taking into account the psychophysical aspects of feedback, such as intensity perception and spatial acuity
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