2,658,064 research outputs found

    Impact of a Science Methods Course on Pre-Service Elementary Teachers\u27 Knowledge and Confidence of Teaching with Scientific Inquiry and Problem-Based Learning

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    The purpose of this study was to measure the impact of an elementary science methods course on pre-service teachers\u27 knowledge and confidence of teaching with inquiry and problem-based instructional strategies. Changes in pre-service teachers\u27 knowledge and confidence were measured before and after completing the course activities using a pilot survey entitled Science Pedagogical Content Knowledge & Confidence (PCKC) Survey. An integrated lecture/laboratory elementary science methods course engaged participants with hands-on activities designed to increase their pedagogical content knowledge: including theory, planning and implementation of inquiry, and problem-based learning. The results indicated that pre-service teachers\u27 knowledge and confidence improved as a result of enrollment in the elementary science methods course. This article validates reform movements to incorporate scientific inquiry and problem-based learning into coursework

    Scientists and the Science Educators: Collaborating to Develop Conceptual Change Teaching Strategies

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    Research in science education has identified conceptual change teaching strategies that may enhance pre-service teachers’ understanding of scientific concepts and processes. These strategies, supported by constructivist learning theory in the social and cognitive sciences, include the use of discrepant events to engage students’ prior knowledge, the learning cycle, and collaborative learning. Science educators have used these strategies to challenge alternative conceptions of pre-service K-8 teachers in methods courses in an effort to facilitate learning scientific concepts. Pre-service K-8 teachers, motivated to explore scientific phenomena and clarify their own understandings, gain confidence in their ability to learn science and are better prepared to use similar strategies with children. In redesigning innovative courses for pre-service teachers in university science departments, scientists and science educators would benefit from a mutual collaboration to develop instructional strategies informed by constructivist learning theory. In this partnership, scientists, experts in content and scientific research, would work with science educators to develop curriculum in both science and science methods courses that challenges pre-service teachers’ existing knowledge and facilitates more authentic understandings of science. A more seamless transition would thus be possible between science courses and science methods courses

    Modeling functional requirements using tacit knowledge: a design science research methodology informed approach

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    The research in this paper adds to the discussion linked to the challenge of capturing and modeling tacit knowledge throughout software development projects. The issue emerged when modeling functional requirements during a project for a client. However, using the design science research methodology at a particular point in the project helped to create an artifact, a functional requirements modeling technique, that resolved the issue with tacit knowledge. Accordingly, this paper includes research based upon the stages of the design science research methodology to design and test the artifact in an observable situation, empirically grounding the research undertaken. An integral component of the design science research methodology, the knowledge base, assimilated structuration and semiotic theories so that other researchers can test the validity of the artifact created. First, structuration theory helped to identify how tacit knowledge is communicated and can be understood when modeling functional requirements for new software. Second, structuration theory prescribed the application of semiotics which facilitated the development of the artifact. Additionally, following the stages of the design science research methodology and associated tasks allows the research to be reproduced in other software development contexts. As a positive outcome, using the functional requirements modeling technique created, specifically for obtaining tacit knowledge on the software development project, indicates that using such knowledge increases the likelihood of deploying software successfully

    Complexity and Philosophy

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    The science of complexity is based on a new way of thinking that stands in sharp contrast to the philosophy underlying Newtonian science, which is based on reductionism, determinism, and objective knowledge. This paper reviews the historical development of this new world view, focusing on its philosophical foundations. Determinism was challenged by quantum mechanics and chaos theory. Systems theory replaced reductionism by a scientifically based holism. Cybernetics and postmodern social science showed that knowledge is intrinsically subjective. These developments are being integrated under the header of “complexity science”. Its central paradigm is the multi-agent system. Agents are intrinsically subjective and uncertain about their environment and future, but out of their local interactions, a global organization emerges. Although different philosophers, and in particular the postmodernists, have voiced similar ideas, the paradigm of complexity still needs to be fully assimilated by philosophy. This will throw a new light on old philosophical issues such as relativism, ethics and the role of the subject

    Teaching evolution in a creationist environment: an approach based on worldviews, not misconceptions

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    Creationism and intelligent design are becoming more widespread. This article examines the characteristics of religions and the possible relationship between science and religion before going on to consider how science teachers might deal with creationism in their classrooms when teaching evolution. The central argument is that creationism is best seen not as a misconception but as a worldview. The most that a science teacher can normally aspire to is to ensure that students with creationist beliefs understand the scientific position. In the short term, the scientific worldview is unlikely to supplant a creationist one. We can help students to find their science lessons interesting and intellectually challenging without their being threatening. Effective teaching in this area can not only help students learn about the theory of evolution but better to appreciate the way science is done, the procedures by which scientific knowledge accumulates, the limitations of science and the ways in which scientific knowledge differs from other forms of knowledge

    Jerzy Kmita’s Methodological Interpretation of Karl Marx’s Philosophy. From Ideology to Methodological Concepts

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    The article presents J. Kmita’s methodological interpretation of selected cognitive methods used by K. Marx. Those methods were (and I believe they still are) significant for the social sciences and the humanities, even a century after they had been developed. J Kmita’s interpretation reveals specificity of epistemic procedures carried out by the author of “Capital” and emphasizes contemporary actuality of Marx’s epistemological ideas. To achieve that aim, Kmita refers to the concepts established in the field of philosophy of science of his time. According to J. Kmita, the attractiveness of Marx’s approach lies in the opportunity to develop a methodological interpretation of Marx philosophy, which in turn enables the formation of a unique theory of science development, alternative to those provided by logical positivism, falsificationism, neopragmatism or sociology of knowledge. Such theory would combine the perspective of sociology of knowledge with an epistemological approach to the development of science

    25 years development of knowledge graph theory: the results and the challenge

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    The project on knowledge graph theory was begun in 1982. At the initial stage, the goal was to use graphs to represent knowledge in the form of an expert system. By the end of the 80's expert systems in medical and social science were developed successfully using knowledge graph theory. In the following stage, the goal of the project was broadened to represent natural language by knowledge graphs. Since then, this theory can be considered as one of the methods to deal with natural language processing. At the present time knowledge graph representation has been proven to be a method that is language independent. The theory can be applied to represent almost any characteristic feature in various languages.\ud The objective of the paper is to summarize the results of 25 years of development of knowledge graph theory and to point out some challenges to be dealt with in the next stage of the development of the theory. The paper will give some highlight on the difference between this theory and other theories like that of conceptual graphs which has been developed and presented by Sowa in 1984 and other theories like that of formal concept analysis by Wille or semantic networks

    Demography in a new key

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    The widespread opinion that demography is lacking in theory is based in part on a particular view of the nature of scientific theory, generally known as logical empiricism [or positivism]. A newer school of philosophy of science, the model-based view, provides a different perspective on demography, one that enhances its status as a scientific discipline. From this perspective, much of formal demography can be seen as a collection of substantive models of population dynamics [how populations and cohorts behave], in short, theoretical knowledge. And many theories in behavioural demography - often discarded as too old or too simplistic - can be seen as perfectly good scientific theory, useful for many purposes, although often in need of more rigorous statement.demographic models, demographic theory, methodology, philosophy of science, population theory, the structure of demographic knowledge

    The Trilogy of Science: Filling the Knowledge Management Gap with Knowledge Science and Theory

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    The international knowledge management field has different ways of investigating, developing, believing, and studying knowledge management. Knowledge management (KM) is distinguished deductively by know-how, and its intangible nature establishes different approaches to KM concepts, practices, and developments. Exploratory research and theoretical principles have formed functional intelligences from 1896 to 2013, leading to a knowledge management knowledge science (KMKS) concept that derived a grounded theory of knowledge activity (KAT). This study addressed the impact of knowledge production problems on KM practice. The purpose of this qualitative meta-analysis study was to fit KM practice within the framework of knowledge science (KS) study. Themed questions and research variables focused on field mechanisms, operative functions, principle theory, and relationships of KMKS. The action research used by American practitioners has not established a formal structure for KS. The meta-data-analysis examined 385 transdisciplinary peer-reviewed articles using social science, service science, and systems science databases, with a selection of interdisciplinary studies that had a practice-research-theory framework. Key attributes utilizing Boolean limiters, words, phrases and publication dates, along with triangulation, language analysis and coding through analytic software identified commonalities of the data under study. Findings reflect that KM has not become a theoretically saturated field. KS as the forensic science of KM creates a paradigm shift, causes social change that averts rapid shifts in management direction and uncertainty, and connects KM philosophy and science of knowledge. These findings have social change implications by informing the work of managers and academics to generate a methodical applied science
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