50,284 research outputs found

    Impacto del proceso de integraci贸n europea sobre las exportaciones de Castilla y Le贸n (1993-2007): un an谩lisis econom茅trico a partir de la ecuaci贸n de gravedad

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    27306Este trabajo analiza el impacto del proceso de integraci贸n europea sobre el volumen de exportaciones de Castilla y Le贸n durante el per铆odo 1993-2007. La metodolog铆a utilizada se basa en la estimaci贸n de una ecuaci贸n de gravedad, que constituye una herramienta 煤til en la modelizaci贸n de los flujos de comercio bilateral. Tras aplicar un an谩lisis de datos de panel, los resultados indican que la riqueza del pa铆s importador y de Castilla y Le贸n, as铆 como la distancia entre ellos, son las variables b谩sicas de la ecuaci贸n de gravedad que mejor explican el flujo exportador analizado. Respecto a los distintos acontecimientos vinculados al proceso de integraci贸n europea, nuestros hallazgos ponen de manifiesto que ni la pertenencia del pa铆s importador a la UE, ni el hecho de compartir una moneda com煤n, han ejercido un impacto favorable significativo sobre la cifra de exportaciones de Castilla y Le贸n.S

    Does international patent collaboration have an effect on entrepreneurship?

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    .Entrepreneurship is one of the main pillars of growth in any economy. Achieving a high rate of entrepreneurship in a region has become the priority objective of governments and firms. However, in many cases, new firm creation is conditioned by relations or collaboration in innovation with agents from other countries. Previous literature has analyzed the mechanisms that foster entrepreneurship. This paper attempts to shed light on the influence of international patent collaboration (IPC) on entrepreneurial activity at country level taking into account the timing of this relationship. An empirical study is proposed to verify whether IPC leads to greater entrepreneurship and to analyze the gestation period between international patenting actions and firm creation. Using the Generalized Method of Moments, the two hypotheses proposed were tested in a data panel of 30 countries for the period 2005鈥2017. Results show the influence of IPC in promoting entrepreneurship in the same year, but especially in the following year. The study offers implications for entrepreneurs and public agents. IPC affects the integration and interaction of international agents in a country, favors the production of new knowledge, and increases positive externalities in a territory. All this facilitates the creation of new companies with a high innovative component.S

    Analysis of reliable deployment of TDOA local positioning architectures

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    .Local Positioning Systems (LPS) are supposing an attractive research topic over the last few years. LPS are ad-hoc deployments of wireless sensor networks for particularly adapt to the environment characteristics in harsh environments. Among LPS, those based on temporal measurements stand out for their trade-off among accuracy, robustness and costs. But, regardless the LPS architecture considered, an optimization of the sensor distribution is required for achieving competitive results. Recent studies have shown that under optimized node distributions, time-based LPS cumulate the bigger error bounds due to synchronization errors. Consequently, asynchronous architectures such as Asynchronous Time Difference of Arrival (A-TDOA) have been recently proposed. However, the A-TDOA architecture supposes the concentration of the time measurement in a single clock of a coordinator sensor making this architecture less versatile. In this paper, we present an optimization methodology for overcoming the drawbacks of the A-TDOA architecture in nominal and failure conditions with regards to the synchronous TDOA. Results show that this optimization strategy allows the reduction of the uncertainties in the target location by 79% and 89.5% and the enhancement of the convergence properties by 86% and 33% of the A-TDOA architecture with regards to the TDOA synchronous architecture in two different application scenarios. In addition, maximum convergence points are more easily found in the A-TDOA in both configurations concluding the benefits of this architecture in LPS high-demanded applicationS

    Balancing the urban stomach: public health, food selling and consumption in London, c. 1558-1640

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    Until recently, public health histories have been predominantly shaped by medical and scientific perspectives, to the neglect of their wider social, economic and political contexts. These medically-minded studies have tended to present broad, sweeping narratives of health policy's explicit successes or failures, often focusing on extraordinary periods of epidemic disease viewed from a national context. This approach is problematic, particularly in studies of public health practice prior to 1800. Before the rise of modern scientific medicine, public health policies were more often influenced by shared social, cultural, economic and religious values which favoured maintaining hierarchy, stability and concern for 'the common good'. These values have frequently been overlooked by modern researchers. This has yielded pessimistic assessments of contemporary sanitation, implying that local authorities did not care about or prioritise the health of populations. Overly medicalised perspectives have further restricted historians' investigation and use of source material, their interpretation of multifaceted and sometimes contested cultural practices such as fasting, and their examination of habitual - and not just extraordinary - health actions. These perspectives have encouraged a focus on reactive - rather than preventative - measures. This thesis contributes to a growing body of research that expands our restrictive understandings of pre-modern public health. It focuses on how public health practices were regulated, monitored and expanded in later Tudor and early Stuart London, with a particular focus on consumption and food-selling. Acknowledging the fundamental public health value of maintaining urban foodways, it investigates how contemporaries sought to manage consumption, food production waste, and vending practices in the early modern City's wards and parishes. It delineates the practical and political distinctions between food and medicine, broadly investigates the activities, reputations of and correlations between London's guild and itinerant food vendors and licensed and irregular medical practitioners, traces the directions in which different kinds of public health policy filtered up or down, and explores how policies were enacted at a national and local level. Finally, it compares and contrasts habitual and extraordinary public health regulations, with a particular focus on how perceptions of and actual food shortages, paired with the omnipresent threat of disease, impacted broader aspects of civic life

    South Yorkshire low carbon energy supply chains: insulation sector summary

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    Making School Streets Healthier: Learning from temporary and emergency closures

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    The Healthy Streets Everyday (HSE) programme began in 2019 to promote active, safe, and sustainable travel in London. In line with the Mayor鈥檚 Transport Strategy, this programme emphasises the Healthy Streets approach, which recognises that promoting health on London鈥檚 streets requires supporting the diverse ways streets are used, including active travel, by making them safer and more accessible to all. School Streets 鈥 the temporary closure of streets in front of schools to motor vehicle traffic at the beginning and end of the school day 鈥 have recently emerged as a key intervention in this approach. The connection between streets and broader public health is perhaps nowhere starker than at the school gates. With over 20% of peak- time traffic associated with the school run, traffic and congestion are concentrated at the cramped residential streets that often serve London鈥檚 schools. This puts children at greater risk from road danger and poor air quality. These challenging conditions have been exacerbated by Covid-19; specifically, the need for physical distancing and concern about the effects of a car-based recovery. In response, there has been significant growth in School Streets since the beginning of 2020, with more than 400 currently in place across London. The HSE programme played an important part in providing support to 16 of London鈥檚 boroughs as they implemented their School Streets programmes, often for the first time. As a crucial part of Transport for London鈥檚 Covid-19 Streetspace scheme many of these recent School Streets have been implemented as temporary or emergency interventions, employing light-touch and low-cost approaches such as mobile traffic camera enforcement or temporary barriers. This report sets out several key findings from the close observation of two School Streets: 1. Significant reductions in motor vehicle traffic both during the closure time and over the whole day. 2. Minimal change in pedestrian numbers and use of space, with some evidence of increased cycling. 3. Improvements in several Healthy Streets indicators. Following from these findings and considering more comprehensive academic research, this report also outlines four recommendations for designers and policymakers to consider when making School Streets more permanent or implementing new schemes: 1.Taking a whole school and whole route approach 2.Reducing traffic effectively through enforcement and exemptions 3.Completing a scheme by changing the public realm 4.Designing for and responding to scheme issues through in-depth monitoring and evaluatio

    The labour supply and retirement of older workers: an empirical analysis

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    This thesis examines the labour supply of older workers, their movement into retirement, and any movement out of retirement and back into work. In particular the labour force participation, labour supply and wage elasticity and other income elasticity of work hours are estimated for older workers and compared to younger workers. The thesis goes on to look at the movement into retirement for older workers as a whole by examining cohorts by gender, wave and age. The thesis also presents a descriptive and quantitative 鈥 examination of the changes in income and happiness that occur as an individual retires. Finally the thesis examines the reasons why an individual may return to work from v . retirement. The results of the findings suggest: that younger workers are significantly more responsive to wage and household income changes than older worker

    Self-help/mutual aid groups in mental health : ideology, helping mechanisms and empowerment

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    In the last quarter of the twentieth century, self-help/mutual aid groups for mental health issues started to emerge in growing numbers, mainly in Western societies, offering and/or advocating for alternative non-traditional forms of support, and attracted the attention of many researchers and clinicians for their unique characteristics. Among the subjects of interest are typologies of groups, helping mechanisms and benefits from participation. However, there is lack of systematic research in the area and existing studies have been largely confined to the therapeutic value of these groups instead of acknowledging their socio-political meaning and subsequent psychosocial benefits for their members like personal empowerment. The present study was conducted during the transitional years from a Conservative to a newly elected Labour Government (1996 -1998), with subsequent policy shifts taking place in the welfare sector. The purpose of the study was to explore the potential of self-help groups as part of a broader new social movement, the service user movement, focussing on the English scene. It addressed this issue examining the relevance of a group typology based on political ideology and focus of change. To test the validity of this classification for members, a set of individual characteristics and group mechanisms as well as their change through time were examined. The sample consisted of fourteen mental health selfhelp/mutual aid groups from London and South East England, with a variety of structural and organisational features. The methodology used was a combination of both quantitative (self-completion questionnaires) and qualitative techniques (analysis of written material, participant observation and interviews). Measurements were repeated after a one-year interval (Time 1N=67, Time 2 N=56). Findings showed that, indeed, political ideology of self-help/mutual aid groups provided the basis of a meaningful typology and constitutes a comprehensive way of categorising them. Group ideology was related to specific helping mechanisms and aspects of personal empowerment. Specifically, conservative and combined group members reported more expressive group processes like sharing of feelings and self-disclosure, while radical group members were more empowered and optimistic. Group identification was also associated with specific helping activities and aspects of empowerment in the three group categories. The psychosocial character of group types and the beneficial outcomes for members remained stable through time. In general, prolonged participation was reflected in greater member identification with the group and resulted in improved mental wellbeing, increased social support, companionship and optimism for the future

    Reforming the United Nations

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    The thesis deals with the financial crisis that the United Nations faced starting in 1985 when the US Congress decided to withhold a significant part of the US contribution to the UN regular budget in order to force a greater say for the major contributors on budgetary issues, budgetary restraint and greater efficiency. The UN responded by the adoption of resolution 41/213 of 19 December 1986 that was based on the recommendations of a Group of High-level Intergovernmental Experts ("G-18") set up a year earlier. A new system was introduced regarding the formulation of the regular budget of the United Nations Organisation and a broader process of reform was initiated including a restructuring of the Secretariat and of the intergovernmental machinery in the economic and social fields. After an introductory chapter (Chapter I), the thesis examines the UN problems at the budgetary/financial and administrative/structural levels, the solutions proposed from within and without the United Nations established framework and the actual attempts at reform (Chapters II and ifi). The realisation that the implementation of reforms is rather disjointed and often unsuccessful (e.g. the failure to restructure the intergovernmental machi.neiy) prompts a search for the deeper causes of the UN problems at the political level and the attitudes of the main actors, namely the USA, the USSR, some up-and-coming states, notably Japan, the Third World states and, finally, of the UN Secretary-General and the Secretariat (Chapter 1V). Although the financial crisis may have subsided since 1988 and the USA seem committed to paying up their dues, the deeper UN crisis of identity has not been resolved and is expected to resurface if no bold steps are taken. In that direction, some possible alternative courses for the UN in the future are discussed drawing upon theory and practice (Chapte

    The impact of environmental performance on stock prices in the green and innovative context

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    .This study examines the impact of environmental performance on firms' stock prices, considering the moderating effect of the green and innovative environmental context by country. Renewable energy policies, green technologies, and foreign trade form this environmental context of interest for the reduction of carbon emissions. Using a sample of 2638 firm-year observations for the firms listed in the main stock index of 16 European countries over the period of 2005鈥2017, we find that environmental performance is value-relevant, except during the worst years of a crisis, when it is not significant. Two elements of the green technological framework, namely, renewable energy policies and the potential transmission effect of technology through foreign trade, are valued by investors as offsetting factors of the positive effect exerted by carbon performance on the firm's value. This is consistent with the slow and costly adoption of greener technologies. However, registered green patents appear to be a turning point, showing a significant positive effect on the relationship between firms' environmental performances and their market values. Again, the crisis period interferes with deepening the negative effect of renewable energy policies and cancelling out the effect of green patents and foreign trade. On one hand, our results highlight the market's role in making inefficiencies visible and showing the potential future losses of green and innovative policies; on the other hand, the hampering interference of crisis periods must be considered by policymakers.S
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