12,158 research outputs found

    Opportunities for rail in the transport of carbon dioxide in the United States

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    The deployment of carbon management strategies like carbon capture and storage (CCS) and carbon dioxide removal (CDR) at scale will require significant investments in transport infrastructure to deliver CO2 to reliable storage. While pipeline transport has dominated the conversation due to economic reasons, there is increasing evidence that other modes may become viable alternatives when considering scale, regional opportunities, and social acceptance. This paper assesses the viability of rail for CO2 transport in the United States using market analysis, techno-economic assessment and geographic information systems mapping. We believe rail presents many advantages, notably in existing infrastructure with established right-of-ways, but also as an instrument to address unwanted effects of our energy transition, particularly in coal communities. We find that the strategic replacement of coal as a freight commodity could translate into 100 Mt/yr of CO2 movement by rail by 2050, and support up to 60,000 jobs in that industry. Further, we find that while rail pricing is notoriously volatile, there is strong support for rail being the least cost option over pipeline for volumes under 2 Mt CO2 per year, which aligns well with smaller, more risk-averse, and distributed carbon management projects that are scheduled to deploy over the next decade. Rail can also be an alternative in regions where CO2 pipeline projects have had limited success, like in the Midwest, where CO2 is captured from ethanol plants that are already serviced by rail networks. Likewise, rail can service roughly 25% of point-source CCS opportunities that are not proximal to projected trunk pipeline networks, of which 94% are located 1-mile from railroad. Finally, rail may be an integral part of CDR development in regions that are not coterminous with geologic storage, particularly in the Western and Northern US

    Digitalization and Development

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    This book examines the diffusion of digitalization and Industry 4.0 technologies in Malaysia by focusing on the ecosystem critical for its expansion. The chapters examine the digital proliferation in major sectors of agriculture, manufacturing, e-commerce and services, as well as the intermediary organizations essential for the orderly performance of socioeconomic agents. The book incisively reviews policy instruments critical for the effective and orderly development of the embedding organizations, and the regulatory framework needed to quicken the appropriation of socioeconomic synergies from digitalization and Industry 4.0 technologies. It highlights the importance of collaboration between government, academic and industry partners, as well as makes key recommendations on how to encourage adoption of IR4.0 technologies in the short- and long-term. This book bridges the concepts and applications of digitalization and Industry 4.0 and will be a must-read for policy makers seeking to quicken the adoption of its technologies

    Regulatory Markets: The Future of AI Governance

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    Appropriately regulating artificial intelligence is an increasingly urgent policy challenge. Legislatures and regulators lack the specialized knowledge required to best translate public demands into legal requirements. Overreliance on industry self-regulation fails to hold producers and users of AI systems accountable to democratic demands. Regulatory markets, in which governments require the targets of regulation to purchase regulatory services from a private regulator, are proposed. This approach to AI regulation could overcome the limitations of both command-and-control regulation and self-regulation. Regulatory market could enable governments to establish policy priorities for the regulation of AI, whilst relying on market forces and industry R&D efforts to pioneer the methods of regulation that best achieve policymakers' stated objectives

    Fictocritical Cyberfeminism: A Paralogical Model for Post-Internet Communication

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    This dissertation positions the understudied and experimental writing practice of fictocriticism as an analog for the convergent and indeterminate nature of “post-Internet” communication as well a cyberfeminist technology for interfering and in-tervening in metanarratives of technoscience and technocapitalism that structure contemporary media. Significant theoretical valences are established between twen-tieth century literary works of fictocriticism and the hybrid and ephemeral modes of writing endemic to emergent, twenty-first century forms of networked communica-tion such as social media. Through a critical theoretical understanding of paralogy, or that countercultural logic of deploying language outside legitimate discourses, in-volving various tactics of multivocity, mimesis and metagraphy, fictocriticism is ex-plored as a self-referencing linguistic machine which exists intentionally to occupy those liminal territories “somewhere in among/between criticism, autobiography and fiction” (Hunter qtd. in Kerr 1996). Additionally, as a writing practice that orig-inated in Canada and yet remains marginal to national and international literary scholarship, this dissertation elevates the origins and ongoing relevance of fictocriti-cism by mapping its shared aims and concerns onto proximal discourses of post-structuralism, cyberfeminism, network ecology, media art, the avant-garde, glitch feminism, and radical self-authorship in online environments. Theorized in such a matrix, I argue that fictocriticism represents a capacious framework for writing and reading media that embodies the self-reflexive politics of second-order cybernetic theory while disrupting the rhetoric of technoscientific and neoliberal economic forc-es with speech acts of calculated incoherence. Additionally, through the inclusion of my own fictocritical writing as works of research-creation that interpolate the more traditional chapters and subchapters, I theorize and demonstrate praxis of this dis-tinctively indeterminate form of criticism to empirically and meaningfully juxtapose different modes of knowing and speaking about entangled matters of language, bod-ies, and technologies. In its conclusion, this dissertation contends that the “creative paranoia” engendered by fictocritical cyberfeminism in both print and digital media environments offers a pathway towards a more paralogical media literacy that can transform the terms and expectations of our future media ecology

    The Role of Law in U.S. History Textbooks

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    This Article analyzes the references to law found in three standard U.S. History textbooks: (1) ALAN BRINKLEY, AMERICAN HISTORY CONNECTING WITH THE PAST 745 (McGraw-Hill Educ., 15th ed. 2015); (2) ERIC FONER, GIVE ME LIBERTY! AN AMERICAN HISTORY 461 (Steve Forman et al. eds., 5th ed. 2017); and (3) DAVID GOLDFIELD ET AL., THE AMERICAN JOURNEY: A HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES (7th ed. Combined vol. 2014, 2011, 2008). The Article includes a quantitative analysis of topics (i.e., tabulating the topics that appear most frequently in the texts arranged chronologically) as well as summaries of those topics. It also discusses and draws conclusions regarding the forces that have shaped the development of American legal history—in particular the complex relationships among interest groups, individual historical figures, executives, legislators, and judges

    Tradition and Innovation in Construction Project Management

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    This book is a reprint of the Special Issue 'Tradition and Innovation in Construction Project Management' that was published in the journal Buildings

    Shaping Engineers, Making Gender Politics: Swedish Universities of Technology and the Creation of a Policy Field, 1976–1998

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    Despite a global reputation as a gender-equal nation, the labour market in Sweden is segregated. This particularly applies to engineering. Five decades of national gender equality policies and engineering recruitment campaigns have only partially transformed the situation. This thesis combines the study of two parallel and interlinked phenomena: the development of Swedish engineering education and profession, and the evolution of a national gender equality policy field. It examines how the Swedish engineering profession – represented by the universities of technology – from the mid-1970s, responded to demands from both national policies and from within the engineering communities. The push to act went in two directions; national policies pressured universities of technology to take measures, and representatives from the engineering communities often shaped gender equality policies. How engineering educators steered definitions of gender equality and the corresponding solutions in directions that suited their professional needs are at the heart of the analysis here. Drawing on previously unexplored archival sources and interviews and deploying a theoretical framework of professional boundary work (Thomas F. Gieryn), the dissertation argues that the Swedish male-dominated engineering profession, represented by their technical universities, conducted gender equality politics. The study adds to an emerging international research field on the history of gendered engineering (e.g. Amy Sue Bix, Nathan Ensmenger, Laura Ettinger, Mar Hicks, Alice Clifton-Morekis, Londa Schiebinger, Karin Zachmann) and the Swedish historiography of national gender equality politics. It presents Swedish historiography on the gendered culture in engineering and national gender equality policy to an international audience

    Current issues of the management of socio-economic systems in terms of globalization challenges

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    The authors of the scientific monograph have come to the conclusion that the management of socio-economic systems in the terms of global challenges requires the use of mechanisms to ensure security, optimise the use of resource potential, increase competitiveness, and provide state support to economic entities. Basic research focuses on assessment of economic entities in the terms of global challenges, analysis of the financial system, migration flows, logistics and product exports, territorial development. The research results have been implemented in the different decision-making models in the context of global challenges, strategic planning, financial and food security, education management, information technology and innovation. The results of the study can be used in the developing of directions, programmes and strategies for sustainable development of economic entities and regions, increasing the competitiveness of products and services, decision-making at the level of ministries and agencies that regulate the processes of managing socio-economic systems. The results can also be used by students and young scientists in the educational process and conducting scientific research on the management of socio-economic systems in the terms of global challenges

    Innovative financing instruments in Latin America and the Caribbean

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    In the aftermath of the global financial crisis (2008–2009), the external financing needs of Latin America and the Caribbean increased significantly, reflecting a process of external debt accumulation in all developing regions, exacerbated by the impacts of COVID-19. The region is now the most indebted in the developing world, with a debt profile that makes it highly vulnerable to changes in international lending conditions and to perceptions of risk. This has placed a major constraint on government responses to the COVID-19 emergency and undermines their capacity to build forward better. This document considers two proposals to address these challenges: (i) expand and redistribute liquidity from developed to developing countries through innovative uses of SDRs; and (ii) expand the set of innovative instruments to increase debt repayment capacity and avoid over-indebtedness.Summary .-- Introduction .-- I. Special Drawing Rights: advantages, limitations, and innovative uses / Esteban Pérez Caldentey, Francisco G. Villarreal and Nicolás Cerón Moscoso .-- II. State-contingent debt instruments as insurance against future sovereign debtcrises in Latin American / Leonardo Vera Azaf .-- III. Income-linked bonds / Fausto Hernández .-- IV. Hurricane clauses in debt contracts in the context of unsustainable debt in Barbados and Grenada / Dave Seerattan .-- V. Sustainable finance / Esteban Pérez Caldentey .-- VI. A multilateral credit rating agency / Susan K. Schroeder