34,585 research outputs found

    Contribution to the knowledge of the family Otoplanidae Hallez, 1892 (Rhabditophora, Proseriata) in the Mediterranean

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    A growing awareness is rising that present perception of marine biodiversity is inadequate, and based upon unrepresentative data. The inadequacy of knowledge on taxonomy and distribution of marine organisms is particularly acute for interstitial meiofauna, especially for "soft bodied" taxa, which necessitate of observations on both living and fixed specimens. Among these groups, information on Platyhelminthes, a species-rich, ubiquitous and diverse taxon, is at present far from adequate, and is entirely absent for entire biogeographical regions. In this scenario, my research aimed to gather data in the composition and distribution of a family of Platyhelminthes Proseriata, the Otoplanidae Hallez, 1892, in biogeographically significant sectors along the coasts of Mediterranean. The most striking results of a series of sampling campaigns is the great number of new Otoplanidae species found. In this work fifteen new species, belonging to the genus Parotoplana Meixner, 1938 are formally described: P. pythagorae Delogu & Curini-Galletti, 2007; P. spathifera Delogu & Curini-Galletti, 2007; P. terpsichore Delogu & Curini-Galletti, 2007; P. jondelii Delogu & Curini-Galletti, 2007; P. cucullata Delogu et al., 2008; P. fretigaditani Delogu et al., 2008; P. varispinosa Delogu et al., 2008; P. mastigophora Delogu et al., 2008; P. geminispina sp. n., P. crassispina sp. n., P. carthagoensis sp. n., P. ichnusae sp. n., P. pulchrispina sp. n., P. obtusispina sp. n. and P. axii sp. n

    Tesi di dottorato

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    L'ICSI in pazienti poor responders: la metodica migliore?

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    Objective: to evaluate and, if it possible, to improve the result of FIVET cycles in "poor responders" patients by intracitoplasmatic spermatozoon injection (ICSI). Methodology and materials: from january 2006 to june 2008 we tested 80 poor responders women with normal semen partner (sec.WHO 1999: n° spermatozoon >20 million /ml; mobility > 50%; normal forms > 30%) or with light oligoospermia. The 80 women were random selected into 2 groups: the group 1 with 40 poor responder women with 40 ICSI cycles. The group 2 with 40 poor responder women with 40 FIVET cycles Results: significant differences between the 2 groups about the stimulation and fecundation parameters weren’t highlighted while the implantation and the normal pregnancy rates where significantly in favour of ICSI. Conclusions: ICSI in poor responder women, with normal semen partners, gives the best results about implantation and pregnancy rates in comparison to FIVET

    Alla ricerca delle basi molecolari del Diabete di Tipo 1: sequenziamento di ultima generazione in gemelli monozigoti concordanti e discordanti per la malattia

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    During my three years of PhD, I worked on a project which aims to clarify the molecular basis of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), an autoimmune chronic disease showing a strikingly and, when compared to other Mediterranean regions, anomalously high incidence in the isolated founder population from Sardinia. The project, supervised by Prof. Francesco Cucca, involves the transcriptome, metilome and TCR repertoire analysis in CD4+ and CD8+ cells fromSardinian monozygotic twins (MZ), both concordant and discordant for T1D.The aim, during my PhD course, was to clarify how changes in transcriptional activity may contribute to the disease. CD4+ and CD8+ cells were collected from 3 concordant and 2 discordant Sardinian twin pairs, andtotal RNAwas isolated. The polyadenilated fraction was then sequenced and reads were mapped to the human genome, normalized, and scaled for library size and gene length. Gene expression levels were then quantified. Samples were sequenced with a mean coverage of ~60 millions of clusters, reads composition showed the expected behavior for PolyA(+) libraries. Nine genes were found differentially expressed between discordant MZ only in CD8+ cells. Results needs to be validated in a larger sample and further studied to confirm and understand the putative role of the 9 genes in T1D. The transcriptome, the metilome and TCR repertoire analysis in studies with MZ pairs concordant and discordant could contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of T1D

    Isolamento e valutazione degli effetti di microrganismi entomopatogeni nei confronti di insetti di interesse agrario, forestale e medico-veterinario

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    The insecticidal potential of various entomopathogenic bacteria was evaluated by ingestion and/or injection bioassays against noxious insects including Musca domestica, Ceratitis capitata, Lymantria dispar, and Malacosoma neustria. Bacteria involved in the study included newly isolated soil occurring strains, reference strains (i.e. Bacillus thuringiensis, Brevibacillus laterosporus, Photorhabdus luminescens and Xenorhabdus nematophila), and others isolated form Galleria mellonella larvae infected with an original collection of entomopathogenic nematods. The new bacterial isolates were identified by phylogenetic analysis involving 16S rRNA gene sequencing. As a result of bioassays, significant differences in the insecticidal potential emerged for diverse bacterial strains and different insect targets. B. thuringiensis, P. luminescines and X. nematophila were generally highly toxic against lepidopteran larvae, while different B. laterosporus strains showed variable degrees of toxicity against the house fly. Among the others, significant was the pathogenic potential of Bacillus firmus, Paenibacillus tundrae and Bacillus psychrodurans, and of new species belonging to the genera Serratia, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas and Alcaligenes. These results are discussed in comparison with previous knowledge in the field, highlighting the prospect of a possible use of new bacterial strains for further studies focusing on the development of new actives for the microbial pest management.</br

    L’Isteroscopia nel percorso diagnostico della coppia infertile: tra falsi miti e realtà

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    STUDY DESIGN: More than 72 million couple in the world are sterile and over half of them are looking for a cure for infertility. Nowadays the literature available is almost exclusively based on a population that has already started  a MAP path rather than in the early stages of diagnosis. Infertility evaluation and treatment is challenging both physically and psychologically for the couple and often suggesting an hysteroscopic exam affects negatively patients, especially for the incomplete or inadequate information received by the medical staff. RESULTS: We conducted a study on the population of the hysteroscopic office of the Gynecological Obstetrics Clinic of Sassari with the aim of improving information channels. There were 196 subjects between 25 and 45 years. 16% of patients reported lack of information received, but overall we observed a prejudice in almost all subjects about the pain during the examination. In the 41% of the patients, even if with a normal US, we found endometrial, cervical or, myometrial anomalies locally treated. CONCLUSION: Our data, albeit partial, show the technical feasibility and good compliance during the exam. Furthermore we observed that a a good agreement between the report and the histological examination, due to the continuous updating of the endoscopic staff, improve the patients-doctor relationship and the compliance to any treatment

    Distribution and biology of lightiella magdalenina (crustacea, cephalocarida)

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    Lightiella magdalenina is the more recently cephalocarid species described (La Maddalena Archipelago, Sardinia). This first important finding in the Mediterranean sea fills a gap in the distribution of the genus and of the entire class. The aim of the present study is to report some information about distribution and biology of this cephalocarid species. L. magdalenina, like most cephalocarid species, shows a pronounced anamorphic mode of development with a gradual and sequential addition of segment and limbs throughout more of 17 stages of development. It is currently known from a single locality where 55 specimens have been found during more than nine years of sampling. The Type locality is characterised by muddy sand bottom, very rich in organic matter with leaf fragments of Posidonia oceanica; grain size analysis, has underlined that sand is a very fine sand with an organic component of 95%. Zoobenthos was composed of 11 different taxa; Cletopsyllidae and Normanellidae Copepoda are unknown for Italy. A new species of family Cletopsyllidae, Isocletopsyllus sp. nov. has been identified. Up to present, only one species Hutchinsoniella macracantha, have been studied at molecular level. We report the partial sequences of two mitochondrial genes of relevant importance for phylogenetic analysis (cytochrome c oxidase I and cytochrome b) from Lightiella magdalenina. A reduced median network analysis clarified the genetic relationships between the two cephalocarid species

    Susceptibility to complex diseases in Sardinian population explained by Runs of Homozygosity and genomic regions under positive selection

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    Aim: 1)Confirm and detail the homogeneity of the Sardinian population at interregional level based on the analysis "genome-wide" through the use of "Runs of Homozygosity" (RoHS);2) infer the genetic history of the Sardinian population by estimating the level of genetic background of the common ancestry within the island and compare it to the Italian peninsula; 3)Identify indicators of positive selection. Methods: About single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 1077 Sardinian individuals were used to investigate the genetic population structure, as well as to estimate RoH and Extended Haplotype Homozygosity regions. We used four different methods: fixation index, inflaction factor, multi-dimensional scaling and ancestry estimation. we were able to highlight, as expected from a genetic isolate, the high internal homogeneity of the island. Comparing Sardinia to mainland Italy through several classes of RoH. Conclusion: We confirmed the high genetic homogeneity of Sardinia and we have shown that the genome of the Sardinians has mean inbreeding coefficients which are higher than those of mainland Italians. Furthermore, the Sardinian’s genome still preserves traces of the elaborate demographic history of the island. In addition, we observed that some genomic regions showing signs of positive selection

    LA FUNZIONE DI MASSA COSMOLOGICA

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    1995/1996VIII Ciclo1969Versione digitalizzata della tesi di dottorato cartacea

    Effetto della memantina su modelli animali di disturbi dell'umore

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    AIM: Mood disorders are one of the leading causes of morbidity, disability and premature mortality contributing for about 50% of the non-fatal burden of mental disorders. Bipolar disorder (BD) has a lifetime prevalence of approximately 1.0% for BD-I, 1.1% for BD-II and 2.4% for BD-NOS. Eighty-three percent of BD cases are classified as “seriously severe” and 17.1% as “moderately severe”. Long-term prophylactic treatment of BD aimed at preventing recurrences of the various phases is a leading clinical and research challenge for contemporary psychiatry. Dopaminergic behavioural supersensitivity induced by chronic treatment with antidepressants might be involved both in the antidepressant action and in the mechanisms underlying antidepressant treatment-related mania (antidepressant-induced mood switch and possibly, rapid cycling bipolar disorder). The stimulation of NMDA receptors is required for the development of dopamine receptor sensitization induced by antidepressants. Indeed, the administration of MK-801, a selective non-competitive NMDA receptor blocker, completely prevents the dopamine receptor sensitization induced by imipramine and by electroconvulsive shock. These observations strongly suggest that the non-competitive blockade of NMDA receptors should result in an anti-manic and mood stabilizing action, and that it should also be effective in the treatment of the disorders resistant to currently used antimanic and mood stabilizers. Memantine is a non-competitve NMDA receptor antagonist, she has been on the market in since 1982 for the treatment of Parkinsonism, before its approval in 2002 and 2004 by EMEA and FDA for the treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimer's Disease. Although its actual efficacy on the AD patient's quality of life has proven to be moderate, several pre-marketing and post marketing studies have demonstrated the excellent safety and tolerability profile of the drug. Moreover, the drug has been used off-label in a number of neurological and psychiatric conditions, including depression, with conflicting and inconclusive results. To further clarify the farmacology of memantine, I studied hers effect in animal models of in mood disorders. METHOD: Male and Female rats treated with memantine in animal model of: • dopaminergic behavioural supersensitivity • bipolard disorders by chronic antidepressant • stress • catatonia by haloperidol • tardive dyskinesia by cronic haloperidol RESULTS: The results show that memantine, at variance with antidepressant treatments (including drugs, electroconvulsive schock, REM-sleep deprivation), fails to induce dopaminergic behavioural supersensitivity. Therefore has not an antidepressant action. Memantine prevents not only, as observed with MK-801, the sensitization of dopamine receptors induced by chronic imipramine (mania), but also the ensuing desensitization of those receptors and the associated depressive-like behavior. Thus stabilizes the course of the manic-depressive illness Furthermore, memantine prevents stress, catatonia and tardive dyskinesia. This observation is consistent with the results of clinical studies suggesting that memantine has not an antidepressant action but an antimanic and mood-stabilizing effect.</br
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