35,957 research outputs found

    Excitation and voltage-gated modulation of single-mode dynamics in a planar nano-gap spin Hall nano-oscillator

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    We experimentally study the dynamical modes excited by current-induced spin-orbit torque and its electrostatic gating effect in a 3-terminal planar nano-gap spin Hall nano-oscillator (SHNO) with a moderate interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (IPMA). Both quasilinear propagating spin-wave and localized "bullet" modes are achieved and controlled by varying the applied in-plane magnetic field and driving current. The minimum linewidth shows a linear dependence on the actual temperature of the active area, confirming single-mode dynamics based on the nonlinear theory of spin-torque nano-oscillation with a single mode. The observed electrostatic gating tuning oscillation frequency arises from voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy and threshold current of SHNO via modification of the nonlinear damping and/or the interfacial spin-orbit coupling of the magnetic multilayer. In contrast to previously observed two-mode coexistence degrading the spectral purity in Py/Pt-based SHNOs with a negligible IPMA, a single coherent spin-wave mode with a low driven current can be achieved by selecting the ferromagnet layer with a suitable IPMA because the nonlinear mode coupling can be diminished by bringing in the PMA field to compensate the easy-plane shape anisotropy. Moreover, the simulations demonstrate that the experimentally observed current and gate-voltage modulation of auto-oscillation modes are also closely associated with the nonlinear damping and mode coupling, which are determined by the ellipticity of magnetization precession. The demonstrated nonlinear mode coupling mechanism and electrical control approach of spin-wave modes could provide the clue to facilitate the implementation of the mutual synchronization map for neuromorphic computing applications in SHNO array networks.Comment: 11 pages, 10 figure

    A 2019-20 social accounting matrix for Balochistan, Pakistan

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    Prepared as part of the Technical Assistance to the Government of Balochistan in collaboration with Balochistan University of Information Technology, Engineering & Management Sciences (BUITEMS) and Sardar Bahadur Khan Women University (SBKWU), QuettaThis paper documents the different steps followed to construct Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) for Balochistan for the year 2019-20. More precisely, it describes the estimation methods and the nature of the data used in developing the SAM at the subnational level. The Balochistan SAM includes 13 production activities, 4 factors of production, 4 household groups and rest of the world account, assessing linkages between production, factor income distribution, and households’ incomes and expenditures, and capturing distributional effects. The Balochistan SAM reveals that the shares of services and manufacturing sector remains lower than national average and there is an overwhelming contribution of the livestock and horticulture sector in the subnational economy which has the potential in boosting national livestock and horticulture exports. Further, the consumption pattern in Balochistan supports Engle’s law of consumption showing that with an increase in households’ income, the share of expenditure on food decreases and consumption of non-food items increases. This paper is organized as follows. The first section presents an overview of Balochistan province of Pakistan. The second Section highlights the background of Social Accounting Matrix and its key features. The third section review the literature and various efforts made to develop Pakistan SAM with varying features. The fourth section describes the process and the methodology used to develop SAM. The fifth section presents the structure of Balochistan SAM, accounts, and data sources and elaborates the process and techniques used to balance Balochistan SAM. The sixth section highlights the structure of Balochistan’s economy and an evaluation of value addition. The seventh section underscores the key findings of Balochistan SAM. The final section underlines how the SAM Balochistan can contribute to evidence-based policy making that helps in economic growth and reducing poverty in Balochistan

    Inova√ß√£o, empreendedorismo e desenvolvimento econ√≥mico em √Āfrica: Uma abordagem p√≥s-positivista e "topo da pir√Ęmide" para Mo√ßambique

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    Esta tese desenvolve uma investiga√ß√£o abrangente sobre o empreendedorismo africano, revisitando o seu quadro concetual tradicional e posicionando-o enquanto elemento fundamental das estrat√©gias de desenvolvimento para a √Āfrica Subsariana (ASS). Explorados os diferentes impactos do empreendedorismo de oportunidade e do empreendedorismo de necessidade na regi√£o, efetuou-se uma pesquisa sobre a situa√ß√£o dos v√°rios pa√≠ses da ASS que participaram no Global Entrepreneurship Monitor na √ļltima d√©cada, com vista a compor o status quo hipot√©tico do empreendedorismo regional, ao qual junt√°mos um estudo emp√≠rico original e com elementos metodol√≥gicos inovadores sobre a atividade empreendedora em Mo√ßambique. O alcance das estrat√©gias empreendedoras implementadas na ASS √© avaliado atrav√©s de um estudo dos polos africanos de inova√ß√£o tecnol√≥gica e do empreendedorismo digital que neles tem vindo recentemente a emergir, a que junt√°mos um levantamento original do tech hub de Maluana. Por fim, a partir destes casos e de uma leitura pol√≠tica das op√ß√Ķes econ√≥micas do estado mo√ßambicano com impacto sobre o ecossistema empreendedor, desenvolve-se uma proposta de teoria da mudan√ßa, numa l√≥gica p√≥s-positivista, para suportar medidas de pol√≠tica p√ļblica desej√°veis para a eclos√£o de um empreendedorismo de ‚Äútopo da pir√Ęmide‚ÄĚ em Mo√ßambique.This thesis develops a comprehensive investigation of African entrepreneurship, revisiting its traditional conceptual framework and positioning it as a fundamental element in development strategies for Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Exploring the different impacts of opportunity entrepreneurship and necessity entrepreneurship in the region, an analysis was carried out on the situation of the various SSA countries that participated in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor in the last decade, with a view to composing the hypothetical status quo of the entrepreneurship in the region, to which we added an original empirical study with innovative methodological elements on entrepreneurial activity in Mozambique. The reach of entrepreneurial strategies implemented in the SSA is assessed through a study of the African tech hubs, or innovation hubs, and the digital entrepreneurship that has recently emerged there, to which we have added an original survey of the Maluana tech hub. Finally, based on these cases and on a political reading of the economic options of the Mozambican government with an impact on the entrepreneurial ecosystem, a proposal for a theory-of-change is developed, within a post-positivist approach, to support desired public policy measures for the emergence of a ‚Äútop of the pyramid‚ÄĚ entrepreneurship in Mozambique

    Subsidiary Entrepreneurial Alertness: Antecedents and Outcomes

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    This thesis brings together concepts from both international business and entrepreneurship to develop a framework of the facilitators of subsidiary innovation and performance. This study proposes that Subsidiary Entrepreneurial Alertness (SEA) facilitates the recognition of opportunities (the origin of subsidiary initiatives). First introduced by Kirzner (1979) in the context of the individual, entrepreneurial alertness (EA) is the ability to notice an opportunity without actively searching. Similarly, to entrepreneurial alertness at the individual level, this study argues that SEA enables the subsidiary to best select opportunities based on resources available. The research further develops our conceptualisation of SEA by drawing on work by Tang et al. (2012) identifying three distinct activities of EA: scanning and search (identifying opportunities unseen by others due to their awareness gaps), association and connection of information, and evaluation and judgement to interpret or anticipate future viability of opportunities. This study then hypothesises that SEA leads to opportunity recognition at the subsidiary level and further hypothesises innovation and performance as outcomes of opportunity recognition. This research brings these arguments together to develop and test a comprehensive theoretical model. The theoretical model is tested through a mail survey of the CEOs/MDs of foreign subsidiaries within the Republic of Ireland (an innovative hub for foreign subsidiaries). This method was selected as the best method to reach the targeted respondent, and due to the depth of knowledge the target respondent holds, the survey can answer the desired question more substantially. The results were examined using partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). The study’s findings confirm two critical aspects of subsidiary context, subsidiary brokerage and subsidiary credibility are positively related to SEA. The study establishes a positive link between SEA and both the generation of innovation and the subsidiary’s performance. This thesis makes three significant contributions to the subsidiary literature as it 1) introduces and develops the concept of SEA, 2) identifies the antecedents of SEA, and 3) demonstrates the impact of SEA on subsidiary opportunity recognition. Implications for subsidiaries, headquarters and policy makers are discussed along with the limitations of the study

    Business incentives

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    This annual serial describes corporate income tax, sales and use tax, local property taxes, and discretionary incentives available to qualified companies in South Carolina

    A Visual Modeling Method for Spatiotemporal and Multidimensional Features in Epidemiological Analysis: Applied COVID-19 Aggregated Datasets

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    The visual modeling method enables flexible interactions with rich graphical depictions of data and supports the exploration of the complexities of epidemiological analysis. However, most epidemiology visualizations do not support the combined analysis of objective factors that might influence the transmission situation, resulting in a lack of quantitative and qualitative evidence. To address this issue, we have developed a portrait-based visual modeling method called +msRNAer. This method considers the spatiotemporal features of virus transmission patterns and the multidimensional features of objective risk factors in communities, enabling portrait-based exploration and comparison in epidemiological analysis. We applied +msRNAer to aggregate COVID-19-related datasets in New South Wales, Australia, which combined COVID-19 case number trends, geo-information, intervention events, and expert-supervised risk factors extracted from LGA-based censuses. We perfected the +msRNAer workflow with collaborative views and evaluated its feasibility, effectiveness, and usefulness through one user study and three subject-driven case studies. Positive feedback from experts indicates that +msRNAer provides a general understanding of analyzing comprehension that not only compares relationships between cases in time-varying and risk factors through portraits but also supports navigation in fundamental geographical, timeline, and other factor comparisons. By adopting interactions, experts discovered functional and practical implications for potential patterns of long-standing community factors against the vulnerability faced by the pandemic. Experts confirmed that +msRNAer is expected to deliver visual modeling benefits with spatiotemporal and multidimensional features in other epidemiological analysis scenarios

    Feeding Diversity of Finfish in Different Wild Habitat

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    Sonmiani Bay has unique faunal diversity and distribution especially finfish as mangroves provides an imperative ecosystem which offer the shelter and protection to the associated organisms and care of their juveniles in bay limits. This study aimed to evaluate the diversity pattern according to physical and physiological responses and feeding habits (carnivorous and herbivorous) of finfish species in accordance with current habitat conditions in the Sonmiani Bay. A total of 4499, individuals of comprising 155 finfish species that represent 50 families were captured by these four (beach seines, purse seines, gill nets, and cast nets) nets during a twelve-month survey in a year. The distribution pattern of finfishes captured classified into four groups (tidal visitors, permanent residents, partial residents, and seasonal visitors) according to their patterns of distribution. Understanding of the true feeding behavior of organisms needs a more reliable and functional approach. The feeding ecology is not only functional for food and feeding behavior of fish as usually described by various tools and techniques of analytical research to take up more reliable details to explain the feeding biology in fish but also the indicator of habitat quality and status
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