18,053 research outputs found

    A case of pure apraxia of speech after left hemisphere stroke: behavioral findings and neural correlates

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    IntroductionApraxia of speech (AOS) is a motor speech disorder impairing the coordination of complex articulatory movements needed to produce speech. AOS typically co-occurs with a non-fluent aphasia, or language disorder, making it challenging to determine the specific brain structures that cause AOS. Cases of pure AOS without aphasia are rare but offer the best window into the neural correlates that support articulatory planning. The goal of the current study was to explore patterns of apraxic speech errors and their underlying neural correlates in a case of pure AOS.MethodsA 67-year-old right-handed man presented with severe AOS resulting from a fronto-insular lesion caused by an ischemic stroke. The participantÔÇÖs speech and language were evaluated at 1-, 3- and 12-months post-onset. High resolution structural MRI, including diffusion weighted imaging, was acquired at 12ÔÇëmonths post-onset.ResultsAt the first assessment, the participant made minor errors on the Comprehensive Aphasia Test, demonstrating mild deficits in writing, auditory comprehension, and repetition. By the second assessment, he no longer had aphasia. On the Motor Speech Evaluation, the severity of his AOS was initially rated as 5 (out of 7) and improved to a score of 4 by the second visit, likely due to training by his SLP at the time to slow his speech. Structural MRI data showed a fronto-insular lesion encompassing the superior precentral gyrus of the insula and portions of the inferior and middle frontal gyri and precentral gyrus. Tractography derived from diffusion MRI showed partial damage to the frontal aslant tract and arcuate fasciculus along the white matter projections to the insula.DiscussionThis pure case of severe AOS without aphasia affords a unique window into the behavioral and neural mechanisms of this motor speech disorder. The current findings support previous observations that AOS and aphasia are dissociable and confirm a role for the precentral gyrus of the insula and BA44, as well as underlying white matter in supporting the coordination of complex articulatory movements. Additionally, other regions including the precentral gyrus, BrocaÔÇÖs area, and Area 55b are discussed regarding their potential role in successful speech production

    Altered resting-state functional connectivity patterns in late middle-aged and older adults with obstructive sleep apnea

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    IntroductionObstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for cognitive decline, and has been associated with structural brain alterations in regions relevant to memory processes and AlzheimerÔÇÖs disease. However, it is unclear whether OSA is associated with disrupted functional connectivity (FC) patterns between these regions in late middle-aged and older populations. Thus, we characterized the associations between OSA severity and resting-state FC between the default mode network (DMN) and medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions. Second, we explored whether significant FC changes differed depending on cognitive status and were associated with cognitive performance.MethodsNinety-four participants [24 women, 65.7ÔÇë┬▒ÔÇë6.9 years old, 41% with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)] underwent a polysomnography, a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment and a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). General linear models were conducted between OSA severity markers (i.e., the apnea-hypopnea, oxygen desaturation and microarousal indices) and FC values between DMN and MTL regions using CONN toolbox. Partial correlations were then performed between OSA-related FC patterns and (i) OSA severity markers in subgroups stratified by cognitive status (i.e., cognitively unimpaired versus MCI) and (ii) cognitive scores in the whole sample. All analyzes were controlled for age, sex and education, and considered significant at a pÔÇë<ÔÇë0.05 threshold corrected for false discovery rate.ResultsIn the whole sample, a higher apnea-hypopnea index was significantly associated with lower FC between (i) the medial prefrontal cortex and bilateral hippocampi, and (ii) the left hippocampus and both the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus. FC patterns were not associated with the oxygen desaturation index, or micro-arousal index. When stratifying the sample according to cognitive status, all associations remained significant in cognitively unimpaired individuals but not in the MCI group. No significant associations were observed between cognition and OSA severity or OSA-related FC patterns.DiscussionOSA severity was associated with patterns of lower FC in regions relevant to memory processes and AlzheimerÔÇÖs disease. Since no associations were found with cognitive performance, these FC changes could precede detectable cognitive deficits. Whether these FC patterns predict future cognitive decline over the long-term needs to be investigated

    The Contribution of Domestic and International Conflict In Renaissance Italy to the Sport of Fencing

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    Fencing, the art or practice of attack and defense with the foil, ├ęp├ęe, or saber, has progressed over hundreds of years from the warfare of Germanic tribes to a regulated Olympic sport. This paper investigates the development of fencing during the fifteenth and sixteenth century Italian Renaissance and outlines a variety of ways that fencing culture mirrored ItalyÔÇÖs at the time, demonstrating that Italian fencing was a product of both international and domestic conflict beyond the sport itself. The competitive cultural influence of aesthetic epicenters such as the Florentine Republic over other European countriesÔÇöparticularly France, Spain, and ItalyÔÇöwas paralleled by the spread of Italian fencing treatises and masters into these nations. Furthermore, an internal Italian culture that prioritized honor and fostered rivalry among citizens, as well as their city-states, made the fencing duel a tenant of Italian society as a means of defending oneÔÇÖs dignity. Preparation for these duels, and their increasing regulation, led to the practice of fencing as a sport. Taken in tandem, these factors meant the Italian style was in an optimal position of burgeoning progress and societal tension to be the inspiration for all fencing that followed

    Definici├│n de Violencia de Pareja ├Źntima y formaci├│n inicial del profesorado

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    El presente trabajo es una aportaci├│n con argumentos cient├şficos sobre la definici├│n de la Violencia de Pareja ├Źntima y la formaci├│n del profesorado que atiende a los ni├▒os v├şctimas de esta violencia. Los objetivos se centran en saber cu├íl es la definici├│n de la Violencia de Pareja ├Źntima utilizada en la literatura cient├şfica, conocer si los docentes en formaci├│n del grado de magisterio han experimentado abuso y/o maltrato y conocer cu├íl es el punto de partida conceptual que tienen sobre la Violencia de Pareja ├Źntima. El procedimiento metodol├│gico utilizado es una revisi├│n de alcance para el primer objetivo y un estudio de encuesta para el segundo y el tercero. Los resultados obtenidos muestran evidencias que apuntan a que no existe una definici├│n consensuada de Violencia de Pareja ├Źntima y los docentes en formaci├│n no conocen lo qu├ę es. Alentamos a los investigadores interesados en el estudio de este tipo de violencia contra las mujeres a confiar en la definici├│n que se propone como consecuencia de la revisi├│n de alcance llevada a cabo, aunque debe tomarse con cautela y ser objeto de revisi├│n en futuros trabajos. Asimismo, los docentes en formaci├│n deber├şan conocer los diferentes aspectos que abarcan la Violencia de Pareja ├Źntima, respeto a qu├ę se entiende por este tipo de violencia.The present work is a contribution with scientific arguments on the definition of Intimate Partner Violence and the training of teachers who care for child victims of this violence. The objectives are focused on knowing what is the definition of Intimate Partner Violence used in the scientific literature, knowing if teachers in training for the teaching degree have experienced abuse and / or mistreatment and knowing what is the conceptual starting point they have. on Intimate Partner Violence. The methodological procedure used is a scoping review for the first objective and a survey study for the second and third. The results obtained show evidence that there is no agreed definition of Intimate Partner Violence and teachers in training do not know what it is. We encourage researchers interested in the study of this type of violence against women to rely on the definition proposed as a result of the scope review carried out, although it should be taken with caution and be subject to revision in future works. Likewise, teachers in training should know the different aspects that Intimate Partner Violence encompasses, respecting what is meant by this type of violence

    Semi├│tica y adaptaci├│n. La representaci├│n de los superh├ęroes de DC en c├│mics y cine: el caso de Superman y Batman

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    En la actualidad, existen diferentes investigaciones, basadas en los procesos de adaptaciones de unos medios a otros, como, por ejemplo, las adaptaciones de obras literarias al cine o al teatro. No obstante, debido a la popularidad de este tipo de adaptaciones de la literatura al cine, pocos estudios se han centrado en la adaptaci├│n del c├│mic de superh├ęroes a la gran pantalla. Por esta raz├│n, consideramos que existe una serie de aspectos fundamentales que, pr├ícticamente, no han sido analizados y que requieren de una investigaci├│n, tales como un an├ílisis eminentemente semi├│tico del proceso de adaptaci├│n de los c├│mics de superh├ęroes al cine a lo largo de su recorrido o c├│mo dichas adaptaciones toman forma seg├║n el per├şodo cronol├│gico en el que se producen. La presente tesis doctoral pretende analizar, a trav├ęs de la lectura de un elevado n├║mero de sus c├│mics y del visionado de todas sus respectivas adaptaciones al cine, c├│mo las figuras de los superh├ęroes Batman y Superman, los dos de la editorial DC, han sido representadas en ambos medios (c├│mic y cine), basando siempre este an├ílisis en ciertos conceptos semi├│ticos propuestos por Charles Sanders Peirce

    Intrathecal versus peripheral inflammatory protein profile in MS patients at diagnosis: a comprehensive investigation on serum and CSF

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    Intrathecal inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). To better elucidate its relationship with peripheral inflammation, we investigated the correlation between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum levels of 61 inflammatory proteins. Paired CSF and serum samples were collected from 143 treatment-naïve MS patients at diagnosis. A customized panel of 61 inflammatory molecules was analyzed by a multiplex immunoassay. Correlations between serum and CSF expression levels for each molecule were performed by Spearman's method. The expression of sixteen CSF proteins correlated with their serum expression (p-value < 0.001): only five molecules (CXCL9, sTNFR2, IFNα2, Pentraxin-3, and TSLP) showed a Rho value >0.40, suggesting moderate CSF/serum correlation. No correlation between inflammatory serum patterns and Qalb was observed. Correlation analysis of serum expression levels of these sixteen proteins with clinical and MRI parameters pinpointed a subset of five molecules (CXCL9, sTNFR2, IFNα2, IFNβ, and TSLP) negatively correlating with spinal cord lesion volume. However, following FDR correction, only the correlation of CXCL9 remained significant. Our data support the hypothesis that the intrathecal inflammation in MS only partially associates with the peripheral one, except for the expression of some immunomodulators that might have a key role in the initial MS immune response

    Volume CXLII, Number 16, March 3, 2023

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    Comedians without a Cause: The Politics and Aesthetics of Humour in Dutch Cabaret (1966-2020)

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    Comedians play an important role in society and public debate. While comedians have been considered important cultural critics for quite some time, comedy has acquired a new social and political significance in recent years, with humour taking centre stage in political and social debates around issues of identity, social justice, and freedom of speech. To understand the shifting meanings and political implications of humour within a Dutch context, this PhD thesis examines the political and aesthetic workings of humour in the highly popular Dutch cabaret genre, focusing on cabaret performances from the 1960s to the present. The central questions of the thesis are: how do comedians use humour to deliver social critique, and how does their humour resonate with political ideologies? These questions are answered by adopting a cultural studies approach to humour, which is used to analyse Dutch cabaret performances, and by studying related materials such as reviews and media interviews with comedians. This thesis shows that, from the 1960s onwards, Dutch comedians have been considered ÔÇśprogressive rebelsÔÇÖ ÔÇô politically engaged, subversive, and carrying a left-wing political agenda ÔÇô but that this image is in need of correction. While we tend to look for progressive political messages in the work of comedians who present themselves as being anti-establishment rebels ÔÇô such as Youp van ÔÇśt Hek, Hans Teeuwen, and Theo Maassen ÔÇô this thesis demonstrates that their transgressive and provocative humour tends to protect social hierarchies and relationships of power. Moreover, it shows that, paradoxically, both the deliberately moderate and nuanced humour of Wim Kan and Claudia de Breij, and the seemingly past-oriented nostalgia of Alex Klaasen, are more radical and progressive than the transgressive humour of van ÔÇśt Hek, Teeuwen and Maassen. Finally, comedians who present absurdist or deconstructionist forms of humour, such as the early student cabarets, Freek de Jonge, and Micha Wertheim, tend to disassociate themselves from an explicit political engagement. By challenging the dominant image of the Dutch comedian as a ÔÇśprogressive rebel,ÔÇÖ this thesis contributes to a better understanding of humour in the present cultural moment, in which humour is often either not taken seriously, or one-sidedly celebrated as being merely pleasurable, innocent, or progressively liberating. In so doing, this thesis concludes, the ÔÇśdarkÔÇÖ and more conservative sides of humour tend to get obscured

    Examples of works to practice staccato technique in clarinet instrument

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    Klarnetin staccato tekni─čini g├╝├žlendirme a┼čamalar─▒ eser ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒yla uygulanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Staccato ge├ži┼člerini h─▒zland─▒racak ritim ve n├╝ans ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒na yer verilmi┼čtir. ├çal─▒┼čman─▒n en ├Ânemli amac─▒ sadece staccato ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒ de─čil parmak-dilin e┼č zamanl─▒ uyumunun hassasiyeti ├╝zerinde de durulmas─▒d─▒r. Staccato ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒n─▒ daha verimli hale getirmek i├žin eser ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n i├žinde et├╝t ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒na da yer verilmi┼čtir. ├çal─▒┼čmalar─▒n ├╝zerinde titizlikle durulmas─▒ staccato ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n ilham verici etkisi ile m├╝zikal kimli─če yeni bir boyut kazand─▒rm─▒┼čt─▒r. Sekiz ├Âzg├╝n eser ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n her a┼čamas─▒ anlat─▒lm─▒┼čt─▒r. Her a┼čaman─▒n bir sonraki performans ve tekni─či g├╝├žlendirmesi esas al─▒nm─▒┼čt─▒r. Bu ├žal─▒┼čmada staccato tekni─činin hangi alanlarda kullan─▒ld─▒─č─▒, nas─▒l sonu├žlar elde edildi─či bilgisine yer verilmi┼čtir. Notalar─▒n parmak ve dil uyumu ile nas─▒l ┼čekillenece─či ve nas─▒l bir ├žal─▒┼čma disiplini i├žinde ger├žekle┼čece─či planlanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Kam─▒┼č-nota-diyafram-parmak-dil-n├╝ans ve disiplin kavramlar─▒n─▒n staccato tekni─činde ayr─▒lmaz bir b├╝t├╝n oldu─ču saptanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Ara┼čt─▒rmada literat├╝r taramas─▒ yap─▒larak staccato ile ilgili ├žal─▒┼čmalar taranm─▒┼čt─▒r. Tarama sonucunda klarnet tekni─čin de kullan─▒lan staccato eser ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n az oldu─ču tespit edilmi┼čtir. Metot taramas─▒nda da et├╝t ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n daha ├žok oldu─ču saptanm─▒┼čt─▒r. B├Âylelikle klarnetin staccato tekni─čini h─▒zland─▒rma ve g├╝├žlendirme ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒ sunulmu┼čtur. Staccato et├╝t ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒ yap─▒l─▒rken, araya eser ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n girmesi beyni rahatlatt─▒─č─▒ ve isteklili─či daha artt─▒rd─▒─č─▒ g├Âzlemlenmi┼čtir. Staccato ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒ yaparken do─čru bir kam─▒┼č se├žimi ├╝zerinde de durulmu┼čtur. Staccato tekni─čini do─čru ├žal─▒┼čmak i├žin do─čru bir kam─▒┼č─▒n dil h─▒z─▒n─▒ artt─▒rd─▒─č─▒ saptanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Do─čru bir kam─▒┼č se├žimi kam─▒┼čtan rahat ses ├ž─▒kmas─▒na ba─čl─▒d─▒r. Kam─▒┼č, dil atma g├╝c├╝n├╝ vermiyorsa daha do─čru bir kam─▒┼č se├žiminin yap─▒lmas─▒ gereklili─či vurgulanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Staccato ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒nda ba┼čtan sona bir eseri yorumlamak zor olabilir. Bu a├ž─▒dan ├žal─▒┼čma, verilen m├╝zikal n├╝anslara uyman─▒n, dil at─▒┼č performans─▒n─▒ rahatlatt─▒─č─▒n─▒ ortaya koymu┼čtur. Gelecek nesillere edinilen bilgi ve birikimlerin aktar─▒lmas─▒ ve geli┼čtirici olmas─▒ te┼čvik edilmi┼čtir. ├ç─▒kacak eserlerin nas─▒l ├ž├Âz├╝lece─či, staccato tekni─činin nas─▒l ├╝stesinden gelinebilece─či anlat─▒lm─▒┼čt─▒r. Staccato tekni─činin daha k─▒sa s├╝rede ├ž├Âz├╝me kavu┼čturulmas─▒ ama├ž edinilmi┼čtir. Parmaklar─▒n yerlerini ├Â─čretti─čimiz kadar belle─čimize de ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒n kaydedilmesi ├Ânemlidir. G├Âsterilen azmin ve sabr─▒n sonucu olarak ortaya ├ž─▒kan yap─▒t ba┼čar─▒y─▒ daha da yukar─▒ seviyelere ├ž─▒karacakt─▒r

    Feminism and Star Wars

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    Star Wars: The Force Awakens (2015) received much acclaim for finally portraying strong women in the galaxy far, far away. At last! A Star Wars movie without princesses with an attitude problem and flamboyant queens with a flair for the dramatic, we are gifted a plethora of female characters whose toned muscles serve as indicators for just how strong they are. Feminists everywhere cheer on our brawny heroines as they whoop ass and take names. Fans of the new films enthuse about how Rey is such a great change from the misogynistic characters of Leia and Padme. Those who grew up idolizing the original galactic women, however, may be wondering why they are not allowed to appreciate all the women in Star Wars for the qualities and ideas they represent. Is a woman who embodies femininity a worse feminist icon than her physically adept peers? Is there a certain type of female character that serves as the ideal role model for impressionable young girls? This presentation will demonstrate the ways in which Star Wars has served to empower women since 1977 and portrayed its women in a manner far ahead of its time. By listening to the creative minds behind the films and examining feminist expectations, this presentation will uncover how the Star Wars films have been delivering feminist messages since the first film was released in 1977, during a crucial moment in second-wave feminism
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