42,853 research outputs found

    Two-phase flow

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    An experimental program to characterize the spray from candidate nozzles for icing-cloud simulation is discussed. One canidate nozzle, which is currently used for icing research, has been characterized for flow and drop size. The median-volume diameter (MVD) from this air-assist nozzle is compared with correlations in the literature. The new experimental spray facility is discussed, and the drop-size instruments are discussed in detail. Since there is no absolute standard for drop-size measurements and there are other limitations, such as drop -size range and velocity range, several instruments are used and results are compared. A two-phase model was developed at Pennsylvania State University. The model uses the k-epsilon model of turbulence in the continous phase. Three methods for treating the discrete phase are used: (1) a locally homogeneous flow (LHF) model, (2) a deterministic separated flow (DSF) model, and (3) a stochastic separated flow (SSF) model. In the LHF model both phases have the same velocity and temperature at each point. The DSF model provides interphase transport but ignores the effects of turbulent fluctuations. In the SSF model the drops interact with turbulent eddies whose properties are determined by the k-epsilon turbulence model. The two-phase flow model has been extended to include the effects of evaporation and combustion

    Two‐phase flow modelling in gas‐stirred liquid vessels with SUPG‐stabilized equal‐order interpolations

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    The modelling of liquid flow in gas‐stirred vessels is described. A simple two‐phase model accounts for the buoyancy effect of bubbles. Friction between liquid and gas is modelled with the hypothesis of independent bubbles. The resulting PDE system is discretized with an original version of the SUPG‐FEM technique which stabilizes both the convection term and equal‐order interpolations for velocity and pressure, which are known to be unstable for incompressible flows. The resulting steady state discrete system is solved via pseudotemporal explicit iteration with a local time step and a preconditioning to homogenize the temporal scales for liquid and gas

    Characterization of Two-Phase Flow in Microchannels

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    Aluminum multi-port microchannel tubes are currently utilized in automotive air conditioners for refrigerant condensation. Recent research activities are directed toward developing other air conditioning and refrigeration systems with microchannel condensers and evaporators. Three parameters are necessary to analyze a heat exchanger performance: heat transfer, pressure drop, and void fraction. The purpose of this investigation is the experimental investigation of void fraction and frictional pressure drop in microchannels. A flow visualization analysis is another important goal for two-phase flow behavior understanding and experimental analysis. Experiments were performed with a 6-port and a 14-port microchannel with hydraulic diameters of 1.54 mm and 1.02 mm, respectively. Mass fluxes from 50 to 300 kg/s.m2 (range of most typical automotive applications) are operated, with quality ranging from 0% to 100% for two-phase flow experiments. R410A, R134a, and air-water mixtures are used as primary fluids. The results from the flow visualization studies indicate that several flow configurations may exist in multi-port microchannel tubes at the same time while constant mass flux and quality flow conditions are maintained. Flow mapping of the fluid regimes is accomplished by developing functions that describe the fraction of time or the probability that the fluid exists in an observed flow configuration. Experimental analysis and flow observations suggest that pressure drop and void fraction in microchannel is dependent on the most probable flow regime at which the two-phase mixture is flowing. In general, correlations for void fraction and pressure drop predictions are based in a separated flow model and do not predict the experimental results in the range of conditions investigated. A flow regime based model is developed for pressure drop and void fraction predictions in microchannels.Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Project 10

    Two-Phase Flow

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    Classification of instabilities in parallel two-phase flow

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    There is extensive literature on the stability of parallel two-phase flow, both in the context of liquid-liquid as well as gas-liquid flow. Aimed at making this literature more transparent, this paper presents a classification,scheme for the various instabilities arising in parallel two-phase flow. To achieve such a classification, the equation governing the rate of change of the linetic energy of the disturbances is evaluated for relevant values of the physical parameters. This shows the existence of five different ways of energy transfer from the primary to the disturbed flow, which have their origin in density stratification, velocity profile curvature, viscosity stratification or shear effects. Each class is discussed on the basis of references covering the developments over the last 35 years

    A CutFEM method for two-phase flow problems

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    In this article, we present a cut finite element method for two-phase Navier-Stokes flows. The main feature of the method is the formulation of a unified continuous interior penalty stabilisation approach for, on the one hand, stabilising advection and the pressure-velocity coupling and, on the other hand, stabilising the cut region. The accuracy of the algorithm is enhanced by the development of extended fictitious domains to guarantee a well defined velocity from previous time steps in the current geometry. Finally, the robustness of the moving-interface algorithm is further improved by the introduction of a curvature smoothing technique that reduces spurious velocities. The algorithm is shown to perform remarkably well for low capillary number flows, and is a first step towards flexible and robust CutFEM algorithms for the simulation of microfluidic devices

    Numerical Investigation of Two-Phase Flow through a Fault

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    Models for the two-phase flow of concentrated suspensions

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    A new two-phase model for concentrated suspensions is derived that incorporates a constitutive law combining the rheology for non-Brownian suspension and granular flow. The resulting model exhibits a yield-stress behavior for the solid phase depending on the collision pressure. This property is investigated for the simple geometry of plane Poiseuille flow, where an unyielded or jammed zone of finite width arises in the center of the channel. For the steady states of this problem, the governing equations are reduced to a boundary value problem for a system of ordinary differential equations and the conditions for existence of solutions with jammed regions are investigated using phase-space methods. For the general time-dependent case a new drift-flux model is derived using matched asymptotic expansions that takes into account the boundary layers at the walls and the interface between the yielded and unyielded region. The drift-flux model is used to numerically study the dynamic behavior of the suspension flow including the appearance and evolution of an unyielded or jammed region

    Python framework for HP adaptive discontinuous Galerkin methods for two phase flow in porous media

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    In this paper we present a framework for solving two-phase flow problems in porous media. The discretization is based on a Discontinuous Galerkin method and includes local grid adaptivity and local choice of polynomial degree. The method is implemented using the new Python frontend Dune-FemPy to the open source framework Dune. The code used for the simulations is made available as Jupyter notebook and can be used through a Docker container. We present a number of time stepping approaches ranging from a classical IMPES method to a fully coupled implicit scheme. The implementation of the discretization is very flexible allowing to test different formulations of the two-phase flow model and adaptation strategies
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