30,522 research outputs found

    DNA sequence of the mouse H-2Dd transplantation antigen gene

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    The inbred BALB/c mouse has three transplantation antigens, H2-Kd, H2-Ld, and H2-Dd. We present the complete nucleotide sequence of the H2-Dd gene as well as 777 residues of previously unpublished H-2Dd protein sequence. These data complete the sequences of all the BALB/c transplantation antigen genes and permit detailed comparison with each other and with their counterparts from the inbred C57BL/10 mouse. Transplantation antigens may differ from one another by as much as 5%-15% of their amino acid sequence for the external domains. These extensive differences may arise by gene conversion. The H-2D region of the BALB/c mouse encodes the H2-Dd and the H2-Ld genes. Serologic data suggest that at least two additional transplantation antigen molecules, H2-Rd and H2-Md, are encoded in the H-2D region of the major compatibility complex. Paradoxically, gene cloning studies have only identified the H2-Dd and the H2-Ld genes in the H-2D region. A complete DNA sequence of the H2-Dd gene shows that a variety of alternative splice sites exist throughout the gene, which may lead to additional gene products and may explain the multiplicity of H-2D-encoded polypeptides

    Differentiation of primate primordial germ cell-like cells following transplantation into the adult gonadal niche.

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    A major challenge in stem cell differentiation is the availability of bioassays to prove cell types generated in vitro are equivalent to cells in vivo. In the mouse, differentiation of primordial germ cell-like cells (PGCLCs) from pluripotent cells was validated by transplantation, leading to the generation of spermatogenesis and to the birth of offspring. Here we report the use of xenotransplantation (monkey to mouse) and homologous transplantation (monkey to monkey) to validate our in vitro protocol for differentiating male rhesus (r) macaque PGCLCs (rPGCLCs) from induced pluripotent stem cells (riPSCs). Specifically, transplantation of aggregates containing rPGCLCs into mouse and nonhuman primate testicles overcomes a major bottleneck in rPGCLC differentiation. These findings suggest that immature rPGCLCs once transplanted into an adult gonadal niche commit to differentiate towards late rPGCs that initiate epigenetic reprogramming but do not complete the conversion into ENO2-positive spermatogonia

    A Nonpolymorphic Class I Gene in the Murine Major Histocompatibility Complex

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    DNA sequence analysis of a class I gene (QlO), which maps to the Qa2,3 locus in the C57BL/lO (H- 2b haplotype) mouse, reveals that it is almost identical to a cDNA clone (pH16) isolated from a SWR/J (H-2q haplotype) mouse liver cDNA library. Exon 5, in particular, has an unusual structure such that a polypeptide product is unlikely to be anchored in the cell membrane. Our findings suggest that the two sequences are derived from allelic class I genes, which are nonpolymorphic, in contrast to H-2K allelic sequences from the same mice, and they may encode liver-specific polypeptides of unknown function. Our previous studies indicate that the QlO gene is a potential donor gene for the generation of mutations at the H-2K locus by inter-gene transfer of genetic information. Thus the lack of polymorphism in class I genes at the QlO locus implies either that they are not recipients for such exchanges or that selective pressure prevents the accumulation of mutations in genes at this locus

    Transplantation tolerance, microchimerism, and the two-way paradigm

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    Transplantation Milestones: Viewed With One-and Two-Way Paradigms of Tolerance

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    The relationship of site to transplantability

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    Thesis (M.A.)--Boston Universit

    History of organ transplantation via the two-way paradigm

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