10 research outputs found

    Genetic Factors Underlying Susceptibility to Acute Pyelonephritis and Post-infectious Renal Damage

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    Chapter of the book "Recent Advances in the Field of Urinary Tract Infections" [https://doi.org/10.5772/46044

    Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection: A Mystery in Search of Better Model Systems

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    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common infectious diseases worldwide but are significantly understudied. Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) accounts for a significant proportion of UTI, but a large number of other species can infect the urinary tract, each of which will have unique host-pathogen interactions with the bladder environment. Given the substantial economic burden of UTI and its increasing antibiotic resistance, there is an urgent need to better understand UTI pathophysiology – especially its tendency to relapse and recur. Most models developed to date use murine infection; few human-relevant models exist. Of these, the majority of in vitro UTI models have utilized cells in static culture, but UTI needs to be studied in the context of the unique aspects of the bladder’s biophysical environment (e.g., tissue architecture, urine, fluid flow, and stretch). In this review, we summarize the complexities of recurrent UTI, critically assess current infection models and discuss potential improvements. More advanced human cell-based in vitro models have the potential to enable a better understanding of the etiology of UTI disease and to provide a complementary platform alongside animals for drug screening and the search for better treatments

    Functional Role of miR-155 in the Pathogenesis of Diabetes Mellitus and Its Complications

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    Substantial evidence indicates that microRNA-155 (miR-155) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications. A number of clinical studies reported low serum levels of miR-155 in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Preclinical studies revealed that miR-155 partakes in the phenotypic switch of cells within the islets of Langerhans under metabolic stress. Moreover, miR-155 was shown to regulate insulin sensitivity in liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle. Dysregulation of miR-155 expression was also shown to predict the development of nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy in DM. Here, we systematically describe the reports investigating the role of miR-155 in DM and its complications. We also discuss the recent results from in vivo and in vitro models of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and T2D, discussing the differences between clinical and preclinical studies and shedding light on the molecular pathways mediated by miR-155 in different tissues affected by DM

    Complications of Hyperthyroidism

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    New Insights into the Pathogenesis and Therapies of IgA Nephropathy

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    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis worldwide and a frequent cause of kidney failure. Better understanding of the pathogenesis of IgAN and the related genetic, immunological, and cellular susceptibility factors are needed to enable the development of effective disease-specific therapy. This book brings together international experts to provide clinical and experimental studies and reviews with an emphasis on early diagnosis, prognosis, disease pathogenesis, determination of disease activity, and new strategies for treatment for IgAN

    Novel Aspects of Lipoprotein Metabolism with Focus on Systemic Inflammation

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    With cardiometabolic diseases still topping the list of mortality causes and in facing the obesity and diabetes epidemic, there remains a great need to better understand the pathophysiological derangements underlying these conditions. During the past years, it has become increasingly appreciated that low grade systemic inflammation is a common hallmark of cardiometabolic disorders—not only concerning diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease but also involving non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Recently developed high-throughput laboratory techniques for lipidomics and metabolomics have enabled researchers to discern novel crosstalk pathways between lipid phenotypes and enhanced chronic inflammation. With this Special Issue of the Journal of Clinical Medicine, entitled “Novel Aspects of Lipoprotein Metabolism with a Focus on Systemic Inflammation”, researchers were invited to submit original papers and reviews on various topics, in particular, at the interface of lipid metabolism and inflammation

    Antioxidant effect of Linalool on testicular-injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in male rats

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    Background: The oxidative stress and generation of free radicals plays an important role in testicular impairment. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of linalool on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced male reproductive system damage. Methods: In this study, 24 male rats were divided into four groups. Two of the groups were normal control group andCCl4 damage control group which received a daily dose of distilled water for 14 days. Two of the other groups were pretreatment groups; the rats in one of them received a daily dose of 25 mg/kg linalool and those in the other were administered with a daily dose of 100 mg/kg silymarin for 14 days. On the 14th day, the damage control group as well as the pretreatment groups was intraperitoneally injected with 1 ml/kg of the mixture of CCl4and olive oil (1:1). The rats in the normal control group were only administered with olive oil. 48 hours after the injection of CCl4, a part of the testis tissue was separated for conducting antioxidant and malondialdehyde (MDA) tests. Results: The injection of CCl4 into the rats caused a significant increase in the concentration of MDA and insignificant decrease in the level of antioxidants in the testicular lysate as compared to the normal control group (P<0.01). Treatment with linalool improved the level of MDA and enhanced antioxidant as compared to the damage control group (P<0.01). Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that linalool has antioxidant properties and can have a therapeutic effect against CCl4-induced testicular injuries

    Pediatric and Adolescent Nephrology Facing the Future: Diagnostic Advances and Prognostic Biomarkers in Everyday Practice

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    The Special Issue entitled “Pediatric and adolescent nephrology facing the future: diagnostic advances and prognostic biomarkers in everyday practice” contains articles written in the era when COVID-19 had not yet been a major clinical problem in children. Now that we know its multifaceted clinical course, complications concerning the kidneys, and childhood-specific post-COVID pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS), the value of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in the pediatric area should be appreciated, and their importance ought to increase

    Abstracts of 51st EASD Annual Meeting

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    Background and aims: Presence and frequency of beta cell (BC) dysfunction(BCD) and insulin resistance (IR) in patients with newly diagnosedtype 2 diabetes mellitus (NDT2D) are imperfectly known, becauseprevious studies used small cohorts and/or only surrogate indexes of BCfunction and IR.We sought to assess BC function and IR with state-of-artmethods in the VNDS.Materials and methods: In 712 GADA-negative, drug naïve, consecutiveItalian NDT2D patients we assessed: 1. standard parameters; 2. insulinsensitivity (IS) by the euglycaemic insulin clamp); 3. BC functionby state-of-art modeling of prolonged (5 hours) OGTT-derived glucose/C-peptide curves. Thresholds for BCD and IR were the 25th percentilesof BC function and IS assessed with the same methods of the VNDS inItalian subjects with normal glucose regulation of the GENFIEV (n=340)and GISIR (n=386) studies, respectively.Results: In the VNDS, 89.8% [95% C.I.: 87.6 - 92.0%] and87.8% [85.4 - 90.2] patients had BCD and IR, respectively. Patientswith only one defect were 19.7% [16.8 - 22.6]. IsolatedBCD and isolated IR were present in 10.9% [8.6 - 13.2] and8.9% [6.8 - 11.0] patients, respectively. Coexistence of BCDand IR was observed in 78.9% [75.9 - 81.9] of the patients.1.4% [0.5 - 2.3] of the patients had no detectable alterations inBC function and IS. Patients (19.7%) with only one metabolicdefect had lower BMI, fasting glucose, HbA1c, triglycerides andBC function, and higher HDL-cholesterol and IS than patientswith both BCD and IR (p<0.01 or less after Bonferroni’scorrection).Conclusion: In conclusion, in NDT2DM patients: 1. at least 75.9% haveboth BCD and IR; 2. At least 87.6% and 85.4% have BCD and IR,respectively; 3. At least 16.8% have only one defect and a significantlydifferent (milder) metabolic phenotype compared to patients with bothdefects. These findings may be relevant to therapeutic strategies centeredon the metabolic phenotype of the patient.Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT00879801; NCT01526720Supported by: University of Veron
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